Think Critically 3rd Edition By Gittens – Test Bank

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Chapter 7: Evaluate Arguments: Four Basic Tests

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The practice of argument making rests in part on the presumption upon which so much of human discourse depends, namely that __________.

(a) both parties are members of the same language community

(b) the speaker is telling the truth

(c) either party is in a position to threaten the other

(d) the truth of what is being said is self-evident

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_01 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Remember, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The second presupposition of the practice of argument making is the hypothetical that __________.

(a) the speaker’s reason, if true, is the logical basis for the speaker’s claim

(b) the listener’s attention, if focused, will agree with what the speaker is saying

(c) the speaker’s claim, if false, will be rejected by the listener

(d) the listener’s response, if measured, will be to judge the argument sound

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_02 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. It happens that a conclusion might be true independent of whether the premises are true or whether the premises logically support that conclusion; because this is so the practice of argument making also presume that __________.

(a) the premises are inconsistent with one another

(b) the claim is true no matter what the premises say

(c) the listener and the speaker agree on all the key points

(d) the truth of the reason is relevant to establishing the truth of claim

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_03 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. In the context of the argument making, there is no point to giving reasons __________.

(a) if the listener is not going to rely on those reasons in deciding what to believe with regard to the claim

(b) if the listener is not sure about whether the speaker’s claim is true or false

(c) if the speaker is often occasionally confused or mistaken about the facts of the matter

(d) if the speaker is not going to listen to what the other person has to say in reply

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_04 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Remember, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Argument making in real world situations is essentially a one-way street. The reason is used to establish the acceptability of the claim. This practice presumes that the speaker is not then __________.

(a) mistrustful of the listener’s ability to understand

(b) using the claim as a basis for the reason

(c) questioning the privacy and security of the communication

(d) concealing anything from the listener

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_05 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Logicians call an argument with true premises that has also passed the Test of Logical Strength a __________.

(a) relevant argument

(b) sound argument

(c) worthy argument

(d) persuasive argument

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_06 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the negative evaluative adjectives: “Unworthy, Poor, Unacceptable, Unsound, Fallacious, Illogical, Incomplete, Unreasonable, Bad, and Circular.” The adjectives in that list typically apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_07 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the negative evaluative adjectives: “False, Improbable, Self-Contradictory, Fanciful, Fabricated, Vague, Ambiguous, Nonsensical, and Unknowable.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_08 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the positive evaluative adjectives: “Well-Documented, Strongly Supported, Well-Argued, Certain, True, Reasonable, Plausible, and Probable.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title:  TB_07_09 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the positive evaluative adjectives: “Sensible, Well-Educated, Informed, Truth-Seeking, Open-Minded, Persuasive, and Confident.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_10 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris is a master of confronting people with whom he disagrees. One of his favorite techniques is to pick the weakest of his opponent’s reasons and then to refute it. He thinks that by doing that he has shown that his opponent’s claims are mistaken. By using this tactic Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) the bandwagon fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) an ad hominem attack

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_11 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about argument making is true?

(a) Making arguments pro and con can aid group decision making.

(b) Making an argument is an essentially aggressive and confrontational practice.

(c) Making an argument is pointless unless you are an expert.

(d) Making an argument is the opposite of truth-seeking.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_12 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Apply, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris wants to correctly apply the four tests to evaluate an argument. First Chris checks the facts and learns that the premises are all true. The next step is to __________.

(a) provide multiple reasons to support the claim being advanced

(b) contact an expert to ask the expert to confirm or to disconfirm the conclusion

(c) figure out if the reason(s) given are relevant to the truth of the conclusion

(d) see if the claim forms part of the basis for accepting the truth of any of the premises

(e) try to imagine a situation in which all of the premises are true, but the conclusion is false

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_13 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris gives you two reasons to support an implausible claim. One reason turns out to be irrelevant. As a strong critical thinker, what should you do?

(a) Help Chris by making up another reason to support that claim.

(b) Dismiss the second reason because the first was false.

(c) Stop trusting anything Chris says.

(d) Test the second reason.

(e) Take Chris’ claim on faith.

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_14 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris, a master at office gossip and innuendo, says, “We know we have a corporate spy someplace in the organization, probably on the management team itself. There is no evidence that it is Audrey. In fact, she’s too clean, if you know what I mean. Somebody should fire Audrey; she’s got to be the spy.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) an appeal to ignorance fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) an appeal to the mob fallacy

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title:  TB_07_15 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris makes this argument to himself: “Everybody I know has at least one tattoo, most of my friends have three or four, but I have only one. So, it’s about time that I get another tattoo.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) circular reasoning.

(d) the bandwagon fallacy

(e) an ad hominem attack

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_16 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. “When we were discussing thermodynamics the other day, Dave didn’t say anything. That must mean he doesn’t know anything about the topic.” What would be the most useful question to debunk this claim?

(a) Does Dave have a degree in science?

(b) Could there be another reason why Dave remained quiet?

(c) How long has Dave been working at our company?

(d) Is Dave known for his critical thinking skills?

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_17 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. When Chris learned that his friend, who is also a manager, like Chris, has been sentenced to prison for stealing from their employer, Chris told his friend, “Everyone who is in prison can still be free, for true freedom is the knowledge of one’s situation. The more one knows about one’s self, the more one is truly free.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) an ad hominem attack

(c) the bandwagon fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) a playing with words fallacy

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_18 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Is the following argument worthy of acceptance? “In a perfect world, the government should investigate whether any laws were broken relating to the treatment of wartime detainees. But this is not a perfect world. So, it would be a mistake for the government to engage in such an investigation.

(a) Yes, because the premises are true.

(b) Yes, because the argument is sound.

(c) Yes, because it passes all four tests.

(d) No, because the reason is irrelevant.

(e) No, because the argument is circular.

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_19 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. Is the following argument sound? “Not every argument is of equal quality. Therefore, at least one argument is better than at least one other argument.”

(a) Yes, because the premise is true and the argument is not circular.

(b) Yes, because the premise is true and it implies the conclusion.

(c) No, because the premise is true but it is not relevant.

(d) No, because the premise is false.

(e) No, because there is the possibility that the premise could be true but the conclusion false.

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_07_20 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the first condition is:

 

Answer: To the best of our knowledge and understanding, the reason is true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_21 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the second condition is:

 

Answer: The logical relationship between the reason and claim is such that the reason implies, entails, strongly warrants, or strongly supports the claim, such that the claim must be true or very probably true if the reason is assumed to be true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_22 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the third condition is:

 

Answer: The relevance of the reason to the claim is such that the truth of the claim actually depends on the truth of the reason.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_23 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the fourth condition is:

 

Answer: The flow of the reasoning is such that truth of reason must not depend on the truth of the claim.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_24 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The assumption that premises are true provides a reasonable basis for moving to consider next which aspect of the argument?

 

Answer: Its logical strength, specifically whether those premises imply that the conclusion is true or very probably true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_25 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Suppose our community had the problem of deciding what to believe or what to do with regard to an important issue. And suppose we did not have the practice of reason giving and argument making. Name a method our community might be likely to use in that situation.

 

Answer: Accepting on faith the opinion or the decision of the most powerful person in the community.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_26 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Analyze LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Is this argument worthy of acceptance, and if not, what is wrong with it? “To many around the world, the Statue of Liberty symbolizes the welcome our nation extends to all freedom loving people. So, as the great Yogi Berra says, “You can observe a lot just by watching.”

 

Answer: No. The reason given is not relevant to the truth of the conclusion.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_27 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Analyze, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The book highlights this warning: “Dismissing an otherwise-worthy claim simply

because one or more of the arguments made on its behalf contains false reasons is one of the most

common human reasoning errors.” What is the basis for this?

 

Answer: The warning is based on the realization that the claim could still be true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_28 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Analyze, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The book warns that underestimating one’s opponent in a debate or dispute can backfire. What reasons support this claim?

 

Answer: One reason is that listeners can be alienated when they realize that we have not been fair or objective. A second reason is that we may become overconfident. Strong critical thinkers try not to mislead themselves. Strong critical thinkers try not to confuse defeating a straw man argument with giving due consideration to the opposition’s array of worthy arguments.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_29 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Analyze, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. What is the reasoning that supports this claim the book makes? “Being able to explain why an argument is unworthy of acceptance is a stronger demonstration of one’s critical thinking skills than being able to remember the names of the different types of fallacies.”

 

Answer: The terminology of logicians and other scholars who study arguments is valuable to the extent that it helps us remember the underlying ideas. But the key to learning is to practice and internalize the process of interpreting people’s words correctly so that we can understand exactly what their arguments are, and then evaluating those arguments fair-mindedly. People with strong critical thinking skills are good at evaluating arguments because they can recognize logically correct forms of arguments as well as common mistakes that make an argument invalid, unwarranted, or fallacious. And, they can explain in their own words why one form is reliable and another is fallacious.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_30 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. What are fallacious arguments?

 

Answer: Fallacies are deceptive arguments, which appear to be logical but turn out not on closer analysis not to demonstrate their conclusions.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_31 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Understand, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Argument making always involves winning or losing a verbal confrontation.

 

Answer: False

 

Question Title:  TB_07_32 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. A good argument or a worthy argument is an argument that merits being accepted as a proof that its conclusion is true or very probably true.

 

Answer: True

 

Question Title:  TB_07_33 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Fallacies are deceptive arguments that appear logical and seem at times to be persuasive, but, upon closer analysis, fail to demonstrate their conclusions.

 

Answer: True.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_34 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Understand, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the reason is true in each of its premises, explicit and implicit.

 

Answer: first

 

Question Title:  TB_07_35 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that if the reason were true, it would imply, entail, strongly warrant, or strongly support

the conclusion making the conclusion (claim) true or very probably true.

 

Answer: second

 

Question Title:  TB_07_36 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the truth of the claim depends on the truth of the reason.

 

Answer: third

 

Question Title:  TB_07_37 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the truth of the reason does not depend on the truth of the claim.

 

Answer: fourth

 

Question Title:  TB_07_38 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. 39. The book offers long lists of evaluative adjectives that can be applied to premises, reasons, claims, and arguments. Why so many possible evaluative terms?

 

Answer: Good arguments—subtle and yet effective as solid proofs that their claims are worthy of being accepted as true—can be expressed in so many ways that listing them all may be impossible. In natural language contexts argument making can take the form of a personable and convivial conversation between friends as they explore options and consider ideas. Good argument making can occur in front of juries and judges in the push and pull of a legal dispute. Managers seeking budget approvals present arguments for more funding. Fundraisers seeking donations offer reasons that tug at our minds and our hearts for why we should contribute to their charities. Researchers present complex and detailed arguments when reporting their findings in professional journals. Good argument making can be embedded in warnings, ironic commentary, allegorical dramas, one-line counterexamples, recommendations, policy statement preambles, public addresses, conversations, group meetings, negotiations, comic monologues, serious pro-and-con debates, meandering reflections, and even the lyrics of songs. The vocabulary we use to evaluate arguments must be as flexible as our understanding of the wide variety of contexts within which argument making can be found. A conversation with a colleague about an impending decision can be helpful, even if we would not think about calling it valid, or persuasive. Natural language offers such richness in its evaluative repertoire that it seems wise, at least at this early point, not to close our options by prematurely stipulating a set of evaluative categories.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_39 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. Explain what an “ad hominem attack” is and why strong critical thinkers reject this tactic as a demonstration that a person’s argument is unacceptable.

 

Answer: The short response is that arguments are to be judged on their own merits, not on the merits of their producers. To amplify that, it is simply false to assume that because the person making the argument is deficient in some real or imagined way, the person’s argument, work product, or views should not be accepted on their own merits. Ad hominem is Latin for “against the person” and it expresses the error this fallacy makes, which is to claim that a person’s ideas must be tainted because the person has some vice or flaw. The opposite would be equally fallacious, which is to assume that because the person making the argument is virtuous the argument must be good, too. Strong critical thinking no more obliges us to reject every argument made by a convicted felon or an intentionally incendiary radio talk-show host than to accept every argument made by a beneficent Pope or a peace loving Dalai Lama.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_40 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

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