Chemistry An Introduction to General Organic and Biological Chemistry 12th Edition By Timberlake – Test Bank

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Introduction to General, Organic & Biological Chemistry, 12e (Timberlake)

Chapter 5   Nuclear Chemistry

 

5.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) What is the nuclear symbol for a radioactive isotope of copper with a mass number of 60?

  1. A) Cu
  2. B) Cu
  3. C) 29Cu
  4. D) Cu
  5. E) Cu

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

2) The nuclear symbol of helium, He, is also the symbol for designating a(n) ________.

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) alpha particle

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

3) The symbol 4e is a symbol used for a(n) ________.

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) alpha particle

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

4) Which of the following types of radiation has the highest energy?

  1. A) α-particles
  2. B) β-particles
  3. C) γ-rays
  4. D) visible light
  5. E) All of these have the same energy.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

5) The damaging effects of radiation on the body are a result of ________.

  1. A) the formation of unstable ions
  2. B) the formation of radioactive atoms in the body
  3. C) transmutation reactions in the body
  4. D) extensive damage to nerve cells
  5. E) the production of radioactive sodium ions in the body

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

6) Which of the following is suitable as a minimum shielding for beta particles?

  1. A) air
  2. B) 1 sheet of paper
  3. C) gloves
  4. D) 1 m of concrete
  5. E) 1 cm of lead

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

7) For Sr, there are ________.

  1. A) 85 protons and 38 neutrons
  2. B) 47 protons and 38 neutrons
  3. C) 38 protons and 47 neutrons
  4. D) 38 protons and 85 neutrons
  5. E) 85 protons and 47 neutrons

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

8) Which is not a way to minimize your exposure to radiation?

  1. A) wearing a lead apron
  2. B) keeping a good distance
  3. C) standing behind a thick concrete wall
  4. D) wearing lead-lined gloves
  5. E) staying a longer time

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

9) A positron is a particle emitted from the nucleus that has the same mass as a(n) ________.

  1. A) electron but has a positive charge
  2. B) neutron but has a positive charge
  3. C) alpha particle
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) proton emitted from the nucleus

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

10) The process in which a nucleus spontaneously breaks down by emitting radiation is known as ________.

  1. A) transformation
  2. B) translation
  3. C) fusion
  4. D) a chain reaction
  5. E) radioactive decay

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

11) Gamma rays require the heaviest shielding of all the common types of nuclear radiation because gamma rays have the ________.

  1. A) highest energy
  2. B) most intense color
  3. C) lowest energy
  4. D) largest particles
  5. E) heaviest particles

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

12) If absorbed internally, alpha particle emitters are the most damaging because alpha particles ________.

  1. A) have the largest charge
  2. B) have the greatest energy
  3. C) have the greatest mass
  4. D) consist of high energy electrons
  5. E) consist of pure energy

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

13) Radium-226 decays by alpha emission to ________.

  1. A) barium-131
  2. B) cobalt-60
  3. C) carbon-14
  4. D) polonium-218
  5. E) radon-222

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

14) The product from the alpha decay of U is ________.

  1. A) Np
  2. B) Pu
  3. C) Th
  4. D) Ra
  5. E) U

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

15) The product from the positron emission of Cs is ________.

  1. A) Cs
  2. B) I
  3. C) Xe
  4. D) Ba
  5. E) Xe

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

16) A nuclear equation is balanced when  ________.

  1. A) the same elements are found on both sides of the equation
  2. B) the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers of the particles and atoms are the same on both sides of the equation
  3. C) the same particles and atoms are on both sides of the equation
  4. D) different particles and atoms are on both sides of the equation
  5. E) the charges of the particles and atoms are the same on both sides of the equation

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

17) The nuclear reaction shown below is an example of what type of process?

 

Th → Rn + He

 

  1. A) fusion
  2. B) fission
  3. C) translation
  4. D) alpha decay
  5. E) beta decay

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

18) In the nuclear equation of beta decay,  ________.

  1. A) the new nucleus contains 2 fewer protons
  2. B) the new nucleus contains 2 more protons
  3. C) the mass number of the new nucleus is 4 less than that of the original nucleus
  4. D) the new nucleus contains 1 more proton
  5. E) the new nucleus contains 1 less proton

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

19) Nitrogen-17 undergoes beta decay.  What is the isotope produced in the radioactive decay?

  1. A) C
  2. B) B
  3. C) N
  4. D) F
  5. E) O

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

20) The nuclear reaction

 

Sn → Sb + ?

 

is an example of ________.

  1. A) fusion
  2. B) fission
  3. C) gamma emission
  4. D) alpha decay
  5. E) beta decay

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

21) What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation?

Sr → Y + ?

  1. A) alpha particle
  2. B) beta particle
  3. C) positron
  4. D) proton
  5. E) neutron

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

22) What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation?

W → Hf + ?

 

  1. A) alpha particle
  2. B) beta particle
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) proton
  5. E) neutron

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

23) The nuclear symbol that completes the equation is a(n) ________.

 

Am + ? → Bk + n

 

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) alpha particle

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

24) The nuclear symbol that completes the equation is a(n) ________.

 

N → C + ?

 

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) positron
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) alpha particle

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

25) The nuclear symbol that completes the equation is a(n) ________.

 

Fe + ? → Fe

 

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) beta particle
  5. E) alpha particle

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

26) What does the ? represent in the bombardment equation of nitrogen-14?

N + ? → C + H

 

  1. A) alpha particle
  2. B) beta particle
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) proton
  5. E) neutron

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

27) When aluminum-27 is bombarded with a neutron, a gamma ray is emitted.  What radioactive isotope is produced?

  1. A) silicon-27
  2. B) silicon-28
  3. C) aluminum-28
  4. D) magnesium-27
  5. E) magnesium-28

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

28) The unit used to measure the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material is called the ________.

  1. A) rad
  2. B) sievert
  3. C) curie
  4. D) rem
  5. E) Bq

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

29) The SI unit used to measure the activity of a radioactive sample is called the ________.

  1. A) rad
  2. B) gray
  3. C) sievert
  4. D) rem
  5. E) Bq

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

30) The SI unit used to measure the biological effect of radiation sample is called the ________.

  1. A) rad
  2. B) curie
  3. C) sievert
  4. D) rem
  5. E) Bq

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

31) A person begins to suffer radiation sickness at an exposure level of ________.

  1. A) 25 rem
  2. B) 5 rem
  3. C) 500 rem
  4. D) 100 rem
  5. E) 600 rem

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

32) A patient receives 4 ×  mrads of iodine-131, which emits β-particles.  If the factor that adjusts for biological damage is 1 for β-particles, how many rems did the patient receive?

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 0.4
  3. C) 0.3
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 40

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

33) A patient receives 10 mrads of gamma radiation. If the factor that adjusts for biological damage for for gamma radiation is 1, how many mrems did the patient receive?

  1. A) 2 mrem
  2. B) 5 mrem
  3. C) 10 mrem
  4. D) 20 mrem
  5. E) 200 mrem

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

34) One symptom of mild radiation sickness is ________.

  1. A) a lowered white cell count
  2. B) a raised white cell count
  3. C) a lowered red blood cell count
  4. D) a raised red blood cell count
  5. E) a white cell count of zero

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

35) The half-life of a radioisotope is ________.

  1. A) one-half of the time it takes for the radioisotope to completely decay to a nonradioactive isotope
  2. B) the time it takes for the radioisotope to become an isotope with one-half of the atomic weight of the original radioisotope
  3. C) the time it takes for the radioisotope to become an isotope with one-half the atomic number of the original radioisotope
  4. D) the time it takes for the radioisotope to lose one-half of its neutrons
  5. E) the time it takes for one-half of the sample to decay

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

36) Iodine-123, which is used for diagnostic imaging in the thyroid, has a half-life of 13 h.  If 50.0 mg of I-123 were prepared at 8:00 A.M. on Monday, how many mg remain at 10:00 A.M. on the following day?

  1. A) 50.0 mg
  2. B) 25.0 mg
  3. C) 12.5 mg
  4. D) 6.25 mg
  5. E) 3.13 mg

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

37) A wooden object from a prehistoric site has a carbon-14 activity of 10 cpm compared to 40 cpm for new wood. If carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 yr, what is the age of the wood?

  1. A) 1430 yr
  2. B) 5730 yr
  3. C) 11 500 yr
  4. D) 17 200 yr
  5. E) 22 900 yr

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

38) Krypton-79 has a half-life of 35 h. How many half-lives have passed after 105 h?

  1. A) 1 half-life
  2. B) 2 half-lives
  3. C) 3 half-lives
  4. D) 4 half-lives
  5. E) 5 half-lives

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

39) Iron-59 has a half-life of 44 days. A radioactive sample has an activity of 0.64 mBq.  What is the activity of the sample after 88 days?

  1. A) 1.28 mBq
  2. B) 0.64 mBq
  3. C) 0.32 mBq
  4. D) 0.16 mBq
  5. E) 0080 mBq

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

40) The half-life of bromine-74 is 25 min. How much of a 4.0 mg sample is still active after 75 min?

  1. A) 0.50 mg
  2. B) 1.0 mg
  3. C) 2.0 mg
  4. D) 0.25 mg
  5. E) 4.0 mg

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

41) Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 h. How many hours is three half-lives?

  1. A) 60 h
  2. B) 45 h
  3. C) 30 h
  4. D) 15 h
  5. E) 7.5 h

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

42) Iodine 131 has a half-life of 8.0 days. An I-131 sample has an initial activity of 32 mCi. What is the activity after 24 days?

  1. A) 96 mCi
  2. B) 16. mCi
  3. C) 8.0 mCi
  4. D) 4.0 mCi
  5. E) 2.0 mCi

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

43) A radiation lab orders 64 μCi of P-32.  After 42.9 days the activity of the sample is 8.0 μCi. What is the half-life of P-32?

  1. A) 7.15 days
  2. B) 14.3 days
  3. C) 28.6 days
  4. D) 42.9 days
  5. E) 85.8 days

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

44) A sample of I-131 decays from 12 microcuries to 3.0 microcuries in 16 days. What is the half-life of I-131?

  1. A) 16 days
  2. B) 8.0 days
  3. C) 32 days
  4. D) 64 days
  5. E) 4.0 days

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

45) Why is it important that radioisotopes used in diagnostic tests have short half-lives?

  1. A) These radioisotopes have a greater activity so they are easier to monitor.
  2. B) This minimizes the harmful side effects of the radiation.
  3. C) This is necessary so the radioisotopes will have high energy.
  4. D) These radioisotopes are less expensive.
  5. E) These radioisotopes are more abundant in nature.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

46) An imaging technique in which a computer monitors the degree of absorption of X-ray beams is known as ________.

  1. A) positron emission tomography (PET)
  2. B) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  3. C) computed tomography (CT)
  4. D) radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
  5. E) a scan.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

47) An imaging technique that detects the energy absorbed by hydrogen atoms in a magnetic field is known as ________.

  1. A) positron emission tomography (PET)
  2. B) computed tomography (CT)
  3. C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  4. D) radioactive tracer study
  5. E) supermagnetic tomography (SMT)

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

48) The dosage of technetium-99m for myocardial imaging is 280 μCi/kg of body weight.  How many mCi should be given to a patient weighing 65 kg?

  1. A) 0.0043 mCi
  2. B) 4.3 mCi
  3. C) 18 mCi
  4. D) 230 mCi
  5. E) 1.8 × mCi

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

49) A patient receives 3.0 mL of a solution containing technetium-99m for a breast image.  If the activity of the technetium-99m is 9.5 mCi/mL, what is the dose received by the patient?

  1. A) 3.2 mCi
  2. B) 29 mCi
  3. C) 320 μCi
  4. D) 9.5 mCi
  5. E) 28.5 mCi

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

50) A sample of cerium-141 for a diagnostic test was dissolved in saline solution to an activity of 4.5 millicuries/mL. If the patient undergoing the test needs a dose of 10 millicuries, how much of the solution should be injected into the patient?

  1. A) 45 mL
  2. B) .45 mL
  3. C) 2.2 mL
  4. D) 22 mL
  5. E) 4.5 mL

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

51) The most widely used medical isotope in nuclear medicine is ________.

  1. A) Tc-99m
  2. B) I-131
  3. C) P-32
  4. D) I-125
  5. E) Co-60

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

52) The recommended dosage of I-131 for a test is 4.2 μCi per kg of body mass. How many millicuries should be given to a 55 kg patient? (1 mCi = 1000 μCi)?

  1. A) 230 mCi
  2. B) 0.23 mCi
  3. C) 0.076 mCi
  4. D) 760 mCi
  5. E) 13.8 mCi

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

53) When an atom of uranium-235 is bombarded with neutrons, it splits into smaller nuclei and produces a great amount of energy. This nuclear process is called ________.

  1. A) fission
  2. B) fusion
  3. C) decomposition
  4. D) chain reaction
  5. E) ionization

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

54) In the sun, nuclei of hydrogen combine to form a larger nucleus and release a great amount of energy.  The process is known as ________.

  1. A) fission
  2. B) fusion
  3. C) metathesis
  4. D) chain reaction
  5. E) ionization

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

5.2   Short Answer Questions

 

1) One symbol for the beta particle is β. Another symbol for the same particle is ________.

Answer:  e

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

2) The shielding required for gamma rays is ________.

Answer:  lead or thick concrete

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

3) In alpha emission, the atomic number ________.

Answer:  decreases by two

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

4) In beta emission, the atomic number ________.

Answer:  increases by one

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

5) If a neutron is lost from a nucleus, the atomic number ________.

Answer:  does not change

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

6) U + n → ________ + Kr + 3n + energy

Answer:  Ba

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

7) Tc → Tc + ________.

Answer:  γ

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

8) The common unit of radioactivity which is used to measure the biological damage is the ________.

Answer:  rem

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

9) There are ________ microcuries in one millicurie.

Answer:  1000

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

10) The time needed for a radioactive sample to decay to one-half of its original activity is called the ________.

Answer:  half-life

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

11) After two half-lives, the radioactivity of a sample is ________ of its original activity.

Answer:  one-fourth

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

12) The radioisotope used as a diagnostic tool to measure thyroid function is ________.

Answer:  I-131

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

13) The diagnostic imaging technique that depends on magnetic fields and radio waves, not radioactivity, is called ________.

Answer:  MRI or magnetic resonance imaging

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

14) The splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei is called nuclear ________.

Answer:  fission

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

15) The combination of H-3 and H-2 to give He-4 and a neutron is called nuclear ________.

Answer:  fusion

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

5.3   True/False Questions

 

1) Exposure to radiation is unavoidable because some radioactive elements occur naturally.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

2) The correct symbol for hydrogen-3 is He.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

3) X-rays are generated by the nucleus during radioactive decay.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

4) During alpha emission, the atomic number decreases.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

5) When a positron is emitted, the atomic number stays the same.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

6) When beta particles are emitted, the atomic number decreases.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

7) The production of nitrogen-13 and a neutron from boron-10 by bombardment with a helium-4 nucleus is an example of radioactive decay.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.2

Learning Obj.:  5.2

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

8) One symptom of radiation sickness is an increased production of red blood cells.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

9) One mCi of a radioactive substance emits more radiation than one μCi of the same substance.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

10) Irradiation of food for preservation is usually carried out using gamma irradiation.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

11) The rem is a unit that measures the biological effect of radiation.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

12) The amount of radiation measured by 1 Bq is larger than that measured by 1 Ci.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.3

Learning Obj.:  5.3

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

13) After two half-lives, the activity of a sample is four times the initial activity.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

14) If the half-life of hydrogen-3 is 11.8 yr, after two half-lives the radioactivity of a sample will be reduced to one-half of the original amount.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.4

Learning Obj.:  5.4

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

15) One type of radiation that is not used for medical procedures is the cosmic ray.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

16) X-rays are emitted during MRI scans.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

17) CT scans are based on the adsorption of X-rays.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.5

Learning Obj.:  5.5

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

18) Nuclear fission as used in nuclear power plants produces radioactive waste with long half-lives.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

19) In nuclear fusion, a large atom splits into smaller atoms.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

5.4   Matching Questions

 

Choose the type of radiation or particle from Column 2 that best matches each item in Column 1.

 

  1. A) proton
  2. B) beta particle
  3. C) gamma ray
  4. D) positron
  5. E) neutron
  6. F) alpha particle

 

1) α     

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

2)  β    

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

3) γ

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

4) H

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

5) e

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

6) n

Page Ref: 5.1

Learning Obj.:  5.1

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

Answers: 1) F 2) B 3) C 4) A 5) D 6) E

 

Indicate whether each of the following is characteristic of the fission or fusion process.

 

  1. A) both fission and fusion
  2. B) fission
  3. C) fusion

 

7) A large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.: 5.6

Global Outcomes: G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

8) Very high temperatures must be achieved to initiate the reaction.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

9) This nuclear process provides the energy of the sun.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

10) This process produces radioactive by-products.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

 

11) Large amounts of energy are released.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

12) Two small nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus.

Page Ref: 5.6

Learning Obj.:  5.6

Global Outcomes:  G7  Demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across chemistry.

 

Answers: 7) B 8) C 9) C 10) B 11) A 12) C

 

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