Think Interpersonal Communication 1st Canadian Edition By Wynn – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5

Verbal Communication

 

 

5.1 Multiple Choice

 

Ans:             c

Page:            84

Difficulty:   2

 

1.        Researchers estimate that the first humans to speak language as we know it lived in East Africa about __________ years ago.

a.       10,000

b.       50,000

c.        150,000

d.       250,000

e.        500,000

 

Ans:             a

Page:            85

Difficulty:   2

 

2.        Whereas a symbol is an arbitrary collection of sounds, a sign

a.       often has a visual relationship to the thing it represents.

b.       is an arbitrary collection of letters.

c.        requires you to apply your experience and feelings to decide what it means.

d.       can express supraordinate, basic, and subordinate terms.

e.        relies much more on connotation than denotation.

 

Ans:             d

Page:            86

Difficulty:   2

 

3.        Language scholars C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards use a triangle to explain the three elements of language which are

a.       semantics, syntax, and significance of language.

b.       denotative, connotative, and abstract meanings of words.

c.        superordinate, basic, and subordinate meanings of words.

d.       person, the symbol (or sign), and the referent.

e.        encoding, decoding, and noise in language.

 

Ans:             b

Pages:          86-87

Difficulty:   2

 

4.        Defining a computer as “a programmable electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes data” represents what type of meaning?

a.       bypassing

b.       denotation

c.        connotation

d.       abstract

e.        jargon

 

Ans:             c

Pages:          87

Difficulty:   2

 

5.        If the word “computer” evokes a negative image of an increasingly complex software nightmare that frustrates and infuriates you, what type of meaning is influencing your response to the word?

a.       bypassing

b.       denotation

c.        connotation

d.       concrete

e.        jargon

 

 

 

Ans:             e

Page:            87

Difficulty:   1

 

6.        Which of the following is the best example of an abstract word?

a.       textbook

b.       table

c.        computer

d.       dictionary

e.        fairness

 

Ans:             d

Page:            87

Difficulty:   1

 

7.        Which of the following words is the most concrete description of another person’s behavior?

a.       disruptive

b.       rude

c.        insensitive

d.       burps

e.        procrastinates

 

Ans:             b

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

 

8.        Which answer best represents the progression of a subordinate to basic to superordinate term?

a.       dog, animal, pet

b.       banana split, ice cream, dessert

c.        car, vehicle, Toyota Prius

d.       music, opera, Carmen

e.        flower, plant, tulip

 

Ans:             b

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

 

9.        The words pencil and pen are examples of

a.       a superordinate term.

b.       a basic term.

c.        a subordinate term.

d.       an abstract term.

e.        a complex term.

 

Ans:             c

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

 

10.     The phrases No. 2 pencil, ballpoint pen, and yellow highlighter are examples of

a.       a superordinate term.

b.       a basic term.

c.        a subordinate term.

d.       an abstract term.

e.        a complex term.

 

Ans:             b

Page:            88

Difficulity:   2

11.  Which group has a “we” orientation when it comes to language?

a.  individualistic

b.  collectivist

c.  young people

d.  older people

e.  no group has a “we” orientation

   

 

 

Ans:             e

Page:            89

Difficulty:   3

 

12.     Which interpretation of the Whorf Hypothesis is most accepted by today’s linguistic scholars?

a.       The structure of a language determines how you see, experience, and interpret the world around you.

b.       If you don’t have a word for a concept (such as red), you will not be able to see or experience it and separate it from other similar concepts (such as blue or yellow).

c.        If you do not have a word for tomorrow, you cannot plan for tomorrow.

d.       The nature of each language determines how people think and perceive others.

e.        Language reflects cultural models of the world, which in turn influences how the speakers of a language come to think, act, and behave.

 

Ans:             b

Page:            90-91

Difficulty:   2

 

13.     Which answer best reflects the answer to the research question: Do Women Talk More than Men?

a.       In similar circumstances, women talk more than men.

b.       In general, males and females use the same number of words when talking.

c.        Women talk more than men, especially when interacting with their husbands and strangers.

d.       Men talk more with classmates and where the topic of conversation requires disclosure of feelings.

e.        In general, women do most of the talking in work settings.

 

Ans:             a

Page:            91

Difficulty:   1

 

14.     Linguist John McWhorter notes that many middle-class African Americans typically speak both Black English and Standard American English, alternating between the two, often in the same sentence. This is an example of

a.       code switching.

b.       accents.

c.        bypassing.

d.       phatic language.

e.        jargon.

 

   
Ans:             d

Page:            92

Difficulty:   2

 

15.     At a regular study group meeting, one member asks that everyone be able to “summarize the most important information in each chapter.” At the next meeting, another member distributes an outline of the textbook’s important concepts but wonders why no one else in the group has made the same effort. This misunderstanding is an example of

a.       failure to follow the rules of language.

b.       denotation.

c.        failure to interpret nonverbal behavior.

d.       bypassing.

e.        concrete words.

 

Ans:             e

Page:            92

Difficulty:   2

 

16.     A euphemism substitutes a mild, indirect, or vague term for a harsh, blunt, or offensive one. Which of the following answers represents a euphemism?

a.       powder room rather than toilet

b.       darn rather than damn

c.        slept with rather than had sex with

d.       interrogation treatments rather than torture

e.        all of the above

 

Ans:             a

Page:            93

Difficulty:   2

 

17.    Which of the following statements avoids exclusionary language?

a.       Bill uses a wheel chair.

b.       Walter is a political extremist.

c.        Anne is a normal woman.

d.       Frank is a psycho.

e.        Grace is a cancer victim.

 

Ans:             b

Page:            94

Difficulty:   1

 

 

 

18.     The specialized language of a homogeneous group is best known as

a.       gobbledygook.

b.       jargon.

c.        verbal efficiency.

d.       euphemisms.

e.        metaphors.

 

Ans:             e

Page:            94

Difficulty:   2

 

19.     By using a word such as now to replace the five-word, seventeen-letter phrase at this point in time, you are using

a.            connotative language.

b.           denotative language.

c.            oral language.

d.           a euphemism.

e.            jargon.

 

Ans:             c

Pages:          95

Difficulty:   1

 

20.     Which of the following answers describes one of the textbook’s techniques for reducing the amount of swearing in a person’s speech?

a.       Count the number of swear words you use every day.

b.       Put a dollar in a jar every time you swear.

c.        When you feel like swearing, look for less offensive, more interesting words.

d.       Only use mild swear words.

e.        Only use swear words with close friends.

 

Ans:             c

Pages:          96-98

Difficulty:   1

 

21.     Your textbook recommends all of the following steps for improving your use of language except

a.       improve your vocabulary.

b.       avoid offensive language.

c.        avoid active, vivid language.

d.       use “I,” “You,” and “We” language.

e.        use appropriate grammar.

 

 

 

Ans:             e

Page:            96

Difficulty:   1

 

22.     All of the following answers describe a characteristic of oral language except

a.       use short, simple sentences

b.       use short, familiar words

c.        use more informal, colloquial expression

d.       use more personal pronouns

e.        use compound sentences

 

Ans:             d

Pages:          97

Difficulty:   3

 

23.     Which of the following sentences is expressed in a passive voice?

a.       Hermione served salmon at her party.

b.       Hermione bought fresh, farm-grown salmon at the grocery store.

c.        The salmon was contaminated.

d.       The contaminated salmon was eaten by everyone at the party.

e.        Everyone at Hermione’s party became ill.

 

Ans:             c

Page:            97-98

Difficulty:   2

 

24.     All of the following are effective recommendations for avoiding the use of  gobbledygook when speaking except

a.       never write a sentence with more than 40 words.

b.       treat only one subject per sentence.

c.     use the word “you” rather than “I” when expressing judgments about

others.

d.       don’t include information just to show off that you know it.

e.        use shorter words and phrases such as “now” rather than “at the present time.”

 

5.2 True/False

Ans:             true

Page:            84

Difficulty:   2

 

1.        T      F          Fully modern language probably evolved from simpler languages only 50,000 years ago.
Ans:             true

Page:            84

Difficulty:   2

 

2.        T      F          Anthropologists explain that standing up on two feet contributed to physiological changes in the larynx, lungs, throat, and vocal cavity that enabled us to talk.
Ans:             false

Page:            84

Difficulty:   2

 

3.        T      F          The vocal folds in the larynx produce vibrations for speech sounds and also provide a place for articulating consonants.
Ans:             false

Page:            84

Difficulty:   2

 

4.        T      F          According to your textbook, the first humans to speak language as we know it lived in East Africa about 1 million years ago even though human ancestors lived about 4 million years ago in what is now Ethiopia.
Ans:             false

Page:            85

Difficulty:   1

 

5.        T      F          The ability to follow the accepted rules of our language has very little influence on others’ perceptions of our intelligence and social status.

 

 

Ans:             true

Page:            85

Difficulty:   1

 

6.        T      F          Language is a system of arbitrary signs and symbols used to communicate thoughts and feelings.
Ans:             false

Page:            86

Difficulty:   2

 

7.        T      F          Ogden and Richards Triangle of Meaning includes superordinate, basic, and subordinate terms.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            86

Difficulty:   2

 

8.        T      F          Ogden and Richards Triangle of Meaning does not use a solid line to connect the symbol and the referent because they must be mentally processed in order to result in meaning.
Ans:             true

Page:            87

Difficulty:   1

 

9.        T      F          Semanticist S. I. Hayakawa refers to connotation as “the aura of feelings, pleasant or unpleasant, that surround practically all words.”
Ans:             false

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

 

10.     T      F          Denotation, rather than connotation, is more likely to influence how we respond to words.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

 

11.     T      F          Abstract words refer to an idea or concept that cannot be observed or touched.
Ans:             true

Page:            87

Difficulty:   3

 

12.     T      F          The bird sitting on the perch is not just a finch, it’s an American Goldfinch with an injured wing. The phrase American Goldfinch with an injured wing is an example of a subordinate term.
Ans:             false

Page:            87

Difficulty:   2

13.     T      F          Superordinate terms are those with the highest level of concreteness.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            88

Difficulty:   2

 

14.     T      F          There are approximately 5,000 to 6,000 languages spoken in the world.
Ans:             false

Page:            88

Difficulty:   1

 

15.     T      F          Collectivist cultures have an “I” orientation; individualistic cultures have a “we” orientation.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            89

Difficulty:   2

 

16.     T      F          The most current interpretation of the Whorf Hypothesis claims that language reflects cultural models of the world, which, in turn, influence how the speakers of a language come to think, act, and behave.
Ans:             false

Page:            89

Difficulty:   2

 

Ans:             true

Page:            90

Difficulty:   2

17.     T      F          Many Japanese speakers have a very low-context, direct way of using language.

 

18.   T    F             Robin Lakoff, one of the first linguists to write about gender differences, claims that women tend to use more tag questions at the end of sentences (such as “don’t you agree?” and “haven’t you?”) than men.

Ans:             true

Page:            90

Difficulty:   2

 

19.     T      F          English is a language with a positive bias toward males. As a result, female terms tend to take on demeaning connotations.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            91

Difficulty:   2

 

20.     T      F          A study of college students found that the number of words spoken by males and females are virtually the same.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            91

Difficulty:   2

 

21.     T      F          In work settings, men do most of the talking, even when women hold influential positions.

 

Ans:             true

Page:            91

Difficulty:   2

 

22.     T      F          In educational settings (from kindergarten through university), males usually dominate classroom talk.
Ans:             true

Page:            91

Difficulty:   1

 

23.     T      F          Code switching describes how, depending on the context, we often modify the way we use verbal and nonverbal communication to generate meaning.
Ans:             false

Page:            92

Difficulty:   1

 

24.     T      F          Bypassing uses words that reinforce stereotypes, belittle other people, or exclude others from understanding an in-group’s message.
Ans:             true

Page:            92

Difficulty:   1

 

25.     T      F          When people say that someone has “passed away,” they are using a euphemism that substitutes for “died.”
Ans.            true

Page:           93

Difficulity:  1

26.                        Exclusionary language uses words that reinforce stereotypes, belittles other people, or excludes others from understanding an in-group’s message.
Ans:             false

Page:            94

Difficulty:   2

 

27.     T      F          The use of jargon is always counterproductive in workplace communication.
Ans:             true

Page:            94-95

Difficulty:   2

 

28.     T      F          Swearing and cursing are universal behaviors in all cultures.

 

 

Ans:             true

Page:            94-95

Difficulty:   2

29.     T      F          One study reported that 91 percent of respondents ranked foul language as “the most ill-mannered type of workplace behavior.”
Ans:             true

Page:            96

Difficulty:   1

 

30.     T      F          Oral language uses shorter, familiar words as well as shorter, simple sentences.

 

Ans:             false

Page:            96

Difficulty:   2

 

31.   T        F          Even though oral language uses shorter words and sentences, it avoids contractions and colloquial expressions.
Ans:             false

Pages:          96-97

Difficulty:   2

 

32.     T      F          “The Olympic ice hockey game was won by the women’s team from Canada” is an example of a sentence using the active voice.
Ans:             false

Page:            98

Difficulty:   2

 

33.     T      F          Your textbook recommends that one way to avoid gobbledygook is to avoid writing sentences with more than ten words.

 

 

5.3 Essay

  1. 1. Humans are the only species specialized for speech and complex language development. Compare the speech functions of four major speech organs with their primary survival functions in both humans.

Page: 84

Difficulty: 2

  1. 2. In terms of studying verbal communication, what is the difference between a sign and a symbol? Demonstrate your understanding of these two concepts by providing a definition of each term as well as examples to illustrate your explanation.

Pages: 84-85

Difficulty: 3

  1. 3. What is denotative and connotative meaning? Demonstrate your understanding of these two concepts by providing a definition of each term as well as examples to illustrate your explanation.

Pages: 86-87

Difficulty: 3

  1. 4. What are the differences between concrete words and abstract words? How are these two types of words related to the differences among superordinate, basic, and subordinate terms. Provide a specific example to illustrate each type of term. Why is it important to understand these differences?

Page: 87

Difficulty: 2

  1. 5.

 

The Whorf Hypothesis, even in its most moderate form, highlights the profound connections between language and culture. Explain how this Hypothesis influences our interaction with others, particularly in terms of a culture’s (1) vocabulary, (2) use of pronouns, and (3) verbal directness. Explain these three connections and provide examples to demonstrate your understanding.

Pages: 89

Difficulty: 3

  1. 6. What do your textbook authors mean by “Most languages reflect a gender bias”? How do such biases affect the way we perceive the roles and values of women and men in a culture? Provide examples to demonstrate your claims.

Pages: 90-91

Difficulty: 3

  1. 7. There are several techniques you can use to avoid gender bias in the use of pronouns. Identify and describe three of those techniques. Use examples to demonstrate your understanding of each technique.

Page: 90-91

Difficulty: 2

  1. 8. Do women talk more than men? Justify your answer to this question. Provide research examples to support your claims.

Page: 91

Difficulty: 2

 

  1. Discuss the concept of code switching. Explain what it is and provide examples of when communicators switch codes in particular situations.

Page: 91

 

Difficulty: 2

 

  1. Define bypassing. Provide an extended example that demonstrates your understanding of this

common language barrier.

Page: 92

 

Difficulty: 2

 

  1. Exclusionary language uses words that reinforce stereotypes, belittle other people, or exclude others from understanding an in-group’s message. Give examples of how you can avoid exclusionary language in areas referring to a person’s age, political viewpoints, religion, health and ability, and race/ethnicity.

Page: 93-94

Difficulty: 3

 

  1. What is a euphemism? Identify two reasons people use euphemisms? Provide two examples of

euphemisms and identify the purpose of that euphemism.

Page:  95

Difficulty: 2

 

Researchers who study the evolution of language report that swearing or cursing is a human

universal. Define swearing. Why do people swear? Why and under what circumstances should we avoid swearing?

Pages: 94-95

Difficulty: 3

  1. What are the characteristics of oral language? Provide at least three examples that contrast the

differences between the words we use for written documents and the words we use orally in daily conversations, group discussions, and presentations.

Pages: 96

Difficulty: 3

 

  1. 15. Your textbook recommends using “I,” “You,” and “We” language. What does this mean? Give examples to demonstrate your understanding of this recommendation.

Pages: 97-98

Difficulty: 2

 

 

  1. What are the three components of using “I” language effectively? Provide an example of these three components in a statement that demonstrates how this technique can improve your way with words.

Page: 97-98

Difficulty: 3

  1. Chapter 5, Verbal Communication, offers many strategies for improving your language (e.g., minimizing gender bias, swearing, and exclusionary language; expanding your vocabulary; using oral, active, and grammatical language; avoiding gobbledygook). Choose three of these strategies and describe how you can use them to improve your language. Make sure you describe (a) why you need to improve your language in this way, (b) each strategy and provide examples of how to use it, and (c) your plan for improving these aspects of your language.

Pages: 90-98

Difficulty: 3

 

 

 

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