Transformations Women Gender And Psychology 3rd Edition by Mary Crawford – Test Bank

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Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 3e (Crawford)

Chapter 5   Sex, Gender, and Bodies

 

1) Identify the key assumptions about sex that were so fundamental in our society in the past that most people never thought about them.

  1. A) There are two, and only two, sexes.
  2. B) Sex exists as a biological fact independently of anyone’s beliefs about it.
  3. C) Sex and gender naturally go together.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

2) Which of the following statements about biological sex is FALSE?

  1. A) No one characteristic defines sex.
  2. B) Sex involves a cluster of biological attributes.
  3. C) Sex is fixed at conception.
  4. D) Sex develops gradually during prenatal development.

 

3) The process during which sex is formed during prenatal development is called

  1. A) sexuality.
  2. B) sexual differentiation.
  3. C) gender development.
  4. D) transsexual construction.

 

4) Each human being has a set of ________ chromosomes in each cell of the body.

  1. A) 46
  2. B) 50
  3. C) 23
  4. D) 25

 

5) Chromosome pairs that are composed of the X and Y chromosomes are called the

  1. A) sex chromosomes.
  2. B) gender chromosomes.
  3. C) emotionality chromosomes.
  4. D) autosomes.

6) Identify a true statement about autosomes.

  1. A) Autosomes are similar in size to the X chromosome.
  2. B) Each human being has 23 pairs of autosomes in each cell of the body.
  3. C) Autosomes contain fewer than 50 genes each.
  4. D) Autosomes are significantly smaller in size than the Y chromosome.

 

7) Genetically, a female is defined as a person who has ________ chromosomes and a male is defined as one who has ________ chromosome.

  1. A) two Y; an X and a Y
  2. B) two X; more than one Y
  3. C) sex; a gender
  4. D) two X; an X and a Y

 

8) The testes typically produce ________, which shape the development of a typical male body in male fetuses.

  1. A) estrogens
  2. B) androgens
  3. C) gonads
  4. D) Y chromosomes

 

9) In the context of sexual differentiation during fetal development, identify a function of dihydrotestosterone.

  1. A) It prevents the embryonic sex glands from growing and developing into testes.
  2. B) It causes the gonads to develop into a pair of female sex glands that contain eggs.
  3. C) It causes the penis to grow and the testicles to form.
  4. D) It prevents the internal embryonic structures from developing into female organs.

10) During the first month or so after conception, ________.

  1. A) the genetic sex of the fetus can be determined using an ultrasound machine
  2. B) the fetus has a structure that will become either a penis or a clitoris
  3. C) the genetic sex of the fetus has not yet been determined
  4. D) the genetic sex of the fetus has not yet been determined, and the fetus has a structure that will become either a penis or a clitoris

 

11) In males, ________ prevents the internal embryonic structures from developing into female organs such as a uterus.

  1. A) testosterone
  2. B) dihydrotestosterone
  3. C) estrogen
  4. D) Mullerian duct inhibiting hormone

 

12) In fetuses, the development of sexual and reproductive anatomy is complete by the ________ of the mother’s pregnancy.

  1. A) second to fourth week
  2. B) sixth to eighth week
  3. C) ninth to tenth week
  4. D) twelfth to fourteenth week

 

13) In the female fetus, the gonads develop into

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) the uterus.
  3. C) the clitoris.
  4. D) nothing.

 

14) About ________ of babies vary in some way from the biological norm of two distinct sexes.

  1. A) 10 percent
  2. B) 1.7 percent
  3. C) 5 percent
  4. D) 0.06 percent

 

 

15) People with any of the specific variations on the theme of biological sex are referred to as

  1. A) gays or lesbians.
  2. B) intersex individuals.
  3. C) bisexuals.
  4. D) transvestites.

 

16) Which of the following is NOT a possible result of intersexuality?

  1. A) An individual with a penis and testicles happens to menstruate.
  2. B) A person who has lived as a man happens to have a baby.
  3. C) A person has both a penis and a vagina.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

17) Which of the following conditions best describes a chromosomal irregularity in men in which they have a genetic composition of XXY?

  1. A) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)
  2. B) Turner syndrome
  3. C) Klinefelter’s syndrome
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

 

18) Klinefelter’s syndrome causes men to

  1. A) have a less masculine physique and appearance.
  2. B) commit more violent crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.
  3. C) be more intelligent than men who do not have the syndrome.
  4. D) commit fewer crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.

 

19) Individuals whose genetic composition was XY but their bodies did not prompt the development of male reproductive structures during fetal differentiation are said to have

  1. A) a gender identity disorder.
  2. B) Turner syndrome.
  3. C) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

20) Individuals who externally look like any other woman but have a genetic composition of XY are said to have

  1. A) a gender identity disorder.
  2. B) Turner syndrome.
  3. C) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

 

21) Which of the following statements is true of individuals with Turner syndrome?

  1. A) They are males with an XY chromosomal composition in the strictly genetic definition of sex.
  2. B) They are born with an XO chromosomal composition.
  3. C) They are highly likely to have problems with gender identity and gender typing.
  4. D) They are females in whom the vagina, clitoris, and labia are absent.

 

 

 

22) A meta-analysis of math aptitude studies conducted by Baker and Reiss (2016) showed that girls with Turner syndrome ________.

  1. A) had large deficits compared with other girls, especially under time pressure
  2. B) did better when they had to do calculations than when they had to use verbal strategies
  3. C) scored low on their overall intelligence but high on spatial visualization tasks
  4. D) outperformed boys in tasks involving mental rotation of objects because of their tall stature

 

23) Sexually ambiguous bodies are likely to result from

  1. A) congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  2. B) partial androgen insensitivity.
  3. C) Turner syndrome.
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia and partial androgen insensitivity.

24) Which of the following common conditions produces a sexually ambiguous body and is best described as a genetically inherited malfunction of one or more of the enzymes needed to make the steroid hormone cortisol?

  1. A) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)
  2. B) Turner syndrome
  3. C) partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS)
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

 

25) Which of the following problems is associated with Turner syndrome?

  1. A) the short stature of girls
  2. B) problems with gender identity
  3. C) problems with gender typing
  4. D) the absence of a vagina, clitoris, and labia in girls

 

26) Which of the following is most likely a characteristic of CAH (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) girls?

  1. A) As teenagers, they tend to be more interested in electronics, cars, and sports than cheerleading, fashion, and makeup.
  2. B) As adults, they prefer occupations related to people (social worker, teacher) rather than things (chemist, mechanic).
  3. C) They are most likely to be lazy and weaker than other girls.
  4. D) They are highly unlikely to perform like boys on tasks such as throwing balls or darts at a target.

 

27) Which of the following is included in the costs of genital surgery?

  1. A) visible scarring
  2. B) loss of the ability to reach orgasm
  3. C) loss of sexual sensation
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

 

28) Which of the following terms refers to an official psychiatric category for those individuals who experience a disjunction between their assigned sex and their core gender identity?

  1. A) gender dysphoria
  2. B) stereotypical threat
  3. C) transgender identity
  4. D) identity moratorium

 

29) Identify the reason why the transition from males to females is preferred over the transition from females to males.

  1. A) because the rules for masculinity are more restrictive than those for femininity
  2. B) because the surgery to construct a penis is complicated, and the results are often disappointing
  3. C) because it is easier for females to act like males and use hormone supplements
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

30) Sexual orientation is a multidimensional concept involving

  1. A) erotic attraction, affectional relationships, sexual behavior, erotic fantasies, and emotional attachments.
  2. B) only the gender of sexual partners.
  3. C) homosexuals.
  4. D) cosmetic genital surgery.

 

31) Around the world, ________.

  1. A) societies usually recognize only two sexes
  2. B) societies mostly believe in the binary categories of gay and straight
  3. C) attempts to create third-sex categories lead to persecution of those who would be members of the category
  4. D) many societies have a third-sex category

32) In constructing unambiguous genitals for intersex infants, the medical profession has enforced a standard that allows ________ between male and female genitals.

  1. A) no overlap
  2. B) little overlap
  3. C) a sizeable overlap
  4. D) complete overlap

 

33) Which of the following statements is true of a pledged virgin?

  1. A) She takes over a male gender when there is no man available in a family.
  2. B) She eventually embraces marriage and motherhood.
  3. C) She refrains from heavy work or serving as a man in the military.
  4. D) She expresses regret at having sacrificed her life as a woman in society.

 

 

 

34) Anthropologists and historians studying North American Indian cultures have found that more than 150 of these societies have (or had in the past) a third-sex category.

  1. A) European
  2. B) Mexican
  3. C) Eskimo
  4. D) Native American

 

35) In India, a third sex or “third nature” people are referred to as

  1. A) two-spirit people or berdaches.
  2. B) hijras or Aravanis.
  3. C) kathoeys.
  4. D) fa’afafine.

 

36) In their respective cultures, third-sex people are

  1. A) considered to be gay.
  2. B) not considered to be gay.
  3. C) referred to as bisexual.
  4. D) more often biologically female than biologically male.

37) In cultures where homosexuality is strongly tabooed, third-sex people

  1. A) are almost invariably persecuted.
  2. B) are never persecuted.
  3. C) may be accepted.
  4. D) are expected to have genital surgery.

 

38) Which of the following statements is true of the Intersex Society of North America?

  1. A) It is a nonprofit organization.
  2. B) It is dedicated to ending shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgeries on people born with an anatomy that someone decided is not standard for male or female.
  3. C) It was founded by Cheryl Chase in 1993.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

39) Explain why sex is referred to as a binary system. Why is the term “binary system” misleading? What are some of the problems associated with using binary categorization of the behaviors of males and females?

 

40) Describe sexual differentiation in males and females.

 

41) What can we learn from cases in which chromosomes, prenatal hormones, and external anatomy are incongruent? Distinguish between the concepts of sex and gender.

 

42) Explain the term “intersexuality.”

 

 

 

43) Under normal circumstances, the biological aspects of sex (chromosomes, hormones, internal organs, genitals, etc.) and the social aspects of gender (assigned sex, gender identity, etc.) are congruent. Discuss cases in which they are NOT congruent and how gender is socially constructed in these cases.

44) Discuss the relationship between violence and males who have a genetic composition of XXY or XYY.

 

45) What do the studies of individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia tell us about whether sexual identity is learned or innate? Support your answer with at least one piece of evidence.

 

46) What is the role of appearance in the development of gender identity? Cite evidence to support your answer.

 

47) Define “core gender identity” and describe how it develops.

 

48) Explain Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner syndrome in terms of chromosomal abnormalities, reproductive capabilities, and external appearances.

 

49) “Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects more than just the appearance of the genitals; it also affects physical characteristics that others can see and use to stigmatize girls.” Discuss the statement.

 

50) Describe the term “transgender identity” and the concept of fluid gender identities.

 

51) What is gender dysphoria? Why do people choose to have sex changes?

 

52) Explain the concept of sexual orientation. Describe how it is different from being transgendered.

53) Discuss the search for a so-called “gay gene.” Describe the evidence for the existence of such a gene. What are the criticisms of the research?

 

54) In the context of hormones and sexual orientation, discuss the problems encountered by women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

 

55) Discuss the phrase “sex is a social construction.” Provide examples of how children are exposed to this from birth.

 

56) Describe the problems associated with physicians who decide the “optimal gender” for a child and how these problems are likely to affect families and intersex individuals as they grow old.

 

57) Do you believe that intersex infants should have surgery to make their genitalia “unambiguous”? Provide a well-supported argument for your response, taking into account the difficulties that face children on either side of the issue.

 

 

 

58) Describe some of the third-sex categories across cultures, their lifestyles, their social positions in society, and how others in the culture treat them.

 

59) Describe the custom known as pledged virgin, which is a third-sex category for women and which existed in areas of the Balkans (the former Yugoslavia and Albania).

 

 

 

Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 3e (Crawford)

Chapter 5   Sex, Gender, and Bodies

 

1) Identify the key assumptions about sex that were so fundamental in our society in the past that most people never thought about them.

  1. A) There are two, and only two, sexes.
  2. B) Sex exists as a biological fact independently of anyone’s beliefs about it.
  3. C) Sex and gender naturally go together.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

2) Which of the following statements about biological sex is FALSE?

  1. A) No one characteristic defines sex.
  2. B) Sex involves a cluster of biological attributes.
  3. C) Sex is fixed at conception.
  4. D) Sex develops gradually during prenatal development.

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

3) The process during which sex is formed during prenatal development is called

  1. A) sexuality.
  2. B) sexual differentiation.
  3. C) gender development.
  4. D) transsexual construction.

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

4) Each human being has a set of ________ chromosomes in each cell of the body.

  1. A) 46
  2. B) 50
  3. C) 23
  4. D) 25

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

5) Chromosome pairs that are composed of the X and Y chromosomes are called the

  1. A) sex chromosomes.
  2. B) gender chromosomes.
  3. C) emotionality chromosomes.
  4. D) autosomes.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

6) Identify a true statement about autosomes.

  1. A) Autosomes are similar in size to the X chromosome.
  2. B) Each human being has 23 pairs of autosomes in each cell of the body.
  3. C) Autosomes contain fewer than 50 genes each.
  4. D) Autosomes are significantly smaller in size than the Y chromosome.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

7) Genetically, a female is defined as a person who has ________ chromosomes and a male is defined as one who has ________ chromosome.

  1. A) two Y; an X and a Y
  2. B) two X; more than one Y
  3. C) sex; a gender
  4. D) two X; an X and a Y

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

8) The testes typically produce ________, which shape the development of a typical male body in male fetuses.

  1. A) estrogens
  2. B) androgens
  3. C) gonads
  4. D) Y chromosomes

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

9) In the context of sexual differentiation during fetal development, identify a function of dihydrotestosterone.

  1. A) It prevents the embryonic sex glands from growing and developing into testes.
  2. B) It causes the gonads to develop into a pair of female sex glands that contain eggs.
  3. C) It causes the penis to grow and the testicles to form.
  4. D) It prevents the internal embryonic structures from developing into female organs.

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

10) During the first month or so after conception, ________.

  1. A) the genetic sex of the fetus can be determined using an ultrasound machine
  2. B) the fetus has a structure that will become either a penis or a clitoris
  3. C) the genetic sex of the fetus has not yet been determined
  4. D) the genetic sex of the fetus has not yet been determined, and the fetus has a structure that will become either a penis or a clitoris

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

11) In males, ________ prevents the internal embryonic structures from developing into female organs such as a uterus.

  1. A) testosterone
  2. B) dihydrotestosterone
  3. C) estrogen
  4. D) Mullerian duct inhibiting hormone

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

12) In fetuses, the development of sexual and reproductive anatomy is complete by the ________ of the mother’s pregnancy.

  1. A) second to fourth week
  2. B) sixth to eighth week
  3. C) ninth to tenth week
  4. D) twelfth to fourteenth week

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

13) In the female fetus, the gonads develop into

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) the uterus.
  3. C) the clitoris.
  4. D) nothing.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

14) About ________ of babies vary in some way from the biological norm of two distinct sexes.

  1. A) 10 percent
  2. B) 1.7 percent
  3. C) 5 percent
  4. D) 0.06 percent

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

15) People with any of the specific variations on the theme of biological sex are referred to as

  1. A) gays or lesbians.
  2. B) intersex individuals.
  3. C) bisexuals.
  4. D) transvestites.

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

16) Which of the following is NOT a possible result of intersexuality?

  1. A) An individual with a penis and testicles happens to menstruate.
  2. B) A person who has lived as a man happens to have a baby.
  3. C) A person has both a penis and a vagina.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

17) Which of the following conditions best describes a chromosomal irregularity in men in which they have a genetic composition of XXY?

  1. A) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)
  2. B) Turner syndrome
  3. C) Klinefelter’s syndrome
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

18) Klinefelter’s syndrome causes men to

  1. A) have a less masculine physique and appearance.
  2. B) commit more violent crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.
  3. C) be more intelligent than men who do not have the syndrome.
  4. D) commit fewer crimes than men who do not have the syndrome.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

19) Individuals whose genetic composition was XY but their bodies did not prompt the development of male reproductive structures during fetal differentiation are said to have

  1. A) a gender identity disorder.
  2. B) Turner syndrome.
  3. C) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

20) Individuals who externally look like any other woman but have a genetic composition of XY are said to have

  1. A) a gender identity disorder.
  2. B) Turner syndrome.
  3. C) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

21) Which of the following statements is true of individuals with Turner syndrome?

  1. A) They are males with an XY chromosomal composition in the strictly genetic definition of sex.
  2. B) They are born with an XO chromosomal composition.
  3. C) They are highly likely to have problems with gender identity and gender typing.
  4. D) They are females in whom the vagina, clitoris, and labia are absent.

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

22) A meta-analysis of math aptitude studies conducted by Baker and Reiss (2016) showed that girls with Turner syndrome ________.

  1. A) had large deficits compared with other girls, especially under time pressure
  2. B) did better when they had to do calculations than when they had to use verbal strategies
  3. C) scored low on their overall intelligence but high on spatial visualization tasks
  4. D) outperformed boys in tasks involving mental rotation of objects because of their tall stature

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

23) Sexually ambiguous bodies are likely to result from

  1. A) congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  2. B) partial androgen insensitivity.
  3. C) Turner syndrome.
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia and partial androgen insensitivity.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

24) Which of the following common conditions produces a sexually ambiguous body and is best described as a genetically inherited malfunction of one or more of the enzymes needed to make the steroid hormone cortisol?

  1. A) complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)
  2. B) Turner syndrome
  3. C) partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS)
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

25) Which of the following problems is associated with Turner syndrome?

  1. A) the short stature of girls
  2. B) problems with gender identity
  3. C) problems with gender typing
  4. D) the absence of a vagina, clitoris, and labia in girls

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

26) Which of the following is most likely a characteristic of CAH (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) girls?

  1. A) As teenagers, they tend to be more interested in electronics, cars, and sports than cheerleading, fashion, and makeup.
  2. B) As adults, they prefer occupations related to people (social worker, teacher) rather than things (chemist, mechanic).
  3. C) They are most likely to be lazy and weaker than other girls.
  4. D) They are highly unlikely to perform like boys on tasks such as throwing balls or darts at a target.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

27) Which of the following is included in the costs of genital surgery?

  1. A) visible scarring
  2. B) loss of the ability to reach orgasm
  3. C) loss of sexual sensation
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

28) Which of the following terms refers to an official psychiatric category for those individuals who experience a disjunction between their assigned sex and their core gender identity?

  1. A) gender dysphoria
  2. B) stereotypical threat
  3. C) transgender identity
  4. D) identity moratorium

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

29) Identify the reason why the transition from males to females is preferred over the transition from females to males.

  1. A) because the rules for masculinity are more restrictive than those for femininity
  2. B) because the surgery to construct a penis is complicated, and the results are often disappointing
  3. C) because it is easier for females to act like males and use hormone supplements
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

30) Sexual orientation is a multidimensional concept involving

  1. A) erotic attraction, affectional relationships, sexual behavior, erotic fantasies, and emotional attachments.
  2. B) only the gender of sexual partners.
  3. C) homosexuals.
  4. D) cosmetic genital surgery.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

31) Around the world, ________.

  1. A) societies usually recognize only two sexes
  2. B) societies mostly believe in the binary categories of gay and straight
  3. C) attempts to create third-sex categories lead to persecution of those who would be members of the category
  4. D) many societies have a third-sex category

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

32) In constructing unambiguous genitals for intersex infants, the medical profession has enforced a standard that allows ________ between male and female genitals.

  1. A) no overlap
  2. B) little overlap
  3. C) a sizeable overlap
  4. D) complete overlap

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

33) Which of the following statements is true of a pledged virgin?

  1. A) She takes over a male gender when there is no man available in a family.
  2. B) She eventually embraces marriage and motherhood.
  3. C) She refrains from heavy work or serving as a man in the military.
  4. D) She expresses regret at having sacrificed her life as a woman in society.

 

Answer:  A

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

34) Anthropologists and historians studying North American Indian cultures have found that more than 150 of these societies have (or had in the past) a third-sex category.

  1. A) European
  2. B) Mexican
  3. C) Eskimo
  4. D) Native American

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

35) In India, a third sex or “third nature” people are referred to as

  1. A) two-spirit people or berdaches.
  2. B) hijras or Aravanis.
  3. C) kathoeys.
  4. D) fa’afafine.

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

36) In their respective cultures, third-sex people are

  1. A) considered to be gay.
  2. B) not considered to be gay.
  3. C) referred to as bisexual.
  4. D) more often biologically female than biologically male.

 

Answer:  B

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

37) In cultures where homosexuality is strongly tabooed, third-sex people

  1. A) are almost invariably persecuted.
  2. B) are never persecuted.
  3. C) may be accepted.
  4. D) are expected to have genital surgery.

 

Answer:  C

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

38) Which of the following statements is true of the Intersex Society of North America?

  1. A) It is a nonprofit organization.
  2. B) It is dedicated to ending shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgeries on people born with an anatomy that someone decided is not standard for male or female.
  3. C) It was founded by Cheryl Chase in 1993.
  4. D) All of these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

39) Explain why sex is referred to as a binary system. Why is the term “binary system” misleading? What are some of the problems associated with using binary categorization of the behaviors of males and females?

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

40) Describe sexual differentiation in males and females.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

41) What can we learn from cases in which chromosomes, prenatal hormones, and external anatomy are incongruent? Distinguish between the concepts of sex and gender.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

42) Explain the term “intersexuality.”

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

43) Under normal circumstances, the biological aspects of sex (chromosomes, hormones, internal organs, genitals, etc.) and the social aspects of gender (assigned sex, gender identity, etc.) are congruent. Discuss cases in which they are NOT congruent and how gender is socially constructed in these cases.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

44) Discuss the relationship between violence and males who have a genetic composition of XXY or XYY.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

45) What do the studies of individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia tell us about whether sexual identity is learned or innate? Support your answer with at least one piece of evidence.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

46) What is the role of appearance in the development of gender identity? Cite evidence to support your answer.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

47) Define “core gender identity” and describe how it develops.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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48) Explain Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner syndrome in terms of chromosomal abnormalities, reproductive capabilities, and external appearances.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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49) “Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects more than just the appearance of the genitals; it also affects physical characteristics that others can see and use to stigmatize girls.” Discuss the statement.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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50) Describe the term “transgender identity” and the concept of fluid gender identities.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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51) What is gender dysphoria? Why do people choose to have sex changes?

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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52) Explain the concept of sexual orientation. Describe how it is different from being transgendered.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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53) Discuss the search for a so-called “gay gene.” Describe the evidence for the existence of such a gene. What are the criticisms of the research?

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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54) In the context of hormones and sexual orientation, discuss the problems encountered by women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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55) Discuss the phrase “sex is a social construction.” Provide examples of how children are exposed to this from birth.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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56) Describe the problems associated with physicians who decide the “optimal gender” for a child and how these problems are likely to affect families and intersex individuals as they grow old.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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57) Do you believe that intersex infants should have surgery to make their genitalia “unambiguous”? Provide a well-supported argument for your response, taking into account the difficulties that face children on either side of the issue.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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58) Describe some of the third-sex categories across cultures, their lifestyles, their social positions in society, and how others in the culture treat them.

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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59) Describe the custom known as pledged virgin, which is a third-sex category for women and which existed in areas of the Balkans (the former Yugoslavia and Albania).

 

Answer:  Answer will vary.

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