Transformations Women Gender And Psychology 2nd Edition Mary Crawford – Test Bank


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Chapter 05

Sex, Gender, and Bodies



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 127)Which of the following “rules” will most people wrongly assume?
    A. If an organism has a sex, it must be female or male.
    B. There are always two sexes.
    C. Within a single individual, sex is always permanent.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 127)With regards to reproduction, sex refers to
    A. whether a person FEELS male or female as he or she gets older.
    B. one’s ability or inability to reproduce with members of the opposite sex.
    C. the fixed and unchanging state of the organism at conception.
    D. the specialized structures, organs, and hormones creating one of two reproductive forms within a species.


  1. (p. 128)Which of the following statements about biological sex is FALSE?
    A. No one characteristic defines sex.
    B. Sex is a cluster of biological attributes.
    C. Sex is fixed at conception.
    D. Sex develops gradually during prenatal development.


  1. (p. 127)The process during which sex is formed in prenatal development is called
    A. sexuality.
    B. sexual differentiation.
    C. gender development.
    D. transsexual construction.



  1. (p. 128)All human beings have a set of ______ chromosomes in each cell of their bodies.
    A. 46
    B. 50
    C. 23
    D. 25


  1. (p. 128)One of each chromosome pair is composed of the X and Y chromosomes, which are the
    A. sex chromosomes.
    B. gender chromosomes.
    C. emotionality chromosomes.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 128)One chromosome pair is composed of the X and Y chromosomes; the remaining pairs are called
    A. autosomes.
    B. gender chromosomes.
    C. sex chromosomes.
    D. neurosomes.


  1. (p. 128)Genetically, a female is someone who has ______ chromosomes, and a male is someone who has _______ chromosome.
    A. two Y; an X and a Y
    B. two X; more than one Y
    C. sex; a gender
    D. two X; an X and a Y


  1. (p. 128)The testes typically produce ____________, which shape infants’ bodies into a form typical of males.
    A. estrogens
    B. androgens
    C. gonads
    D. Y chromosomes



  1. (p. 128)Two of the three androgens that must be present prenatally in humans to produce an anatomically “normal” male are
    A. testosterone and estrogen.
    B. estrogen and dihydrotestosterone.
    C. testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.
    D. estrogen and Mullerian duct inhibiting hormone.


  1. (p. 128)During the first month after conception,
    A. the fetus’ sex can be determined using an ultrasound.
    B. the fetus has a structure that will become EITHER a penis or a clitoris.
    C. the genetic sex of the fetus has not yet been determined.
    D. b and c


  1. (p. 129)In humans, a second X chromosome is necessary for the female to
    A. have normal external genital development.
    B. have an overall normal bodily appearance.
    C. be fertile.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 128)In males, __________________ prevents the embryo’s internal structures from developing into female organs.
    A. testosterone
    B. dihydrotestosterone
    C. estrogen
    D. Mullerian duct inhibiting hormone


  1. (p. 128)The development of sexual and reproductive anatomy is complete at
    A. 2 to 4 weeks.
    B. 6 to 8 weeks.
    C. 9 to 10 weeks.
    D. 12 to 14 weeks.



  1. (p. 128)In the female fetus the gonads develop into.
    A. ovaries.
    B. the uterus.
    C. the clitoris.
    D. nothing.


  1. (p. 128)About ______ of babies vary in some way from the “norm” of the binary sexes.
    A. 10%
    B. 1.7%
    C. 5%
    D. .06%


  1. (p. 129)Those individuals whose biological sex is not completely, clearly male or female are referred to as
    A. gay or lesbian.
    B. intersexed.
    C. bisexual.
    D. transvestites.


  1. (p. 130)Which of the following is NOT a possible result of intersexuality?
    A. An individual with a penis and testicles also menstruates.
    B. A person who has lived as a man has a baby.
    C. A person has both a penis and a vagina.
    D. They are all possible.


  1. (p. 130)Males who have XXY chromosomes are referred to as
    A. having complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
    B. having Turner’s syndrome.
    C. having Klinefelter’s syndrome.
    D. being gay.



  1. (p. 130)People who have Klinefelter’s syndrome
    A. tend to have a less masculine physique and appearance.
    B. tend to commit more violent crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.
    C. tend to be more intelligent than men who do not have the syndrome.
    D. commit fewer crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.


  1. (p. 131)Individuals whose genetic composition is XY, but whose bodies did not prompt the development of male reproductive organs, are said to have
    A. Gender Identity Disorder.
    B. Turner’s syndrome.
    C. complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
    D. Klinefelter’s syndrome.


  1. (p. 132)Women who look like women and have female parts but an XY genetic composition are said to have
    A. Gender Identity Disorder.
    B. Turner’s syndrome.
    C. complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
    D. Klinefelter’s syndrome.


  1. (p. 132)Women who look unambiguously like women but have not developed complete internal reproductive structures are said to have
    A. Gender Identity Disorder.
    B. Turner’s syndrome.
    C. complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
    D. Klinefelter’s syndrome.


  1. (p. 134)Sexually ambiguous bodies can be caused by
    A. congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
    B. partial androgen insensitivity.
    C. Turner’s syndrome.
    D. a and b



  1. (p. 136)Research has shown that sex chromosomes directly affect
    A. sexual orientation.
    B. athletic ability.
    C. gender identity.
    D. none of the above.


  1. (p. 136)Most people feel their biological sexes match their
    A. core gender identities.
    B. optimal genders.
    C. athletics abilities.
    D. cerebral dominance.


  1. (p. 142)Cosmetic genital surgery can be viewed as harmful to infants because
    A. the child’s sexual anatomy is changed without the child’s (or often parents’) consent.
    B. withholds of personal medical information from intersex people.
    C. results may include a loss of sexual sensation and the ability to have orgasms.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 147)The criteria for deciding an intersexed child’s “optimal gender” may be sexist in that
    A. in those children who are assigned as females, reproductive capability is given more weight.
    B. in those children who are assigned as males, sexual function is given more weight.
    C. sexual pleasure is deemed more important for males than for females.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 141)Individuals with gender identity disorder
    A. often feel that they are trapped in the wrong body.
    B. are usually intersexed.
    C. have XO sex chromosomes.
    D. have XXY sex chromosomes.



  1. (p. 141)With regards to anatomy, individuals with gender identity disorder
    A. have normal testes and male internal structures but a clitoris-like penis.
    B. have a normal vagina and labia but a penis-like clitoris.
    C. typically do not have functional reproductive anatomy.
    D. are not physically intersexed.


  1. (p. 142)More male-to-female than female-to-male transsexuals undertake transition, probably due to
    A. rules for masculinity more restrictive than those for femininity; feel more of a need to have a sex change, in order to act and be treated as women.
    B. surgery to create a penis is more complicated than the surgery to remove one.
    C. it is easier for females to act like a man and have hormone injections than to try to have a working penis constructed.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 144)Sexual orientation is primarily about
    A. erotic attraction, affectionate relationships and emotional attachments.
    B. only gender of sexual partner.
    C. homosexuals.
    D. none of the above.


  1. (p. 144)If there is a genetic component to sexual orientation,
    A. there is no single gene determining sexual orientation.
    B. we will probably find that there is a single gene on the X chromosome.
    C. we will probably find that there is a single gene on the Y chromosome.
    D. we should see close to a 100% match in sexual orientation between identical twins.


  1. (p. 141)A transsexual is someone who
    A. feels he or she was born with a body of the wrong sex.
    B. has problems with depression that may or may not be related to his or her sex.
    C. has significant anxiety and neurotic symptoms related to confusion about his or her sex.
    D. likes to wear clothes typically worn by the opposite sex for sexual pleasure.



  1. (p. 142)More males wish to become females than vice versa. One reason for this sex-related difference, according to the textbook, may be
    A. androcentric cultures are less accepting of deviant behavior in males.
    B. the female role is less stressful and thus more attractive.
    C. females are less able to transcend traditional gender-related dichotomies.
    D. males who change sex get the best of all possible worlds.


  1. (p. 146)Around the world,
    A. societies universally recognize only two sexes.
    B. societies universally believe in the binary categories of gay and straight.
    C. attempts to create third-sex categories leads to persecution of those who would be members of the third sex.
    D. many societies have a third-sex category.


  1. (p. 147)The medical profession enforces a standard allowing _____________ between male and female genitals.
    A. no overlap
    B. little overlap
    C. a sizable overlap
    D. there are no medical standards regarding male and female genital sizes


  1. (p. 146)With regards to social construction, sex is a process of
    A. biological dichotomy.
    B. social consensus and social enforcement of beliefs.
    C. medical consensus.
    D. evolution.


  1. (p. 152)In the Balkans, under special circumstances, a woman may take on the legal and social status of a man by becoming a
    A. pledged virgin.
    B. berdache.
    C. hijira.
    D. gender liminal.



  1. (p. 151-152)Which of these terms refers to someone who is sexually ambiguous by our culture’s standards?
    A. Kathoeys
    B. Berdache
    C. Fa’afine
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 157)Over 150 ___________________ cultures have recognized a third-sex category.
    A. European
    B. Mexican
    C. Eskimo
    D. Native American


  1. (p. 151)In India, third-sex people identify as
    A. two-spirit people or berdache.
    B. hijras or Aravanis.
    C. kathoeys.
    D. fa’afafine.


  1. (p. 152)In their respective cultures, third-sex people are
    A. considered to be gay.
    B. not considered to be gay.
    C. referred to as bisexual.
    D. more often biologically female than biologically male.


  1. (p. 152)In cultures in which homosexuality is a strong taboo, third-sex people
    A. are almost invariably persecuted.
    B. are never persecuted.
    C. may be accepted.
    D. are expected to have sex-change surgery.



  1. (p. 155)The Intersex Society of North America, founded by Cheryl Chase in 1993, is committed to open, honest disclosure about intersex conditions
    A. because of the shame and secrecy associated with “intersex conditions or atypical reproductive anatomies.”
    B. to end unwanted genital surgeries.
    C. to keep physicians, rather than intersex children and their families, from making decisions about an intersex child’s anatomy or gender.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 157)The International Bill of Gender Rights says all BUT which of the following?
    A. All humans have the right to define their own gender identity.
    B. All people should be allowed to form committed, loving relationships regardless of chromosomal sex, genitals, birth sex, gender roles, or gender identity.
    C. People should undergo medical interventions in order to fit in with society
    D. People should be allowed to conceive, bear, or adopt children regardless of either partner’s sex, genitalia, gender roles, or gender identity.


  1. (p. 156)How have transgender and intersex people experienced discrimination?
    A. Paramedics stopped treating a cross-dressed child when they discovered his male genitals.
    B. They have been raped and murdered.
    C. They have been forced to choose M or F on nearly every form of identification and application.
    D. All the above are correct.



Short Answer Questions

  1. What does the author mean when she refers to sex as a binary system? Why is this term misleading? What are some of the problems associated with using binary categorization of the behaviors of males and females?

Answer will vary



  1. What are the stages in normal male and female sex differentiation?

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the biological processes defining sex. What can we learn from cases where chromosomes, prenatal hormones, and external anatomy are incongruent? Distinguish between the concepts of sex and gender.

Answer will vary


  1. Explain the meaning of “intersexed.”

Answer will vary


  1. It has been argued prenatal sex hormones influence behavioral predispositions rather than determine them. What is meant by this distinction and why is it important?

Answer will vary


  1. Under normal circumstances, biological aspects of sex (chromosomes, hormones, internal organs, genitals, etc.) and social aspects of gender (assigned sex, gender identity, etc.) are congruent. Discuss cases in which they are NOT congruent in terms of what these cases tell us about how gender is socially constructed.

Answer will vary


  1. What do XXY and XYY males tell us about chromosomes and violence?

Answer will vary



  1. What do studies of individuals with the congenital adrenal hyperplasia tell us about whether sexual identity is learned or innate? Cite at least one piece of evidence to support your answer.

Answer will vary


  1. What is the role of appearance in the development of gender identity? Cite evidence to support your answer.

Answer will vary


  1. Define “core gender identity” and describe how it develops.

Answer will vary


  1. Explain what Klinefelter’s syndrome OR Turner’s syndrome is in terms of chromosomal abnormalities, reproductive capabilities, and external appearances.

Answer will vary


  1. What is a transsexual? Suggest reasons why more biological males than females may become transsexuals. What role does society play in an individual’s decision to become a transsexual?

Answer will vary


  1. What is gender identity disorder? Why do people choose to have sex changes?

Answer will vary



  1. Explain the concept of sexual orientation. Describe how it is different from being transgendered.

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the search for a so-called “gay gene.” What evidence is there for the existence of such a gene, and what are the criticisms of the research?

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the social construction of sex, providing examples of how children are exposed to it from birth.

Answer will vary


  1. Describe the problems with physicians deciding the “optimal gender” for a child, and how this can affect families and intersex people as they get older.

Answer will vary


  1. Do you believe intersexed infants should have surgery to make their genitalia “unambiguous”? Provide a well-supported argument for your response, taking into account the difficulties that face children on either side of the issue.

Answer will vary


  1. Describe some of the third-sex categories in other cultures. Describe their lifestyles, standing in their communities, and how others in the culture treat them.

Answer will vary



  1. Describe how our world might be different if Americans began to abide by the Bill of Gender Rights. What do you think would be the best thing about a world like this? Do you believe such a world is possible? How might we get there?

Answer will vary


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