Sensation And Perception 2nd Edition By Bennet L. – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Object Perception

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Patient Y.M. has accurate color perception, his shape perception is accurate, but he cannot determine an object’s function simply by examining it visually. Your diagnosis?
  2. topographic agnosia
  3. prosopagnosia
  4. object agnosia
  5. anosoagnosia

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.1: Interpret the computational difficulties the visual system must overcome in recognizing objects as themselves under a multitude of situations and angles.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Identifying a new style of bicycle as a bicycle requires the viewer to overcome an environmental obstacle known as ______.
  2. variable views
  3. object variety
  4. image clutter
  5. viewpoint invariance

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.1: Interpret the computational difficulties the visual system must overcome in recognizing objects as themselves under a multitude of situations and angles.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction to Object Perception

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Based on what you have learned about object perception, which of the following would have the greatest effect on the safety of a self-driving car?
  2. being able to recognize a human face from any angle
  3. being able to distinguish between the driver and other people
  4. being able to distinguish between a squirrel and a vehicle
  5. being able to recognize a windshield as part of a car

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.1: Interpret the computational difficulties the visual system must overcome in recognizing objects as themselves under a multitude of situations and angles.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Perceptual Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the biggest difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing?
  2. Bottom-up processing requires physical stimuli; top-down processing does not.
  3. Bottom-up processing is primarily neurological; top-down processing is primarily psychological.
  4. Top-down processing requires prior experience; bottom-up processing does not.
  5. Top-down processing is more advanced; it builds on the more basic bottom-up processing.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Top-Down Processing and Bottom-Up Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of bottom-up processing?
  2. perceiving the color green when looking at leaves
  3. perceiving that a flower is a tulip
  4. perceiving that an image is symmetrical
  5. perceiving that a man walking down the street is familiar

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Top-Down Processing and Bottom-Up Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The storage and/or reconstruction of information in memory when that information is not in use is known as ______.
  2. recognition
  3. perceptual organization
  4. representation
  5. a feedback loop

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Recognition and Representation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Reading a familiar word even though some of the letters are missing is an example of ______.
  2. bottom-up processing
  3. top-down processing
  4. perceptual organization
  5. perceptual grouping

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Top-Down Processing and Bottom-Up Processing

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. You watch as a classmate puts a series of identical notecards on her desk. You perceive six separate cards. Your perception is a result of which process?
  2. grouping
  3. segregation
  4. recognition
  5. representation

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Perceptual Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. You look at a bowl of fruit. You perceive that there are four apples, five oranges, three bananas, and two pears. This observation is a result of which process?
  2. grouping
  3. recognition
  4. segregation
  5. representation

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Perceptual Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Gestalt psychology is a school of psychologists who believe that ______.
  2. human perception focuses on the smallest piece
  3. the human brain lacks self-organizing tendencies
  4. human perception focuses on the big picture
  5. the human brain must rely on unconscious inference

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Gestalt Psychology and Perceptual Organization

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Figure-ground organization is ______.
  2. the perceptual process by which figures become background and background ground becomes figure
  3. the experience viewers have as to which part of image is in front and which part of an image is in the background
  4. the organization of objects into discrete groups that are grounded in reality
  5. the process by which the brain eliminates the background of an image

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Figure-Ground Organization

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE in figure-ground organization?
  2. The top of a scene tends to be seen as figure and the bottom as background.
  3. A figure with asymmetrical borders is more likely to be judged as being in the foreground than in the background.
  4. A figure is more likely to be perceived as being in the foreground if it is perceived to be on the convex side of a border.
  5. A figure with illusory contours is likely to be perceived as both foreground and background.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Few Rules That Govern What We See as Figure and What We See as Ground

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to be perceived as being in the foreground?
  2. a figure with symmetrical borders
  3. a figure with concave borders
  4. a figure that is partially obscured
  5. a figure that has unclear boundaries

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Few Rules That Govern What We See as Figure and What We See as Ground

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which gestalt grouping law states that elements that are close together tend to be perceived as a unified group?
  2. law of proximity
  3. law of similarity
  4. law of symmetry
  5. law of common fate

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which gestalt grouping law states that elements that are moving together tend to be perceived as a unified group?
  2. law of proximity
  3. law of similarity
  4. law of symmetry
  5. law of common fate

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Gestalt psychology is primarily concerned with answering which of the following questions?
  2. How do we perceive the whole from grouping its parts?
  3. How do data travel through the brain?
  4. Why do people perceive stimuli differently?
  5. Why do our brains prefer complex figures to simple ones?

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The perception of a physically absent but inferred edge, allowing us to complete the perception of a partially hidden object, is known as ______.
  2. edge completion
  3. edge illusion
  4. edge occlusion
  5. edge assessment

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What are illusory contours?
  2. edges that are detected but not consciously processed by viewers
  3. edges that are perceived but not physically present
  4. edges that are difficult to differentiate from each other
  5. edges that are perceived through nonconscious processing

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The physiological explanation for illusory contours arises from studies on V2 neurons in the brains of monkeys. What did the studies find?
  2. Edge detection cells in V2 did not respond to illusory contours, but cells in the inferotemporal cortex did.
  3. Edge detection cells responded to illusory edges as strongly as they did to real ones.
  4. Illusory contours do not produce activity in V1 or V2.
  5. Monkeys are unable to perceive illusory contours.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What does this figure show?
  2. a Necker triangle
  3. an illusory pacman
  4. a Kanisza triangle
  5. a Kohler figure

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In reference to this figure, we tend to see an illusory contour of a triangle created by the figure. What is true about this figure?
  2. There appears to be a series of blue contours, which are not actually present.
  3. There appears to be a white triangle, which is brighter than the white background.
  4. The white figure appears to move, even though that is not possible.
  5. The blue figures appear to be concave, even though they are convex.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What are geons?
  2. viruses that affect visual perception
  3. objects that cannot be recognized
  4. basic units of objects
  5. neurons that code for object perception

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Recognition by Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. People tend to see objects as the same no matter the orientation from which they are seen. This is known as ______.
  2. recognition by components
  3. viewpoint invariance
  4. variable views
  5. figure-ground symmetry

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recognition by Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is one reason that recognition by components theory has fallen into disfavor?
  2. The number of existing geons is hard to determine.
  3. Geons can be difficult to identify in real settings.
  4. It cannot account for variation in viewpoint.
  5. It cannot account for letter and face recognition.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recognition by Components

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The region in the temporal lobe that receives input from the ventral visual pathway is known as ______.
  2. the geon region
  3. the posterior parietal
  4. the inferotemporal area
  5. the posterior cingulate gyrus

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Object Recognition in the Inferotemporal Area

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the name of area in the inferotemporal area of the temporal lobe that specializes in recognizing familiar faces?
  2. the fusiform face area
  3. the anterior face area
  4. the occipital-parietal pathway
  5. the fascilus pathway

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Fusiform Face Area and Face Recognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The ______ appears to be a specific region in the brain designed for the recognition of familiar faces, whereas the ______ appears to be responsible for making the initial identification of a face as being a face, regardless of its familiarity.
  2. V4; MT
  3. posterior parietal; angular gyrus
  4. pulvinar; medial geniculate nucleus
  5. FFA; OFA

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Fusiform Face Area and Face Recognition

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An area of the brain in the occipital lobe, associated with recognizing faces as distinct from other objects, is known as the ______ face area.
  2. fusiform
  3. occipital
  4. parietal
  5. prosopagnosic

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Fusiform Face Area and Face Recognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Grill-Spector, Knouf, and Kanwisher (2004) examined the role of the FFA in face recognition. In one condition of their experiment, they used photographs of actor Harrison Ford as their face stimulus. What did they find?
  2. There was strong activity in the FFA when participants recognized or thought they recognized Harrison Ford.
  3. No differences in activity were noted between the FFA and the OFA when participants thought they recognized Harrison Ford.
  4. Recognizing Harrison Ford in the photographs did not trigger the FFA in a measurable way.
  5. Activity in the FFA was similar to that noted when participants looked at photographs of strangers.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Fusiform Face Area and Face Recognition

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Face agnosia, a neurological injury resulting in a deficit in perceiving faces, is known as ______.
  2. prosopagnosia
  3. facial amnesia
  4. occipital face syndrome
  5. Balint’s syndrome

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prosopagnosia

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A patient suffering from prosopagnosia is most likely to also show signs of ______.
  2. drug abuse
  3. genetic mutation
  4. trauma
  5. stroke

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Prosopagnosia

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Moscovitch and Moscovitch (2000) compared prosopagnosic patients and object-agnosic patients. What did they find?
  2. There were no differences between the two patient types.
  3. Patients with object agnosia were normal at face recognition but showed deficits in object recognition. Prosopagnosic patients showed deficits in facial recognition but not object recognition.
  4. Object-agnosic patients show deficits in all stimuli, whereas the prosopagnosic agnostic patients showed deficits only in recognizing faces and had normal responses to all other stimuli.
  5. The prosopagnosic agnostic patients recovered more quickly than did the object-agnosic patients.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Prosopagnosia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The parahippocampal place area is associated with ______.
  2. facial recognition
  3. recognizing wavelengths as colors
  4. converting perceptions to memories
  5. scene recognition

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Other IT Cortex Areas with Specific Object Recognition Functions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A deficit in recognizing spatial landscapes, related to damage to the parahippocampal place area, is known as ______.
  2. topographic agnosia
  3. parahippocampal agnosia
  4. retinal agnosia
  5. binocular agnosia

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Other IT Cortex Areas with Specific Object Recognition Functions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Viewing which of the following would activate the extrastriate body area?
  2. a leg
  3. a face
  4. a grassy field
  5. a convex shape

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Other IT Cortex Areas with Specific Object Recognition Functions

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The specific location of a specific memory is known as the ______.
  2. node
  3. cortex
  4. neuron
  5. engram

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Grandmother Cells and Specific Coding in the IT Cortex

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Quiroga et al. (2005) examined single-cell recordings of human beings prior to brain surgery. What did they find?
  2. The FFA becomes active during the recognition of face-like stimuli, such as symbolic smiley faces.
  3. The occipital face region does not respond to non-human faces, such as those of monkeys.
  4. There were neurons within the inferotemporal cortex that are sensitive to the racial characteristics of individuals.
  5. Specific cells in the medial temporal lobe appeared to be specific to individual people.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Grandmother Cells and Specific Coding in the IT Cortex

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A Quiroga et al. (2005) study examined the response of specific neurons within the temporal cortex of surgery patients. Which statement best exemplifies their results?
  2. They found specific neurons that responded to specific locations, such as cells that responded to the Empire State Building but not the Sears tower.
  3. They found specific neurons that responded to individual people but did not find cells that responded to specific places.
  4. The inferotemporal cortex was not responding at all in the surgery patients.
  5. They found specific neurons that responded to specific objects, such as cells that responded to hammers, but not screwdrivers.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Grandmother Cells and Specific Coding in the IT Cortex

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Looser and Wheatley (2010) pointed out that all human minds have faces, but not all faces have human minds. Which of the following is TRUE of their study?
  2. They asked participants to design the faces of dolls to look as much as possible like real human faces.
  3. They used electroencephalographic technology to look at responses to photographs of real faces and photographs of dolls and mannequins.
  4. They instructed participants to imagine creepy doll faces as they monitored galvanic skin response.
  5. They asked participants to compare a single facial feature on doll faces and human faces.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Looser and Wheatley (2010) compared the responses of human brains to real faces and doll faces. What did they find?
  2. The FFA initially responded to both real and doll faces.
  3. The FFA did not respond to the doll faces.
  4. The FFA responded similarly to both stimuli.
  5. The doll faces caused an exaggerated response in the FFA.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. As the number of objects searched for increases, the likelihood of finding one of those objects decreases. This is known as ______.
  2. dual-target cost
  3. detection paradox
  4. deterrence effect
  5. object agnosia

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Based on what you have learned about object perception research, which airport security screening team is likely to be most effective?
  2. Raj is trained in edge completion, Sheila is trained in image-ground organization, and Daryn is trained in perceptual grouping.
  3. Raj is trained in top-down processing, Sheila is trained in bottom-up processing, and Daryn is trained in perceptual organization.
  4. Raj looks for knives, Sheila looks for box cutters, and Daryn looks for guns.
  5. Raj focuses on facial features, Sheila focuses on weapons, and Daryn focuses on movements.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In the following photograph, what is likely to be seen as foreground and why?
  2. the rocks, because they are visible through the water
  3. the trees, because they are easily recognized objects
  4. the cascading water, because it is at the bottom of the image
  5. the sky, because it is the brightest element

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Few Rules That Govern What We See as Figure and What We See as Ground

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What is TRUE about the Necker cube shown below?
  2. The Necker cube is an example of the principle of prosopagnosia.
  3. The Necker cube can be seen in one of two orientations.
  4. The Necker cube demonstrates the gestalt principle of interactivity.
  5. The Necker cube illustrates edge completion.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An area of the occipital lobe involved in both color vision and shape perception is ______.
  2. posterial parietal
  3. V4
  4. anterior cingulate
  5. MT

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Representation of Shapes in Area V4

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An area within the inferotemporal cortex that is activated when its cells view bodies or body parts, but not faces, is known as the ______.
  2. fusiform body area
  3. cochlear nucleus
  4. extrastriate body area
  5. sublingual gyrus

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Other IT Cortex Areas With Specific Object Recognition Functions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One of the issues that is delaying the introduction of self-driving cars is ______.
  2. designing an object recognition system that can recognize objects as being the same, despite the angle at which the system is looking at that object
  3. designing a car that can respond in real time to the angle of the camera
  4. that recognition-by-components is difficult to instantiate in a computerized system
  5. that computer systems have a difficult time with top-down processing

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5.1: Interpret the computational difficulties the visual system must overcome in recognizing objects as themselves under a multitude of situations and angles.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction to Object Perception

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When viewing photograph of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, humans are most likely to ______.
  2. assume that obscured parts of the building are in motion
  3. infer the continuation of the building behind the trees
  4. recognize the building by its geons
  5. mentally replace the building with a familiar one

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Researchers who study human and doll faces assume that ______.
  2. dolls seem creepy because their features are unfamiliar.
  3. dolls are perceived as objects first and only later recognized as faces.
  4. human features are perceived as human only when they move.
  5. human visual systems are sensitive to stimuli that look like human faces.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A patient has no problem recognizing his family members but struggles to recognize familiar landscapes, such as a street in his neighborhood. Which diagnosis is most likely?
  2. object agnosia
  3. prosopagnosia
  4. extrastriate agnosia
  5. topographic agnosia

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Other IT Cortex Areas with Specific Object Recognition Functions

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

True/False

 

  1. Bottom-up processing and top-down processing are competing models of how the brain processes information.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Top-Down Processing and Bottom-Up Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Grouping and segregation are processes in perceptual organization.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Perceptual Organization

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In figure-ground organization, the experience that viewers have concerns which part of image is in front and which part of an image is in the background of a particular scene.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Figure-Ground Organization

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The law of proximity, the law of good continuation, and the law of similarity are gestalt principles of organization.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Illusory contours are perceptual edges that exist because of edge completion but are not actually physically present.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Perceptual Interpolation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Geons are associated with recognition by components.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recognition by Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. V4 is an area of the brain involved in the recognition of specific faces for specific people.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Representation of Shapes in Area V4

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Information flows from the occipital lobe to the inferotemporal area.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Object Recognition in the Inferotemporal Area

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A researcher uses computer software to morph a human face and the face of a mannequin. The result is an image that is 60% human. Based on the results of Looser and Wheatley’s study, viewers are likely to identify the face as realistic and capable of feeling pain.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Exploration: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Looser and Wheatley (2010) showed that when people see inanimate faces, such as those of dolls, their brains react in identical ways to seeing real faces.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: In Depth: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What is one way that the environment can make object perception more challenging? Use an example to illustrate your answer.

Ans: Answers will vary, but students should discuss image clutter, object variety, or variable views and give an appropriate example. A sample response follows: Image clutter is one environmental obstacle to object perception. Image clutter occurs when the object of perception is surrounded by many other objects. For example, to perceive a specific pencil on a cluttered desk, the viewer must differentiate it from other nearby pencils, pens, highlighters, etc.

Learning Objective: 5.1 Interpret the computational difficulties the visual system must overcome in recognizing objects as themselves under a multitude of situations and angles.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction to Object Perception

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What is the relationship between recognition and top-down processing?

Ans: Recognition is the ability to match a presented item with an item in memory. Recognition is necessary for top-down processing, which requires knowledge of existing objects. A person recognizes an unfamiliar chair as being a chair, and her perception of the new chair is shaped by her knowledge of chairs in general.

Learning Objective: 5.2: Assess the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing and how they affect object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Top-Down Processing and Bottom-Up Processing

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. You encounter four battery-powered toys moving in a small corral. Each toy is a made up of multiple parts: a car in which four figures are riding. All the parts for each toy are the same color, and each toy has its own distinct color. One toy is pink, one is blue, one is green, and one is red. Use gestalt laws of perceptual grouping to explain how your brain recognizes the figures that make each toy as a distinct whole.

Ans: The law of proximity, the law of similarity, and the law of common fate would all help me identify the figures in a single car as comprising a distinct whole. For example, when I look at the pink car, I perceive that all the pieces are the same color. According to the law of similarity, elements that are similar to one another are more likely to be perceived as part of a unified group. Additionally, the pink pieces all move together. The law of common fate states that elements that move together tend to be perceived as a unified group. Finally, the pink pieces are all close together. The law of proximity states that elements that are close together tend to be perceived as a unified group.

Learning Objective: 5.3: Describe the gestalt laws of perceptual grouping.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Compare and contrast the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA). Be sure to discuss at least one thing that they have in common and at least one way that they are different.

Ans: The FFA and the OFA are both areas within the brain’s IT cortex, and both have to do with face recognition. The biggest difference between the two has to do with location and specific function. The FFA is located on the ventral surface of the temporal lobe, and the OFA is located in the extrastriate cortex. The FFA is responsible for recognizing specific faces (such as that of you father or your best friend) and the OFA is believed to be responsible for the more basic task of recognizing a face as a face.

Learning Objective: 5.4: Explain why the ventral pathway is critical for object perception.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: In Depth: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain why researchers believe that humans are both drawn to and repelled by dolls.

Ans: Researchers believe that dolls draw us in and repel us because they have faces. As humans, we have an evolutionary need to seek out other faces, and we recognize dolls as having faces. At the same time, however, we also recognize that dolls are not people. Researchers believe that one of the reasons dolls repel us is that they have human faces, but we realize that they do not have human minds. Some researchers believe that the lack of an animate eye is what give dolls their “creepy” quality.

Learning Objective: 5.5: Discuss how we can distinguish human faces from doll and mannequin faces, and interpret how object perception research can inform the airport screening process.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: In Depth: Vision and Animacy: How Do We Tell a Who from a What?

Difficulty Level: Medium

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