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**Sample Questions Posted Below**

**Multiple Choice (59)**

- A population can be ____ group of interest to a researcher.

- any
- only one
- only a small
- only a large

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.1 Why do Researchers Select Samples?

- Using APA guidelines, which term is used to describe any non-human that is subjected to procedures in a research study and to identify the names of research designs?

- Subject
- Participant
- Researcher
- Minion

LO: 2, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.2 Subjects, Participants, and Sampling Methods

- Using APA guidelines, which term is used to describe any human who volunteers to be subjected to the procedures in a research study?

- Researcher
- Participant
- Subject
- Minion

LO: 2, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.2 Subjects, Participants, and Sampling Methods

- A type of population that constitutes all members of a group of interest to a researcher, is called:

- target population.
- accessible population.
- sampling frame.
- population sampling.

LO: 3, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A type of population that constitutes only a portion of all members of a population that can be clearly identified and directly sampled from, is called:

- target population.
- accessible population.
- sample.
- representative sample.

LO: 3, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A researcher identifies professional athletes as a group of interest to test her research hypothesis. She then identifies a few local professional teams and selects a small group of the local athletes to be observed. In this example, the target population is:

- not clearly identified.
- all professional athletes.
- the few local professional athletes.
- the small group of professional athletes who were observed.

LO: 3, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A researcher identifies pet owners as a group of interest to test her hypothesis. She then identifies a few local pet owners and selects a small group of the local pet owners to be observed. In this example, the accessible population is:

- not clearly identified.
- all pet owners.
- the few local pet owners.
- the small group of pet owners who were observed.

LO: 3, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A researcher identifies college students as a group of interest to test her hypothesis. She then identifies a few local college students and selects a small group of the local college students to be observed. In this example, the sample is:

- not clearly identified.
- all college students.
- the few local college students.
- the small group of college students who were observed.

LO: 3, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- If researchers want to generalize the results, they observe in a sample to those in the target population, then they need to make certain that the sample is ____ the target population.

- distinguished from
- removed from
- the same size as
- representative of

LO: 3, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A representative sample:

- is always selected using random sampling.
- is representative of all other samples.
- resembles characteristics in the target population.
- is an example of probability but not non-probability sampling.

LO: 3, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- Which category of sampling is used when the probability of selecting each individual in a population is known and every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected?

- Probability sampling
- Non-probability sampling
- Both probability and non-probability sampling could be correct
- Neither probability nor non-probability sampling could be correct

LO: 4, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- Which category of sampling is used when it is not possible to select individuals directly from the target population?

- Probability sampling
- Non-probability sampling
- Both probability and non-probability sampling could be correct
- Neither probability nor non-probability sampling could be correct

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 5.3 Methods of Sampling: Nonprobability Sampling

- Which of the following is a type of non-probability sampling method?

- Simple random sampling
- Stratified random sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Chance sampling

LO: 4, Ans: C Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- A method of sampling in which subjects or participants are selected for a research study based on how easy it is to reach or access them and based on their availability to participate, is called:

- probability sampling.
- simple random sampling.
- convenience sampling.
- sampling with replacement.

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- To select a sample of children for a behavioral study, a researcher places ads in the local area asking for any parents with children to please consider volunteering for the study. The children of any parents who replied to the ads were included in the sample. What type of sampling method was described in this example?

- Probability sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Quota sampling
- Cluster sampling

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Which of the following phrases best captures the approach of selecting convenience samples?

- “random and ready”
- “slow and steady”
- “divide and conquer”
- “first come, first serve”

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- A “participant pool” typically consists of:

- college students.
- a sum of money.
- animal colonies.
- aquatic equipment.

LO: 4, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Which of the following is a drawback to using convenience sampling?

- It is a type of probability sampling method.
- It ensures that a sample is selected using a random procedure.
- It allow researchers to select participant who are available.
- It does not ensure that a sample will be representative of the target population.

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Which of the following is NOT a strategy researchers use to make a convenience sample representative of a larger target population of interest?

- Researchers combine convenience sampling with probability sampling methods.
- Researchers select subgroups of the population that resemble or represent characteristics in a target population of interest.
- Researchers select participants based on how available they are to participate.
- Researchers use quota sampling techniques to select a sample.

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- A method of sampling in which subjects or participants are selected based on known or unknown criteria or characteristics in the target population, is called:

- random sampling.
- quota sampling.
- proportionate sampling.
- systematic sampling.

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- A type of quota sampling in which an equal number of subjects or participants are selected for a given characteristic or demographic, is called:

- simple quota sampling.
- simple random sampling.
- proportionate random sampling.
- proportionate quota sampling.

LO: 4, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- A researcher in a brain imagining study selects a sample of participants to test for differences in process information speed. The number of men and women in the population was unknown, so the researcher selected an equal number of men and women for her study to ensure that sex was equally represented. Which type of quota sampling was used in this example?

- Proportionate
- Systematic
- Random
- Simple

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- A type of quota sampling in which subjects or participants are selected such that the known characteristics or demographics are proportionately represented in the sample, is called:

- simple quota sampling.
- simple random sampling.
- proportionate random sampling.
- proportionate quota sampling.

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- A researcher selects a sample of participants to test for differences in employment rates among part-time and full-time teachers. Because there are many more women in teaching jobs than men, the researcher selected more women than men for her study to ensure that it represented the actual distribution of men and women teachers in the job sector. Which type of quota sampling was used in this example?

- Random
- Systematic
- Proportionate
- Simple

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Quota sampling requires selecting subgroups of participants that ____ demographics in the population.

- randomize
- resemble
- simplify
- convolute

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Which type of quota sampling is used when characteristics in a target population are unknown?

- Random
- Proportionate
- Systematic
- Simple

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Which type of quota sampling is used when characteristics in a target population are known?

- Random
- Proportionate
- Systematic
- Simple

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Simple quota sampling is used when characteristics in a target population are ______; proportionate quota sampling is used when characteristics in a target population are ______.

- known; unknown
- unknown; known
- systematic; random
- random; systematic

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Which of the following is an example of a probability sampling method except?

- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Quota sampling

LO: 5, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

- Simple random sampling, systematic sampling, simple and proportionate stratified sampling, and cluster sampling are all examples of:

- probability sampling methods.
- non-probability sampling methods.
- convenience sampling methods.
- sampling with replacement.

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

- Which of the following identifies a sampling design that is NOT a type of probability sampling method?

- A method of sampling is used such that all individuals in a population have an equal chance of being selected and are selected using sampling with replacement.
- A method of sampling is used in which participants are selected for a research study based on how easy it is to reach or access them.
- A method of sampling is used in which the first participant is selected using simple random sampling, and then every nth person is systematically selected until all participants have been selected.
- A method of sampling is used in which a population is divided into subgroups or strata; participants are then selected from each subgroup using simple random sampling, and combined into one overall sample.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

- A method of sampling subjects and participants such that all individuals in a population have an equal chance of being selected and are selected using sampling with replacement, is called:

- non-probability sampling.
- simple random sampling.
- convenience sampling.
- systematic sampling.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- A researcher selects a sample of participants from a small population by placing all of their names in a hat and selecting their names one at a time, replacing each name after it was selected. What type of sampling method is described in this example?

- Probability sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Probability sampling and simple random sampling
- Convenience sampling

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- A professor selects a sample of participants from his class by asking them to “count off” by twos. He selects every student who counted himself or herself as a “one” to participate. Is this procedure an example of simple random sampling?

- Yes, because participants chose their numbers at random.
- Yes, because the order of counting was randomized.
- No, because instead a systematic procedure was used.
- It depends on whether a student was a “one” or a “two”.

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- For very large populations, sampling without replacement is associated with ____ changes in probabilities from one selection to the next.

- negligible
- moderate
- substantial
- zero

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Sampling with replacement is associated with ____ changes in probabilities from one selection to the next.

- zero
- moderate
- substantial
- minimal

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Sampling without replacement can be used to select a simple random sample so long as:

- the population size is small.
- the population size is large.
- the sample is selected at random.
- the population is accessible.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Which method of sampling divides a population into subgroups then selects participants from each subgroup using simple random sampling, and combines all participants into one overall sample?

- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Stratified random sampling
- Cluster sampling

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Stratified random sampling

- Which of the following is a type of stratified random sampling?

- Simple stratified random sampling
- Systematic stratified random sampling
- Partially stratified random sampling
- Complex stratified random sampling

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Stratified random sampling

- A teacher identifies all freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior students at a local high school. She then selects a sample of 10 students in each class using a random sampling procedure before combining all selected students into one larger sample of 40 total students. What sampling method did the researcher use?

- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Stratified random sampling

LO: 5, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Stratified random sampling

- A method of sampling in which the first participant is selected using simple random sampling, and then every nth person is systematically selected until all participants have been selected, is called:

- systematic sampling.
- simple random sampling.
- cluster sampling.
- stratified random sampling.

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- A professor selects a sample of participants from his class by selecting the first participant using a random procedure, then selecting every third student listed in the class roster. What type of sampling procedure did the researcher use?

- Random sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Stratified random sampling

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- Using systematic sampling as a probability sampling method requires that the first participant be selected using a:

- systematic sampling method.
- convenience sampling method.
- random sampling method.
- nonprobability sampling method.

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- What is the method of sampling in which subgroups of individuals are identified in a population, and then a portion of subgroups that are representative of the population are selected such that all individuals in the selected subgroups are included in the sample?

- Cluster sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified random sampling

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- Using cluster sampling, we divide the population into clusters, and then select all individuals in some clusters that are representative of the population as a whole. Clusters that are not selected:

- are sampled from sparingly.
- are completely omitted from the sample.
- are not considered segments of the population.
- are broken down into small groups from which participants sample again.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- Cluster sampling is different from stratified sampling in that:

- cluster sampling is a type of probability sampling method, whereas stratified sampling is a type of non-probability sampling method.
- a random sample of individuals in each subgroup are included in a using cluster sampling, whereas a sample some subgroups are omitted from a sample using stratified sampling.
- cluster sampling is a type of nonprobability sampling method, whereas stratified sampling is a type of probability sampling method.
- some subgroups are omitted from a sample using cluster sampling, whereas a random sample of individuals in each subgroup are included in a sample using stratified sampling.

LO: 5, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- A limitation of cluster sampling is that:

- it involves convenience sampling methods.
- identifying clusters in a population is not possible.
- it limits a sample to individuals in the chosen clusters.
- it applies a random sampling method to select participants in each cluster.

LO: 5, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- The extent to which sample means selected from the same population differ from one another, is called:

- sampling differential.
- sampling error.
- standard error.
- sampling strain.

LO: 6, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- The standard deviation of a sampling distribution of sample means, is called:

- sample mean.
- sampling error.
- standard error.
- summation.

LO: 6, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- The ________ is the distance that sample mean values can deviate from the value of the population mean.

- sample mean
- sampling error
- differentiation
- standard error

LO: 6, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- How can a researcher reduce the value of standard error?

- Increase the sample size
- Increase the sampling error
- Decrease the sample size
- None of the above

LO: 6, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- A bias in sampling in which the sampling procedures employed in a study favor certain individuals or groups over others, is called:

- publication bias.
- sampling bias.
- citation bias.
- non-response bias.

LO: 7, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- Sampling bias results in a sample that is not:

- representative.
- biased.
- accessible.
- selected from a population.

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- A sample of attending high school students are surveyed to measure teenage use of illegal drugs, however the sample is biased because it does not include home schooled students or dropouts to represent all teenagers. What type of bias is illustrated in this example?

- Publication bias
- Sampling bias
- Non-response bias
- Citation bias

LO: 7, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- A bias in sampling in which a number of participants in one or more groups choose not to respond to a survey or request to participate in a study, is called:

- citation bias.
- sampling bias.
- non-response bias.
- publication bias.

LO: 7, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

- Which of the following is a reason that nonresponse bias can be problematic except?

- It could limit a sample to be representative of only the portion of the population that is willing to respond to a survey or request to participate in a study.
- Individuals in a population who respond to surveys or postings asking for participants are likely to be systematically different from those who do not.
- The resulting sample could favor the individuals or groups who respond to a survey or request to participate in a study.
- Favors individuals or groups over others.

LO: 7, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Sampling bias

- Non-response bias results in a sample that is not:

- representative.
- biased.
- accessible.
- selected from a population.

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- Academic departments include which of the following policies to ensure that participant pools are filled only with students willing to volunteer as participants in research?

- Class grades are never contingent on actual participation in a research study.
- Students are given alternative options to receive a grade.
- Class grades are never contingent on actual participation in a research study and students are given alternative options to receive a grade.
- Only require participation in research studies if students are psychology majors.

LO: 8, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.8 Ethics in Focus: Participant Pools

- A statistical procedure used to test hypotheses concerning the mean of interval or ratio data in a single population with an unknown variance, is called:

- standard error.
- descriptive statistics.
- differentiation.
- one sample
*t*-test.

LO: 8, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.9 SPSS in Focus: Identifying New Populations Using the One-Sample *t *Test

**True/False (34)**

- A target population of interest to a researcher is typically very small and it is often simple to select samples directly from a target population.

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- Researchers typically select samples from an accessible population and generalize observations made with samples to the target population of interest.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- A sample selected at random will always be representative of the target population.

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- A representative sample is a sample that has characteristics that resemble those in the target population.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- A random sample is a sample that has characteristics that resemble those in the target population.

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- A “subject of research” implies that an individual is subjected to the study, regardless of their consent.

LO: 2, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Subjects and participants

- The term
*subject*refers to humans in research; the term*participant*refers to animals in research.

LO: 2, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Subjects and participants

- It is rare that researchers know the exact probability of selecting each individual in a target population to a sample.

LO: 3, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- Nonprobability sampling, but not probability sampling, is a category of sampling in which a sample is selected from the accessible population.

LO: 3, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Selecting samples from population

- Two probability sampling methods are convenience sampling and quota sampling.

LO: 4, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.3 Methods of Sampling: Nonprobability Sampling

- A common method of sampling in the behavioral sciences is convenience sampling.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Convenience sampling requires selecting subgroups of participants that resemble demographics in the population.

LO: 4, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Quota sampling is a standard method of sampling for studies that use non-human subjects.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- Probability sampling methods are used when the probability of selecting each individual in a target population is known.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

- Sampling without replacement ensures that the probability of selecting each individual is always the same.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- A method of sampling participants such that all individuals in a population have an equal chance of being selected is called simple random sampling.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- If a researcher selects two participants, where the probability of selecting each participant is .16, then the method of sampling must have been sampling with replacement.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- For very large populations, sampling without replacement is associated with substantial changes in probabilities from one selection to the next.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Proportionate stratified random sampling is used only when an equal number of participants are selected to each strata or subgroup.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Using stratified random sampling populations are typically divided into strata based on characteristics that are relevant to the research hypothesis.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Stratified random sampling ensures that certain characteristics, subgroups, or strata in a population are represented in a sample.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Simple random sampling

- Systematic sampling is when participants are selecting using a random procedure that ensures that all participants have the same likelihood of being selected to a sample.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- A professor who chooses the first student at random then chooses every third student sitting in her class to participate is an example of a systematic sampling procedure.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- Using cluster sampling, we divide the population into clusters, and then select a sample of individuals from every cluster to participate in the sample.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- Cluster sampling is different from stratified random sampling in that some subgroups are omitted from a sample using cluster sampling, whereas a random sample of individuals in each subgroup are included in a sample using stratified sampling.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- A convenience sampling method is often used in the behavioral sciences and uses a random sampling procedure.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- The standard error of the mean is a numeric measure of sampling error.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- This difference between what we observe in a sample and what is true in the population is called sampling error.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- One way to reduce standard error is to reduce the size of the sample.

LO: 6, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- Sampling bias occurs when sampling procedures employed in a study favor certain individuals or groups over others.

LO: 7, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- Nonresponse bias occurs when participants choose not to respond to a survey or request to participate in a study.

LO: 7, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

- Nonresponse bias and sampling bias are the same type of bias; they are synonyms.

LO: 7, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 5.7 Potential Biases in Sampling

- A participant pool consists of college students who are coerced into participating in research.

LO: 8, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

- Participant pools consist of volunteers who willingly give informed consent to participate in research—no student is ever required to actually participate in a research study.

LO: 8, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

**Short Answer/Essay (20)**

- What is the biggest reason that researchers select samples from populations, and do not select entire populations?

LO: 1, Ans: The biggest reason is that rarely do researchers have access to all individuals in a population, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.1 Why Do Researchers Select Samples?

- An accessible population is the same as a sample. Is the prior statement true or false? Explain.

LO: 1, Ans: The statement is false. An accessible population is a portion of the target population that can be clearly identified and from which researchers select samples, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- A target population is the same as an accessible population. Is the prior statement true or false? Explain.

LO: 1, Ans: The statement is false. An accessible population is a portion of the larger target population that can be clearly identified, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- Distinguish between the use of the term
*subjects*and*participants*based on APA guidelines provided in the code of conduct.

LO: 2, Ans: Based on APA guidelines provided in the code of conduct, we refer to humans as *participants* and nonhuman groups as *subjects*, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Subjects and participants

- The term
*subject*refers to animals used in research. What is the other use for this term?

LO: 2, Ans: The term *subject* is also used to identify the names of research designs, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Subjects and participants

- Using probability sampling, we select sample from ______ populations, whereas using nonprobability sampling, we select participants from ______ population. [Fill in the blanks]

LO: 3, Ans: Target; Accessible, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Selecting samples from populations

- Which type of sampling, probability or nonprobability sampling, is used when the likelihood of selecting each individual in a population is known and every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected?

LO: 3, Ans: Probability sampling, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

- Which type of nonprobability sampling uses a “first come, first serve” kind of approach?

LO: 4, Ans: Convenience sampling, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- State two strategies researchers can use to make a convenience sample more representative of a larger target population of interest.

LO: 4, Ans: Researchers can use *quota sampling,* in which they select subgroups of the population that resemble or represent characteristics in a target population of interest. Researchers can also use a *combined sampling method,* in which they combine convenience sampling with a probability sampling method, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Convenience sampling

- Why would a researcher choose proportionate quota sampling method instead of simple quota sampling?

LO: 4, Ans: A researcher would use proportionate quota sampling instead of simple quote sampling when certain characteristics in the population are known to be disproportionate and can be proportionately represented in a sample, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- By definition, what strategy is used with simple random sampling: sampling with replacement or sampling without replacement?

LO: 5, Ans: Sampling with replacement. Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Quota sampling

- What sampling method involves selecting all individuals from a portion of subgroups in a population?

LO: 5, Ans: Cluster sampling, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Cluster sampling

- A researcher investigates how political attitudes (Republican, Democrat) are related to attitudes toward teaching evolution in a school classroom. To select the sample, she is given access to a database identifying the political affiliations and mailing addresses for all local residents in her area. She splits the list into two subgroups (Republican, Democrat), and then selects a sample or portion of individuals from each subgroup. To select participants from each subgroup, she uses a random procedure to select the first address and then selects every sixth address after that until 300 participants from each subgroup are selected. What three sampling methods has she combined to select this sample?

LO: 5, Ans: Convenience sampling (only local residents have a chance of being selected), simple stratified random sampling (the list is separated into subgroups, and an equal number of participants are selected from each subgroup), and systematic sampling (she chooses every sixth address on the list after a random start), Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Convenience sampling, Simple random sampling, and Systemic sampling

- What sampling method involves randomly selecting the first participant, and then selecting every
*n*th person until all participants have been selected?

LO: 5, Ans: Systematic sampling, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Systemic sampling

- The difference between what we observe in a sample and what is true in the population is called: [Finish the sentence]

LO: 6, Ans: Sampling error, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- State the name of the statistic used as a measure of sampling error.

LO: 6, Ans: Standard error of the mean, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

- Explain why sampling bias can lead to the selection of a sample that is not representative of the target population.

LO: 7, Ans: Sampling bias can lead to the selection of a sample that is not representative of the target population, but instead representative of only the overrepresented groups in the sample due to the use of sampling procedures employed to favor certain individuals or groups over others, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Sampling bias

- Explain how the nonresponse bias can limit the representativeness of a sample?

LO: 7, Ans: Nonresponse bias limit the representativeness of a sample in that individuals in a population who respond to surveys may be systematically different from those who do not. Hence, nonresponse bias could limit a sample to be representative of only the portion of the population that is willing to respond to a survey or request to participate in a study, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

- What are participant pools for research?

LO: 8, Ans: Participant pools are accessible populations of students available and willing to participate in research, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

- State two rules that ensure that participant pools are filled only with students willing to volunteer as participants in research.

LO: 8, Ans: Class grades are never contingent on actual participation in a research study, and students are given alternative options to receive a grade, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonresponse bias

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