THINK Social Psychology 1st Canadian Edition By Duff Peace – Test Bank

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Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1) We make inferences about others based on nonverbal cues because ________.

  1. people often prefer to communicate nonverbally rather than verbally
  2. nonverbal cues are always more reliable than verbal cues
  3. people often do not disclose their true motives, thoughts, or feelings
  4. nonverbal cues are interpreted the same way across different situations

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Conceptual

 

2) ___________ are defined as behaviours, gestures, and expressions that convey thought or emotion without words.

  1. Verbal cues
  2. Nonverbal cues
  3. Oral cues
  4. Inferences

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Factual

 

3) Facial expressions, eye movements, and bodily gestures are considered examples of:

  1. verbal cues.
  2. inferences.
  3. oral cues.
  4. nonverbal cues.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Factual

 

4) John is angry at his friend Peter and does not want to talk to him. He sits with his arms crossed and faces away from Peter. John is communicating his anger in what way?

  1. With his thoughts
  2. With an oral cue
  3. With a nonverbal cue
  4. With a verbal cue

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Applied

 

5) Which of the following is NOT considered one of the six basic emotions that are conveyed with the same expression across different cultures?

  1. Envy
  2. Fear
  3. Sadness
  4. Anger

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Conceptual

 

6) Pride and shame may be basic emotions because:

  1. they are recognized by nonhuman animals.
  2. they elicit action from observers.
  3. they must be consciously expressed.
  4. they are recognized cross-culturally.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Factual

 

7) ________ are very brief and involuntary facial expressions that reflect our underlying emotions.

  1. Macroexpressions
  2. Microexpressions
  3. Micropulsatiles
  4. Macropulsatiles

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Factual

 

8) Interchannel discrepancies refer to:

  1. the variance between distinctiveness and consistency.
  2. discrepancies in nonverbal cues communicated by different body parts.
  3. differences between situational and dispositional attributions.
  4. disparities between correspondent inferences and fundamental attributions.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Factual

 

9) Which of the following is true regarding deception?

  1. We tend to assume that people are generally honest.
  2. People deceive others much less than we expect them to.
  3. People are excellent at detecting deception in others.
  4. We lie more often to friends and family than we do to strangers.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Factual

 

10) Two identical gestures can be interpreted in entirely different ways. According to your textbook, why does this occur?

  1. Because people are not intelligent
  2. Because people are often tired
  3. Because the interpretation of a gesture often depends on the context
  4. It is not clear why gestures can interpreted in different ways.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Conceptual

 

11) In general, research suggests that we are __________ at detecting lies.

  1. excellent
  2. 100% accurate
  3. very bad
  4. slightly better than chance

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Conceptual

 

12) Liars in an Internet setting have been found to use:

  1. more first person pronouns.
  2. less words.
  3. less third person pronouns.
  4. fewer first person pronouns.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Factual

 

13) Your sister borrowed your bicycle and tells you it was stolen even though she locked it up. You think that she is lying to you and just forgot to lock it up. You are likely to be correct in believing that she is lying if:

  1. you are mimicking your sister’s nonverbal behaviour.
  2. you rely upon nonverbal cues rather than verbal cues.
  3. she is failing to describe visual images and reports fewer details.
  4. she provides spontaneous corrections and reports many details.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Application

 

14) Research by Mann, Vrij, and Bull (2004) showed that police officers who were considered experienced lie detection experts were:

  1. accurate at detecting lies 82 percent of the time.
  2. accurate at detecting lies 80 percent of the time.
  3. less accurate at detecting lies when relying on nonverbal cues.
  4. less accurate at detecting lies when relying on verbal cues.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Factual

 

15) You believe that people who steal are self-interested and dishonest. What type of attribution are you making to explain their behaviour?

  1. A situational attribution
  2. A dispositional attribution
  3. An extrinsic attribution
  4. An external attribution

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Applied

 

16) You believe that people who steal may be forced into this behaviour because they live in poverty and don’t have enough resources. What type of attribution are you making to explain their behaviour?

  1. A dispositional attribution
  2. A situational attribution
  3. An intrinsic attribution
  4. An internal attribution

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Applied

 

17) Inferring that a person’s traits caused his or her behaviour is known as a(n) __________.

  1. situational attribution
  2. dispositional attribution
  3. extrinsic attribution
  4. external attribution

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

18) The assumption that the environment or situation caused an individual’s behaviour is a(n) example of a(n) _________ attribution.

  1. situational
  2. dispositional
  3. intrinsic
  4. internal

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

19) Jane’s teacher assigns her to write a paper favouring abortion. Based on the correspondent inference theory, what could you conclude about Jane’s attitude towards abortion?

  1. Jane is in favour of abortion.
  2. Jane is against of abortion/
  3. Jane is unsure if she is for or against abortion.
  4. We cannot conclude whether Jane is for or against abortion based on this information.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Conceptual

 

20) Which of the following is a theory designed to explain the attributions people make?

  1. Covariation theory
  2. Social comparison theory
  3. Correspondent inference theory
  4. Both covariation theory and correspondent inference theory

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

21) According to the covariation theory, we use what three types of information to make attributions for other people’s behaviour?

  1. Compliance, consensus, and distinctiveness
  2. Compliance, consistency, and temperament
  3. Conformity, consistency, and distinctiveness
  4. Consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

22) Paul is having trouble getting his iPod to work. If you ask him whether he typically has trouble using his iPod, you are seeking information about:

  1. consensus.
  2. conformity.
  3. consistency.
  4. both consensus and conformity.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Applied

 

23) If a person always responds in the same way to a stimulus across all contexts, then what type of attribution will likely be made?

  1. A dispositional attribution
  2. An external attribution
  3. An extrinsic attribution
  4. There is no way to know what type of attribution will be made.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Conceptual

 

24) Research by Ross, Amabile, & Steinmetz (1977) found that individuals who were randomly assigned to be “questioners” were perceived as being ________ relative to those assigned to be “respondents” on a series of general knowledge questions.

  1. more intelligent
  2. less intelligent
  3. more authoritarian
  4. less authoritarian

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Factual

 

25) When confronted with negative emotions, we tend to:

  1. believe others are being honest.
  2. believe we are being deceived.
  3. make dispositional attributions.
  4. make situational attributions.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Conceptual

 

26) What do both the correspondent inference theory and the covariation theory assume about how we attribute causes to behaviours?

  1. That we are not very intelligent when we attribute causes to behaviours.
  2. That we are biased thinkers when we attribute causes to behaviours.
  3. That we are rational and logical when we attribute causes to behaviours.
  4. These theories do not make assumptions about how we attribute causes to behaviours.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Conceptual

 

27) The fundamental attribution error is a more commonly known name for__________.

  1. covariation
  2. the correspondence bias
  3. correspondent inference theory
  4. covariation theory

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Factual

 

28) Brenda has not turned in her homework for over a week and her teacher assumes that she is lazy and unmotivated. It never occurs to Brenda’s teacher that she is under a lot of stress and dealing with difficult life circumstances. The teacher’s explanation for Brenda’s behaviour can be considered an example of:

  1. the correspondence bias.
  2. the planning fallacy.
  3. the attributional error effect.
  4. the false consensus effect.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Applied

 

29) Jones and Harris (1967) found that subjects still attributed pro-Castro attitudes to essay authors even when the subjects knew that the authors had no choice but to write the essays. This is evidence for:

  1. the correspondence bias.
  2. the false consensus effect.
  3. belief perseverance.
  4. the self-serving bias.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Factual

 

30) Which of the following statements is true regarding the tendency to make trait-based inferences about others?

  1. We tend to infer traits only when we have a motivation for doing so.
  2. We tend to infer traits intentionally.
  3. We tend to infer traits automatically.
  4. We tend to infer traits only when we are asked to form impressions of others.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83

Skill: Conceptual

 

31) ___________ is defined as the process of automatically inferring traits from another person’s behaviour.

  1. Actor-observer effect
  2. Three-stage model of attribution
  3. Fundamental attribution error
  4. Spontaneous trait inference

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Factual

 

32) You see a man bump into and knock over an elderly woman crossing the street without stopping to help her up. According to the phenomenon of spontaneous trait inference, you would likely assume the man:

  1. didn’t realize he knocked the elderly women over.
  2. had an emergency and needed to hurry.
  3. was unkind.
  4. was feeling sick.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Applied

 

33) Suppose someone robbed a bank. How would Lee, who is from a collectivist culture, be most likely to explain this behaviour?

  1. The robber is immoral.
  2. The robber is dishonest.
  3. The robber is stealing to take care of his family.
  4. The robber is both immoral and dishonest.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Applied

 

34) Suppose someone robbed a bank. How would Megan, who is from an individualistic culture, be most likely to explain this behaviour?

  1. The robber is immoral.
  2. The robber is stealing to take care of his family.
  3. The robber had a poor upbringing and didn’t know right from wrong.
  4. The robber was negatively influenced by his peers.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Applied

 

35) People from collectivist cultures are more likely to make __________ attributions for behaviour, while people from individualistic cultures are more likely to make __________ attributions for behaviour.

  1. external; situational
  2. situational; dispositional
  3. internal; dispositional
  4. internal; external

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Conceptual

 

36) According to your textbook, cultural differences in how behaviour is explained seem to increase with _______.

  1. income
  2. age
  3. self-awareness
  4. education

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Factual

 

37) Individuals who are from ________ cultures are less likely to make ________.

  1. individualistic; spontaneous trait inferences
  2. socialist; situational inferences
  3. communist; dispositional inferences
  4. collectivist; spontaneous trait inferences

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Factual

 

38) Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of the three-stage model of attribution?

  1. Automatically characterize a behaviour
  2. Automatically make a situational attribution
  3. Automatically make a dispositional inference
  4. Use conscious effort to correct for situational constraints

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Conceptual

 

39) According to the three-stage model of attribution, what do people need to have available to be able to correct situational constraints on behaviour?

  1. Imagination, humility, flexibility
  2. Information, intelligence, self-esteem
  3. Self-awareness, evidence, morals
  4. Time, energy, and motivation

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Conceptual

 

40) Individuals high in___________ like to think, solve problems, and understand their world accurately.

  1. need for education
  2. need for understanding
  3. need for cognition
  4. need for intelligence

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Factual

 

41) Compared with an individual high in need for cognition, research suggests that an individual low in need for cognition is more likely to engage in what phenomenon?

  1. The three-stage model of attribution
  2. The self-serving bias
  3. Belief in a just world
  4. The correspondence bias

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Conceptual

 

42) Daniel enjoys spending time thinking about important issues and loves to solve problems for his friends. Daniel is likely high in which of the following characteristics?

  1. Need for cognition
  2. Need for self-esteem
  3. Ingratiation
  4. Self-awareness

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Applied

 

43) Pamela believes that women who are on welfare are responsible for their situation and she doesn’t believe they deserve help from the government. Pamela is illustrating:

  1. self-serving bias.
  2. belief in a just world.
  3. need for cognition.
  4. the halo effect.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Applied

 

44) The notion that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people is known as:

  1. self-serving bias.
  2. spontaneous trait inference.
  3. need for cognition.
  4. belief in a just world.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Factual

 

45) Which of the following statements about impression formation is supported by research?

  1. Impression formation always requires controlled processing.
  2. Impression formation always takes conscious effort.
  3. Impression formation often happens almost instantaneously.
  4. Impression formation always requires both controlled processing and conscious effort.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

 

46) Solomon Asch conducted a study on impression formation by asking participants to rate the description of a person. He provided both groups of participants with the same information but varied the order of the adjectives he provided so that some participants learned about positive qualities first while others learned about negative qualities first. What was Asch’s major finding?

  1. Both groups rated the target as highly likeable.
  2. Both groups rated the target as highly unlikeable.
  3. The group that learned of the negative qualities first rated the target more highly.
  4. The group that learned of the positive qualities first rated the target more highly.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

 

47) Your friend is setting you up on a blind date. She tells you that your date is arrogant, intelligent, motivated, and kind. Based on Asch’s work on impression formation, which of those characteristics will likely impact your judgment the most?

  1. Arrogant
  2. Motivated
  3. Kind
  4. Intelligent

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

 

48) You want to make a good impression in your job interview. Based on your knowledge of the primacy effect, what would be the most effective strategy?

  1. Talk about why you disliked your last job
  2. Present your future employer with information about your weaknesses before your strengths
  3. Present your future employer with information about your strengths before your weaknesses
  4. Don’t provide any information about your strengths or weaknesses

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

 

49) Which of the following describes the phenomenon whereby the first pieces of information to which we are exposed have the most impact on our judgment?

  1. The halo effect
  2. The first impression effect
  3. The primacy effect
  4. The primal effect

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

 

50) Which of the following describes the phenomenon whereby the last pieces of information to which we are exposed have heightened impact on our judgments, relative to information received in the middle?

  1. The halo effect
  2. The what is beautiful is good effect
  3. The recency effect
  4. The finale effect

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

 

51) Compared with information offered last, information offered first will:

  1. have a shorter-term effect on your impressions.
  2. have no effect on your impressions.
  3. be processed less thoroughly.
  4. have a longer-term effect on your impressions.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

 

52) Widmeyer and Loy (1988) had a visiting professor come in to provide a “neutral” lecture. Before the lecture, half of the class was told that he was a warm person and the other half was told that he was cold and distant. Which of the following best summarizes the student’s ratings of the lecturer?

  1. First impressions had no effect on student’s ratings of the professor.
  2. Student ratings reflected their first impression of the professor.
  3. All students rated the professor as warm, regardless of first impression.
  4. All students rated the professor as cold, regardless of first impression.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

 

53) The___________ is a phenomenon wherein beautiful things are seen as good and thus activate positive things in our mind.

  1. attractive effect
  2. what is beautiful is good effect
  3. what is ugly is bad effect
  4. actor-observer effect

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 88

Skill: Factual

 

54) Olson and Marsheutz (2005) found that exposure to pictures of beautiful faces leads to faster categorization of ________ relative to exposure to unattractive faces.

  1. nonverbal behaviour
  2. negative traits
  3. positive traits
  4. verbal behaviour

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Factual

 

55) Jarrod is a handsome university athlete and, as a result, many people also view him as friendly, outgoing, warm, and very likeable. This illustrates what phenomenon?

  1. The primacy effect
  2. The actor-observer effect
  3. The what is beautiful is good effect
  4. The recency effect

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 88–89

Skill: Applied

 

56) Joshua has what many people refer to as a ‘baby-face.’ Based on research presented in your textbook, how will people tend to perceive him?

  1. As mean-spirited
  2. As tough
  3. As naive
  4. As dominant

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Applied

 

57) Which of the following is NOT identified as a facial feature that leads to the tendency to perceive someone as more kindhearted?

  1. Thin lips
  2. A round face
  3. Curly hair
  4. Large eyes

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Conceptual

 

58) When one positive thing is known or believed about a target person, we tend to infer that the individual is positive overall and thus has other positive features. This is termed:

  1. the halo effect.
  2. what is beautiful is good effect.
  3. spontaneous trait inference.
  4. the actor-observer effect.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Factual

 

59) Which of the following is an example of the reverse halo effect?

  1. Helen is unattractive, and her boss thinks she is also an unreliable worker.
  2. Hailey is unattractive, but her boss thinks she is also a good worker.
  3. Joan is attractive, but her boss thinks she is also an unreliable worker.
  4. Martha is attractive, and her boss thinks she is also a good worker.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Applied

 

60) Kathie drinks three cups of coffee a day and believes coffee is good for her health. Recently she comes across an article providing information about both the positive and negative effects of coffee on health. When later explaining the article to a friend she only recalls the reasons it might be beneficial while leaving out the information concerning why it might be harmful. This represents an example of:

  1. fundamental attribution error.
  2. confirmation bias.
  3. correspondence bias.
  4. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Applied

 

61) Denis believes that Dirk is an honest person, despite the fact the Denis know Dirk has lied about multiple things. Which of the following does this exemplify?

  1. Belief perseverance
  2. Social hypothesis testing
  3. Correspondence bias
  4. Self-fulfilling prophecy

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Application

 

62) Maintaining our beliefs even in the face of contradictory information is known as _________.

  1. belief perseverance
  2. confirmation bias
  3. correspondence bias
  4. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Factual

 

63) Judy is going on a date but does not expect to have a good time. She acts in a way that communicates to her date that she is bored and disinterested. As a result, he behaves bored and disinterested. This exemplifies what phenomenon?

  1. Belief perseverance
  2. Confirmatory hypothesis testing
  3. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. Attribution bias

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Applied

 

64) According to your textbook, we can conclude which of the following regarding the effect of a teacher’s expectations on school children’s performance?

  1. A teacher’s expectations alone can cause a student to perform poorly.
  2. A teacher’s expectations are usually inaccurate.
  3. A teacher’s expectations alone can cause a student to perform well.
  4. A teacher’s expectations can be self-fulfilling but not necessarily inevitable.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Conceptual

 

65) Research supports the idea that we are generally more accurate in perceiving people under what circumstance?

  1. When we are feeling happy
  2. When we are familiar with a person
  3. When we utilize heuristics
  4. When we are judging members of our outgroup

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 91

 

66) The  theory of ________ claims that a high motivation for accuracy will lead people to engage in extensive diagnostic testing, to generate alternative hypotheses, and to take those hypotheses into account as they make decisions.

  1. self-fulfilling prophecy
  2. social hypothesis testing
  3. social heuristics
  4. deception

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 91

Skill: Factual

 

67) People in Western, but not Eastern, cultures will identify a furrowed brow and pursed lips as anger.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Comprehension

 

68) Culture may partially determine the type of gaze we display.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Factual

 

69) You would predict that Brendon, an Internet user, would be more likely to be lying if he was using more words and more third-person pronouns in his correspondence with others.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Applied

 

70) An Internet liar is more likely to use a lot of first person pronouns.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Factual

 

71) Liars engage in more spontaneous corrections than truth tellers.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Factual

 

72) Nonverbal cues tend to be better indicators of deception than verbal cues.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: TF

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Comprehension

 

73) Self-verification refers to the notion that we want others to see us the way we see ourselves.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Factual

 

74) Explaining Maureen’s bad test grade by suggesting she is not intelligent is an example of a situational attribution.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Applied

 

75) Rachel can be considered high in the need for cognition since she likes having the responsibility of dealing with situations that require a great deal of thought.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Applied

 

76) The ideas that ‘bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people’ is known as ‘belief in a just world.’

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Factual

 

77) It takes a very long time for people to form impressions of another person.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

 

78) According to research by Asch, if you wanted to make a long-lasting, good impression on your new roommates, you should present positive information about yourself before negative information.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

 

79) The primacy effect is a phenomenon whereby the first pieces of information to which we are exposed have the least impact on our judgments.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

 

80) By continuing to believe that smoking is not harmful to his health despite evidence of its link to lung cancer, John is illustrating a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Applied

 

81) The self-fulfilling prophecy suggests that if we expect that something will happen, we may elicit the very behaviour we expected.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 90

Skill: Factual

 

82) Motivation to be accurate does not appear to be important for the formation of accurate impressions.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 91

Skill: Conceptual

 

83) Why are nonverbal cues important for understanding other people’s thoughts and behaviours?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 78–81

Skill: Conceptual

 

84) Suppose a child steals money from his sibling. Provide both a dispositional and situational explanation for this behaviour.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Applied

 

85) Describe the correspondence inference theory.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

86) Compare and contrast the types of attributions that are made in individualistic cultures compared with collectivist cultures.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Conceptual

 

87) Define spontaneous trait inference and provide an example.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Factual

 

88) How do dispositional and situational attributions differ from our ideological beliefs (e.g., liberal versus conservative)? Include references to “belief in a just world” in your answer.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Comprehension

 

89) How would the primacy effect influence your impression of someone else?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

 

90) Describe the halo effect and provide an example.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Factual

 

91) When are we more likely to be accurate when forming impressions of other people?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 91

Skill: Conceptual

 

92) As described in your textbook, what nonverbal behaviours have been identified in past research as being indicative of lying? What types of verbal cues have been identified as indicative of lying?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 80–81

Skill: Factual

 

93) What are the three factors of correspondence inference theory? Provide a real-world example of each factor and explain how each factor influences dispositional versus situational attributions for behaviour.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 82

Skill: Factual

 

94) According to covariation theory, what are the three types of information we rely on when making judgments of others? Describe the experiment by Hazelwood and Olson (1986) that demonstrates how attributions differ depending on whether or not they are aware of their own attributional process.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 82–83

Skill: Factual

 

95) Anna has a high need for cognition. Describe what Anna is probably like in her day to day life. Is Anna more or less likely to engage in the correspondence bias? Why or why not?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Applied

 

96) Why are some people motivated to have ‘belief in a just world’? Describe the practical implications of just world beliefs for victims of misfortune or those who need assistance.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85–86

Skill: Conceptual

 

97) Compare and contrast the impact of the primacy and recency effect in impression formation. Can the recency effect undo the primacy effect?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

 

98) Derek is an attractive businessman. Based on information from the ‘what is beautiful is good effect’ and the ‘halo effect,’ how are we likely to view and treat Derek? What life expectancies are we likely to have for Derek?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Applied

 

 

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