Unequal Relations A Critical Introduction to Race, Ethnic, and Aboriginal Dynamics in Canada By Angie – Test Bank

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Unequal Relations, 8th ed. (Fleras)

CHAPTER 5
RACIALIZED INEQUALITY

 

 

Multiple Choice: Select the best available response

 

MC 5-1

The Employment Equity Act singles out the need to improve the workplace representation of following groups, namely,  Aboriginal peoples, women, racialized  minorities, and _____

 

  1. Those living under the poverty line
  2. Persons with disabilities
  3. Persons who are unemployed.
  4. Individuals who are underemployed

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 1

Page: 145

 

 

MC 5-2

Affirmative action programs in the USA often entail quotas and deadlines. What is the focus of Employment Equity programs in Canada?

 

 

  1. Goals and timetables
  2. Quotas and goals
  3. Quotas and timetables
  4. Goals and deadlines

 

Answer: a

Difficulty: 2

Page: 145-146

 

 

MC 5-3

The chapter on racialized inequality serves to reinforce the main theme of the textbook, namely, how race, ethnic, and Aboriginal relations are ultimately __________ relations.

 

 

  1. Multicultural
  2. Equal
  3. Unequal
  4. Dysfunctional

 

Answer: c

Difficulty: 1

Page: 148

 

MC 5-4

According to the text, inequality may be defined as an interplay of differential access and differential _____.

 

 

  1. Stratification
  2. Discrimination
  3. Opportunity
  4. Distribution

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 2

Page: 148

 

 

MC 5-5

According to the text, it makes  sociological sense to reframe inequality as _____

 

  1. Exclusion
  2. Inclusion
  3. Opportunity
  4. Reasonable accommodation

 

Answer: a

Difficulty:1

Page: 149

 

 

MC 5-6

For Marxists, patterns of stratification reflect an economic organization based on the principle of _______

 

  1. Family background
  2. Group relations
  3. Class relations
  4. Historical background

 

Answer: c

Difficulty:1

Page: 150

 

 

 

MC 5-7

What term that describes a hierarchical system in which minority groups differ in the amount of valued resources they possess in relationship to other groups?

 

 

  1. Social darwinism
  2. Racial(ized) stratification
  3. Formal inequality
  4. Exclusion

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 1

Page: 151

 

 

MC 5-8

According to the table that looks at earnings by racialization, gender, and place of birth, which of the following group in Canada had the highest earnings?

 

 

  1. Canadian born visible minority males
  2. Foreign born visible minority males
  3. Canadian born white males
  4. Foreign born white males

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 2

Page: 153

 

 

 

MC 5-9

According to the table that looks at earnings by racialization, gender, and place of birth, which of the following group in Canada had the lowest earnings?

 

 

  1. Foreign born visible minorities
  2. Foreign born whites
  3. Canadian born visible minorities
  4. Aboriginal Peoples

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 2

Page: 153

 

 

MC 5-10

In 1980, immigrants who had lived in Canada for ten years earned ________ in relationship to Canadian born workers, while in the year 2000, immigrants who had lived in Canada for 10 years earned _______ in relationship to Canadian born workers

 

  1. About the same as; less than
  2. Less than; more than
  3. More than; about the same as
  4. More than;  less than

 

Answer: a

Difficulty: 2

Page: 153

 

 

MC 5-11

What term describes the fact that poverty in Canada is randomly distributed; rather, racialized and new Canadians tend to be disproportionately poorer  than other Canadians.

 

  1. The politics of poverty
  2. The racialization of poverty
  3. Newcomer poverty
  4. A racial poverty line

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 1

Page: 158

 

MC 5-12

In an important work by Jedwab and Satzwich, they remind that migrants and minorities endure income differences that are inconsistent with Canada’s egalitarian commitments.  But this inequality is more subtle and nuanced than general statistics suggest. Which of the following is NOT consistent with this more nuanced and subtle picture.

 

  1. There are notable income differences within and among minorities and migrants
  2. Income differences among migrants and minorities are less than wealth differences
  3. Migrant and minority men continue to out-earn migrant and minority women
  4. Established migrants earn more than new migrants

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 3

Page: 156

 

 

MC 5-13

In the case study on name discrimination, which category of  resumes was most likely to have the largest number of call backs for interviews?

 

 

  1. Those with foreign sounding names and foreign credentials
  2. Those with foreign sounding names and Canadian credentials
  3. Thsoe with English sounding names and foreign credentials
  4. Those with English sounding names and Canadian credentials

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 1

Page: 157

 

 

MC 5-14

In explaining racialized inequality, an ethnicity paradigm is likely to _________.

 

  1. Blame the system
  2. Blame the victim
  3. Blame society
  4. Blame the ruling class

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 1

Page: 159-160

 

 

MC 5-15

In 1965, John Porter published The Vertical Mosaic in which he argued that ______ was a key variable in explaining immigrant success or failure.

 

 

  1. Income
  2. Race
  3. Ethnicity
  4. Multiculturalism

 

Answer: c

Difficulty: 3

Page: 160

 

 

 

 

 

MC 5-16

In explaining racialized inequality, what sociological model of society endorses inequality as necessary and desirable in a complex society?

 

 

  1. Radical Conflict
  2. Collective Definition
  3. Functionalism
  4. Symbolic Interactionism

 

Answer: c

Difficulty: 1

Page: 159-160

 

 

MC 5-17

In explaining racialized inequality, which sociological perspective argues that inequality is inevitable, but only in systems that are organized around profit, class, and private property?

 

 

  1. Radical Conflict
  2. Collective Definition
  3. Functionalism
  4. Interactionism

 

Answer: a

Difficulty: 1

Page: 160-161

 

 

 

MC 5-18

In the 1980s, the concept of inequality underwent a shift in thinking.  As a result of this conceptual shift, what was perceived as the primary cause of racialized inequality?

 

 

  1. Ethnicity
  2. Discriminatory barriers
  3. Multiculturalism
  4. Prejudice

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: 2

Page: 161

 

 

MC 5-19

According to the critical race model for explaining inequality, the problem of racialized inequality can be traced to______.

 

  1. individual attitudes
  2. personality disorders
  3. culture clash
  4. institutional structures

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 1

Page: 162

 

 

 

MC 5-20

A critical race model is likely to endorse ____ as a solution to the problem of racialized inequality.

  1. Market forces
  2. Increases in human capital
  3. Government intervention
  4. More multiculturalism

 

Answer:c

Difficulty:1

Page:162

 

 

MC 5-21

What model of equality is known to take differences into account as a basis for overcoming disadvantage?

 

 

 

  1. An equal model
  2. A formal model
  3. A mathematical model
  4. An equity model

 

Answer: d

Difficulty: 1

Page: 164

 

 

MC 5-22

According to the text, the concept of equality is subject to different interpretations. Which of the following is NOT considered an approach to equality. Equality as _______

 

 

  1. Dissimilar
  2. Same
  3. Proportional equivalence
  4. Equity

 

Answer: a

Difficulty: 1

Page: 163

 

 

 

MC 5-23

According to the text, Canada’s Employment Equity program should not be seen as reverse discrimination, but may be regarded as ____________ discrimination.

 

 

  1. Equity
  2. Substantive
  3. Reversing
  4. Systemic

 

Answer: c

Difficulty: 2

Page: 166

 

 

 

MC 5-24

What equality model argues that true equality arises when individuals are treated the same when competing for the good things in life?

 

  1. Formal
  2. Equitable
  3. Substantive
  4. Employment Equity

 

Answer: a

Difficulty: 1

Page: 164

 

 

MC 5-25

Those who support Employment Equity in principle and practice believe it has contributed to improvements in the representation of targeted groups in the federal public service. The latest statistics based on 2006 suggest that ____  continue to be underrepresented in the federal public service.

 

  1. Women
  2. Persons with disabilities
  3. Aboriginal peoples
  4. Racialized minorities

 

Answer: d

Difficulty:2

Page: 165

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

 

F 5-26

The Employment Equity Act singles out the need to improve the workplace representation of following groups, namely,  Aboriginal peoples, women, persons with disabilities, and _____

 

Answer: racialized (or visible) minorities

Difficulty: 1

Page: 145

 

 

 

F 5-27

Affirmative action programs in the United States tend to focus on quotas and deadlines. By contrast, Employment Equity initiatives in Canada tend to focus on goals and ____________.

 

Answer: timetables

Difficulty: 3

Page: 145-146

 

 

F 5-28

 

MC 5-4

According to the text, inequality may be defined as an interplay of differential distribution and differential _____.

 

 

Answer: access

Difficulty: 2

Page: 148

 

F 5-29

Reframing inequality as _________ allows us to go beyond income differences and focus on inequalities related to participation and belonging.

 

Answer: exclusion

Difficulty: 2

Page: 149

 

 

F 5-30

Which major group in Canada has the lowest earnings in relationship to both Canadian born and foreign born whites and racialized minorities ________?

 

Answer: Aboriginal peoples

Difficulty: 1

Page: 153

 

 

F 5-31

The expression the ________________ of poverty describes how patterns of poverty are not randomly distributed across Canada, but tend to cluster around certain historically disadvantaged racialized minorities.

 

Answer: racialization

Difficulty: 3

Page 158

 

 

F 5-32

In 1965, John Porter published The Vertical Mosaic in which he argued that ______ was a key variable in explaining immigrant success or failure.

 

Answer: ethnicity

Difficulty: 3

Page: 160

 

 

F 5-33

A ______ model of society endorses racialized inequality as an unfortunate but necessary and desirable feature of a complex society.

 

Answer: functionalism

Difficulty: 1

Page: 159-160

 

 

F 5-34

According to the critical race model for explaining inequality, it is _________ that account for the problem of racialized inequality.

 

Answer: institutions or  structures or institutional structures

Difficulty: 2

Page: 162

 

 

F 5-35

In the case study on name discrimination, individuals with __________-sounding were most likely to have the largest number of call backs for interviews?

 

 

Answer: English

Difficulty: 1

Page: 157

 

 

F 5-36

What paradigm of inequality relies on the concept of human capital to account for racialized inequality in Canada? ___________

 

Answer: ethnicity

Difficulty: 3

Page: 164

 

 

F 5-37

Under _________ equality, differences must be taken into account as a basis for overcoming disadvantage.

 

Answer: equity or substantive

Difficulty: 2

Page: 164

 

 

F 5-38

A critical race model is likely to endorse market forces as a solution to the problem of racialized inequality.True or False.

 

Answer:false

Difficulty:1

Page:162

 

 

 

F 5-39

Those who support Employment Equity in principle and practice believe it has contributed to improvements in the representation of targeted groups in the federal public service. The latest statistics based on 2006 suggest that ____  continue to be underrepresented in the federal public service.

 

Answer: racialized minorities

Difficulty:2

Page: 165

 

 

F 5-40

For some, employment equity is thought to be reverse discrimination; for others, employment equity is seen as _________ discrimination.

 

Answer: reversing

Difficulty: 2

Page: 166

 

 

Essay Question

 

E 5-41

According to the text, there are two models (or paradigms) for explaining racialized inequality (namely, ethnicity vs. equity). There also are two models (or paradigms) of equality to aspire to (namely, equivalence-based vs. equity).  It could be said that the ethnicity paradigm for explaining racialized inequality is to equivalence-based models of equality as the equity paradigm for explaining racialized inequality is to the equity-based models of equality. Explain, by comparing how the paradigms relate to each other in terms of assumptions, problem definition, and proposed solution. (Answer pp. 145-148)

 

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