Managing Performance through Training And Development 7th Edition By Alan Saks – Test Bank


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Sample Questions Posted Below





Indicate whether the statement is true or false.


1. “Paul will be able to call 20 customers per day from a pre-assigned list of potential customers.” This is an example of a well-written training objective.

  a. True
  b. False


2. The notion of metacognitive strategies includes two primary functions, control and monitoring.

  a. True
  b. False


3. A request for proposal often provides very broad details associated with training needs of an organization. As a result, only about five percent of proposals are accepted by organizations.

  a. True
  b. False


4. Overlearning is an appropriate practice condition to use in helping a lifeguard master lifesaving interventions that may not be used often.

  a. True
  b. False


5. Of the three broad training methods, the textbook concludes that “off-the-job” training methods are the most effective.

  a. True
  b. False


6. ABC Ltd. has made a strategic decision to expand into China. As such, it made the decision to provide six managers training in basic Mandarin. Given this training decision, ABC Ltd. should purchase the program from an outside supplier.

  a. True
  b. False


7. A training objective is a statement of what trainees are expected to be able to do after a training program.

  a. True
  b. False


8. William, a training specialist, wants to make sure trainees are able to use particular skills across multiple scenarios, often in situations very different from those experienced in training. This approach relies on principles of learning associated with the notion of “routine expertise.”

  a. True
  b. False


9. Internally developed training programs have many advantages over packaged programs including security and confidentiality.

  a. True
  b. False


10. A training objective has five key elements of the desired outcome, including who is to perform the task, what is the behaviour to be observed, when and where the behaviour is displayed, and why the behaviour is important.

  a. True
  b. False


11. There are many advantages to purchasing “packaged training programs.” However, the most significant advantage is that these packages often align with internal organizational norms, language, and values.

  a. True
  b. False


12. According to Gagné, it is critical that trainers identify and break down tasks into individual steps which are then organized in a logical and meaningful manner.

  a. True
  b. False


13. Failure to prepare a comprehensive request for proposal may result in organizations purchasing a program that does not address the underlying training needs of an organization.

  a. True
  b. False


14. Attentional advice has been found to have a negative effect on skill-based learning.

  a. True
  b. False


15. Coaching and performance aids are two examples of blended training.

  a. True
  b. False


16. A well-written training objective should contain some kind of observable action with a measurable criterion indicating to the trainee and trainer the conditions of performance.

  a. True
  b. False


17. Issuing an RFP may require that an organization spend resources determining its actual training needs and identifying training solutions required from vendors and consultants.

  a. True
  b. False


18. Error-management training occurs when training programs are designed so as to minimize the likelihood of trainees committing errors during the training process.

  a. True
  b. False


19. Analogical tasks are tasks that are performed by employees that resemble tasks performed in training.

  a. True
  b. False


20. In a way, training objectives serve to connect the needs analysis process with other elements of a training program.

  a. True
  b. False


Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


21. What are the two most important factors to consider when making a purchase decision for a training program?

  a. cost of the program and number of potential trainees
  b. time required to deliver the program and current knowledge of employees
  c. expertise of the external service provider and senior management preference
  d. urgency of delivery and level of front-line management support


22. What has research concluded about active learning?

  a. it is effective for developing adaptive expertise
  b. it is effective for learning rigid policies and procedures
  c. it provides the trainer with much more control over trainees’ learning processes
  d. it gives trainees much less control over their learning experience


23. “The call centre operator will be able to handle 20 inbound calls per day during his/her regular shift, using customer information software, and will be able to generate $850 in incremental revenue from new customers.” In this scenario, what would “… able to generate $850 in incremental revenue” represent?

  a. what the trainee will be able to do after training
  b. the actual behaviour the trainee will demonstrate
  c. the conditions under which the behaviour will be demonstrated
  d. the standard by which the behaviour will be judged


24. A well-written training objective should closely resemble which of the following terms?

  a. adaptive behaviour
  b. person analysis
  c. task analysis
  d. needs analysis


25. What term describes the traditional approach of teaching trainees to reproduce specific behaviours in similar settings and situations as those experienced in training?

  a. routine practice
  b. routine training
  c. routine expertise
  d. routine knowledge


26. You have decided to incorporate error-management elements into a sales training program you are designing. As you require senior management support for your program, you decide to put together a short report supporting the value of including elements of error-management in your sales program. Which of the following should NOT be included in your report?

  a. errors are a source of negative feedback which can be helpful in training
  b. errors can be foundational in the learning process
  c. trainees tend to enjoy training sessions that include error-management elements
  d. errors force learners to develop error-recovery strategies which lead to improved performance


27. Before a training session begins, a group of trainees get together to determine and agree on team roles and responsibilities as well as team performance expectations for the group. Which of the following pre-training interventions is this group of trainees likely using?

  a. preparatory information
  b. pre-practice brief
  c. conditions of practice
  d. goal orientation


28. Which of the following statements regarding training objectives is true?

  a. training objectives are done without direct connection to the needs analysis
  b. training objectives should be written prior to designing a training program
  c. training objectives tend to be broad in language so as to provide the trainer with flexibility
  d. training objectives do not address standards of performance but do emphasize the conditions of performance


29. A Canadian chartered bank decides to develop and deliver a training program internally. What potential reasons justify this decision?

  a. better security and the need to train a large pool of employees
  b. higher quality and availability of trainers
  c. lower cost and higher quality
  d. extensive testing coupled with ancillary services


30. Which stage in the model of training effectiveness includes elements of active practice and conditions of practice?

  a. trainee characteristics
  b. training design
  c. individual behaviour and performance
  d. organizational effectiveness


31. An instructor spends one hour lecturing students on the merits and processes required to produce a written training objective. She then requests that students apply the lecture material by producing a written training objective for a specific role. What training method is this instructor using?

  a. blended method
  b. active practice method
  c. condition of practice method
  d. goal orientation method


32. A Canadian life insurance company decides to design a new sales training program for its 1000 commission-based salespeople. In the design process, the company solicits the feedback of successful salespeople as well as sales consultants. Which of the following best describes the successful salesperson and the external consultant?

  a. adaptive stakeholders
  b. inputs into the person analysis process
  c. subject-matter experts
  d. contingency management stakeholders


33. You have been tasked with submitting a request for proposal (RFP) on behalf of your company and begin to think about the process. What is likely to be the most important information that you decide should be included in your RFP?

  a. determining the number of trainers required to deliver the training program
  b. creating the proper scope for the project including a budget and specific training methods to be used
  c. describing in detail the training needs required, and how those needs fit the overall training strategy
  d. creating a vendor list to solicit vendors from both academia and industry to provide
for a wide scope of expertise


34. According to the textbook, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of effective training feedback?

  a. when a response is provided correctly, provide positive feedback
  b. demonstrate to the trainee how to respond correctly
  c. when a response is provided incorrectly, provide some element of punishment
  d. provide feedback immediately after the response is provided


35. How can error training improve learning and performance?

  a. Errors force trainees to learn error-recovery strategies.
  b. Errors allow trainees to learn to avoid certain activities.
  c. Errors enable trainees to learn how to sequence activities.
  d. Errors permit trainees to view themselves as human.


36. Peter is currently thinking about the numerous activities he has to do to design a training program. Which of the following is NOT an activity Peter is likely thinking about?

  a. determine what content should be provided to allow training objectives to be met
  b. determine how to calculate cost vs. benefits associated with the training program
  c. decide how training should be provided: on-the job, off-the-job, or e-learning
  d. create a statement describing what trainees should be able to do after training


37. Which of the following conditions of practice would be classified as a “pre-training intervention”?

  a. deciding to have mastery goals in the program
  b. distributing practice so training may be broken up by rest periods
  c. providing feedback to trainees on their ongoing performance
  d. ensuring the program has elements of overlearning in its design


38. Conditions of practice may be implemented during training that include the notion of “massed practice.” Which of the following statements aligns best with what “massed practice” refers to?

  a. whether the training material is learned one part at a time or in sequence
  b. training is conducted in one session without breaks between sessions
  c. the time horizons for the segments of a training program
  d. having performance becoming almost automatic in nature


39. Which of the following design elements should NOT be used in designing a training program for active learning?

  a. exploratory learning
  b. error framing
  c. emotion control
  d. proceduralized instruction


40. What is the main reason for misalignment between a request for proposal and the actual training program delivered to an organization?

  a. The organization extended its search to a limited number of trainers.
  b. The organization overstated the positives of the requested training.
  c. The organization was not honest about the resources it had available.
  d. The organization did not describe its most critical training needs.


41. Margaret attended a training session designed to teach “weekend mechanics” the basics of routine maintenance on Honda gas engines. To Margaret’s surprise, she was able to apply the same basic principles to routine maintenance of different gas-powered engines in her garage. Which of the following terms best captures this generalization of knowledge from Honda engines to other gas-powered engines?

  a. subject-matter expertise
  b. routine expertise
  c. adaptive expertise
  d. active expertise


42. According to the textbook, training content should be anchored on which of the following?

  a. the employee who is to perform the desired behaviour
  b. the needs and objectives of the training
  c. the standard that will evaluate the behaviour
  d. the time when the new content will be needed


43. Which statement is supported by the notion of error management as a learning design method?

  a. Error management and error avoidance are synonymous.
  b. The instructor should provide vague and misleading instructions.
  c. The instructor should provide detailed instructions and rubrics so as to minimize errors.
  d. It would be a mistake to explicitly encourage trainees to make mistakes during the learning process.


44. Company ABC is currently experiencing a notable increase in the number of “bullying” incidents at work. A needs analysis determines that in fact employees did not understand how their behaviour was making colleagues uncomfortable. As a result, it decided to launch immediately a companywide training program to address bullying at work. What would you suggest ABC’s next step should be?

  a. issue a comprehensive request for proposal
  b. partner with a local university or college
  c. ask the human resource department to do an organizational analysis
  d. start an organizational analysis to determine who in the organization should lead this project


45. What key component for a final written training objective would be related to the statement “Joe will be able write a short two-page story without making grammatical or spelling errors”?

  a. criterion
  b. performance
  c. evaluation
  d. condition


46. What conclusions can you draw from research presented in the textbook on error-management training?

  a. it is effective for performance during training but not for post-training performance
  b. it is more effective for tasks that require routine expertise
  c. it is more effective for the performance of tasks that require adaptive expertise
  d. trainers should avoid using error-management training


47. Under what condition(s) would overlearning be an appropriate approach?

  a. performing complex tasks under significant pressure
  b. performing simple tasks that are routine in nature
  c. performing tasks that are done daily
  d. performing tasks that do not have pre-established procedures


48. Which of the following scenarios is an example of distributed practice?

  a. learning a complex task one step at a time during the same session
  b. learning to perform a task over a number of sessions with breaks in between sessions
  c. continuing to practise even when the trainee has mastered the task to a high level
  d. having several trainees learn to perform a task together, also described as group learning


49. An instructor provides students with a diagram of the needs analysis process. What type of pre-training intervention does this represent?

  a. metacognitive strategy
  b. attentional advice
  c. advance organizer
  d. psychomotor condition


50. Which statement is congruent with the notion of distributed practice?

  a. learning is enhanced when cramming is used by trainees
  b. learning is enhanced when material is provided in a single session
  c. distributed training sessions tend to result in lower learning levels over time
  d. distributed training sessions tend to result in higher learning levels over time




51. Define and briefly describe the term active practice.


52. a) Explain the purposes of training objectives in terms of their importance to trainers, trainees, and managers, providing at least one example for each.
b) A final written training objective should include three components. Identify and describe those three components.


53. Distinguish between error training and error-avoidant training.


54. Via a needs analysis, your company has decided that its sales force are in need of training so as to drive greater sales in specific target markets. From a resource perspective, your company does not have the training resources to design and deliver this type of training. As such, senior management has requested that you develop a Request for Proposal (RFP) to identify a potential service provider for your sales training. What are some of the potential categories/sections you would use to prepare your company’s RFP?


55. Describe the differences between massed and distributed practice, and explain the benefits of each.


56. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of developing training programs internally versus purchasing packaged programs.


Answer Key

1. False


2. True


3. False


4. True


5. False


6. True


7. True


8. False


9. True


10. False


11. False


12. True


13. True


14. False


15. False


16. True


17. True


18. False


19. True


20. True


21. a


22. a


23. d


24. c


25. c


26. c


27. b


28. b


29. a


30. b


31. b


32. c


33. c


34. c


35. a


36. b


37. a


38. b


39. d


40. d


41. c


42. b


43. b


44. a


45. a


46. c


47. a


48. b


49. c


50. d


51. Active practice refers to providing trainees with opportunities to practise performing a training task or to use their new knowledge during the training session. Active practice can result in a better understanding and retention of new knowledge and skills.


52. a) Training objectives are important to trainers for three reasons: to assess trainees prior to instruction to see if they have mastered any of the objectives; to aid in the selection of training content and methods; and to help develop evaluation methods. Training objectives are important to trainees because they inform trainees of the goals of a training program; allow trainees to focus their energies on achieving specific goals; and communicate the importance of training and to promote accountability. Training objectives are important to managers because they communicate what the trainees should be able to do as a result of the training; and they let managers and supervisors know what is expected of the trainees so they can reinforce and support newly trained knowledge and skills on-the-job.

b) The three components are: 1) Performance (what will a trainee be able to do after training, or what behaviour will trainees demonstrate after training); 2) Condition (under what conditions will trainees be able to demonstrate the performance behaviour, including tools and time constraints) and 3) Criterion (what is the level of acceptable performance against which you will judge the performance of trainees).


53. Error training—errors are a source of negative feedback that can have a positive influence on learning. Errors should be incorporated into the training process. Allows trainees to make errors while learning how to perform a task. Can be done by providing only basic information about tasks. Trainees try out different approaches, possibly making more errors.

Error-avoidant training—trainees are given detailed instructions on how to do tasks so that they are less likely to make mistakes. Trainer intervenes when errors are made. Negative feedback reduced by greater and more explicit instructions.


54. Students should refer to the eight categories/sections in The Trainer’s Notebook 5.1: “An Effective Request for Proposal (RFP)” for guidance.


55. Massed practice is sometimes referred to as “cramming”—such as compressing practice into one long, continuous session with few or no rest or breaks. By contrast, distributed practice involves dividing the practice into several smaller training sessions or “chunks,” with rest intervals in between. While massed practice has some practical advantages in terms of scheduling, travel, use of facilities, etc., distributed practice generally results in better learning and retention, and ultimately leads to higher performance.


56. Internally developed programs have advantages in terms of security and confidentiality, the use of the organization’s language, and the incorporation of its values. In addition, internally developed programs can take advantage of internal content expertise, the understanding of the specific target audience of the training, as well as having pride and credibility as a result of having a customized program. Purchased or externally developed training programs may have quality advantages, are usually available immediately (or at least more quickly), may include ancillary features such as videos and tests, and may be less expensive than internally developed programs. In addition, purchased programs may also be able to be customized to provide some of the advantages of internally developed programs.



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