Theories of Personality 7th Edition by Barbara Engler – Test Bank

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Theories of Personality, 7e (Cloninger)

Chapter 5

 

Multiple Choice

 

1) Erik Erikson’s personal life influenced his theoretical concepts because

  1. A) he was unclear about his own identity.
  2. B) he experienced several cultures while growing up.
  3. C) he theorized about the social-cultural context of personality development.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: Erik Erikson’s personal life and theory

  1. 80

 

2) Considering Erikson’s view on biology,

  1. A) Erikson presumed that biology provided the motivation for personality through the psychosexual stages that Freud outlined.
  2. B) Erikson thought that biological sexual energy was all that was needed for personality development.
  3. C) Erikson agreed with statement A (above), but also felt psychosocial issues were important for understanding personality.
  4. D) Erikson claimed that biology does not need to be considered in psychological development.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: Erikson’s views on biology and personality

  1. 79 and 80

 

3) Erikson characterized his method of psychoanalysis as

  1. A) “disciplined subjectivity.”
  2. B) “objective evaluation.”
  3. C) “personal growth analysis.”
  4. D) “the search for identity.“

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: Erikson’s views on his method of psychoanalysis

  1. 80

 

 

 

4) Erikson’s theory is developmental. We can say this because

  1. A) the theory outlines distinct developmental stages.
  2. B) stages must be successfully negotiated before the next stage begins.
  3. C) a person either experiences growth or develops personality flaws that are stage-specific.
  4. D) A and C only

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic:  Rationale for developmental theory

  1. 77

 

5) According to Erikson’s theory, each stage of life involves

  1. A) a conflict.
  2. B) ego strength, if resolved successfully (in a healthy way).
  3. C) fidelity.
  4. D) A and B only

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages and ego strength

  1. 78 and 79

 

6) Erikson is the best known for extending Freud‘s concept of the

  1. A) id.
  2. B) ego.
  3. C) superego.
  4. D) Oedipus complex.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: Erikson’s perspective on the ego

  1. 81

 

7) In his epigenetic principle, Erikson compared development of personality with

  1. A) the motion of objects as described in physics.
  2. B) the biological development of a fetus.
  3. C) the spiritual development of a soul.
  4. D) an actor or actress learning a script.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: The Epigenetic Principle

  1. 82

 

 

 

8) According to Erikson’s analysis of Gandhi’s adjustment, what two stages were not resolved successfully?

  1. A) Intimacy and generativity
  2. B) Trust and integrity
  3. C) Autonomy and generativity
  4. D) Intimacy and autonomy

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know and Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Resolution of psychosocial stages (Application to Gandhi)

  1. 79 and 83

 

9) According to Erikson’s epigenetic principle,

  1. A) fathers, as well as mothers, are important in development.
  2. B) development proceeds according to a biologically based plan, with sequential development of parts.
  3. C) some people are more gifted, genetically, than others.
  4. D) males and females are different because of their biology.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: The Epigenetic Principle

  1. 82

 

10) According to Erikson, personality develops

  1. A) primarily before the age of five.
  2. B) primarily in adolescence.
  3. C) throughout the life span, in five stages.
  4. D) throughout the life span, in eight stages.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Lifespan)

  1. 83

 

11) Which of the following ego strengths develops first, according to Erikson?

  1. A) Love
  2. B) Purpose
  3. C) Hope
  4. D) Care

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: First ego strength (Hope)

  1. 83

 

 

 

12) In contrast to Freud’s emphasis on sexuality, Erikson emphasized the __________ aspects of

personality.

  1. A) work-oriented
  2. B) anal
  3. C) oral
  4. D) social

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial development

  1. 83

 

13) At each stage of development, according to Erikson, there is a __________.

  1. A) specific biological motivation
  2. B) crisis
  3. C) new significant other with whom to form a relationship
  4. D) risk of suicide

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Crisis)

  1. 83

 

14) Erik Erikson extended the range of psychoanalytic theory by

  1. A) focusing on the development of ego strengths from infancy through adolescence.
  2. B) focusing on development of ego strengths throughout the lifespan.
  3. C) focusing on ego strengths for adolescence through late adulthood.
  4. D) focusing on the development of superego strengths.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages and ego strengths (Lifespan)

  1. 83

 

15) The task of infancy, in Erikson’s terminology, is to develop a sense of

  1. A) autonomy.
  2. B) the body.
  3. C) trust.
  4. D) attachment to the mother.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages (Stage 1 – trust)

  1. 83 and 84

 

 

 

16) According to Erikson, the crisis of infancy is

  1. A) life or death.
  2. B) autonomy or shame.
  3. C) trust or mistrust.
  4. D) eat or throw up.

Answer: C

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 1 – trust)

  1. 83 and 84

 

17) The two-year-old toddler is developing a sense of

  1. A) trust.
  2. B) identity.
  3. C) initiative.
  4. D) autonomy.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 2 – autonomy)

  1. 85

 

18) According to Erikson’s theory, the sense of __________ is particularly likely to interfere with an

individual’s initiative.

  1. A) mistrust
  2. B) guilt
  3. C) shame
  4. D) despair

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 3 – guilt)

  1. 85

 

19) In Erikson’s third psychosocial stage, the child acts in a(n) __________ mode.

  1. A) intrusive
  2. B) incompetent
  3. C) incorporative
  4. D) selfish

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 3 – intrusive)

  1. 85

 

 

 

20) During the elementary school years, children develop a sense of

  1. A) self-confidence.
  2. B) gender identity.
  3. C) industry.
  4. D) identity.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 4 – industry)

  1. 85

 

21) According to Erikson’s theory, a sense of inferiority is particularly likely to develop during the

__________ stage of development.

  1. A) second
  2. B) third
  3. C) fourth
  4. D) fifth

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze it

Learning Objective 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 4 – inferiority)

  1. 85

 

22) Regarding culture, Erikson proposed that

  1. A) individual conflicts were dependent upon resolving the psychosocial stage only, and were not related to culture.
  2. B) conflicts a person felt often represented the conflicts of the society in which the person lived.
  3. C) the study of an individual tells us nothing about the society in which the person lived.
  4. D) archetypes accurately represented the collective unconsciousness

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages

  1. 79 and pp. 87–89

 

23) The identity crisis can be thought of as finding an answer to the question __________ that is mutually

agreeable to the individual and to other people.

  1. A) “Who am I?”
  2. B) “What is the meaning of life?”
  3. C) “When may I leave home?”
  4. D) “Is this the right thing to do?”

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 5 – identity)

  1. 85

 

24) According to Erikson’s theory, adolescents are especially vulnerable to developing a sense of

  1. A) identity confusion.
  2. B) inferiority.
  3. C) shame.
  4. D) despair.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 5 – identity confusion)

  1. 85

 

25) The crisis of __________ versus isolation occurs in early adulthood.

  1. A) generativity
  2. B) togetherness
  3. C) intimacy
  4. D) assertiveness

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understanding the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 6 – intimacy)

  1. 85

 

26) In the seventh psychosocial stage, the ego strength of __________ is developed.

  1. A) trust
  2. B) integrity
  3. C) identity
  4. D) generativity

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understanding the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 7 – generativity)

  1. 85

 

27) Generativity can be expressed through the role of

  1. A) parent.
  2. B) teacher.
  3. C) mentor.
  4. D) All the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 7 – generativity)

  1. 85

 

 

 

28) In old age, people typically

  1. A) are considering whether life was meaningful.
  2. B) are at the stage of developing generativity.
  3. C) have completed all psychological development, so no tasks remain in old age.
  4. D) are more neurotic than they were in youth.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 8 – integrity)

  1. 85

 

29) Erikson’s wife Joan described a ninth stage of development that she and her husband had discussed.

In the ninth stage, a very old person confronts the negative aspects of earlier stages they may be experiencing again in their old age. This stage is called

  1. A) stage regression.
  2. B) gerotranscendence.
  3. C) integrity complex.
  4. D) the final transition.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understanding the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial Stages (Stage 9 – gerotranscendence)

  1. 86

 

30) In his analysis of Mahatma Gandhi, Erik Erikson suggested that Gandhi had not successfully resolved

two of the major life conflicts. Which two conflicts were they?

  1. A) Trust and autonomy
  2. B) Integrity and autonomy
  3. C) Intimacy and trust
  4. D) Intimacy and generativity

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Resolving psychosocial stages (Gandhi)

  1. 79

 

31) According to Erikson, culture

  1. A) does not influence the psychosocial stages.
  2. B) influences personality development.
  3. C) generally threatens ego strengths once they have developed.
  4. D) leads to different sequences of stages in different cultures.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Cultural influence on psychosocial stages

  1. 87

 

32) Erikson described “fidelity” as a strength associated with which ego development stage?

  1. A) Initiative
  2. B) Identity
  3. C) Intimacy
  4. D) Trust

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Psychosocial stages (Stage 5 – fidelity)

  1. 88

 

33) Religion, according to Erikson, is most relevant to

  1. A) initiative.
  2. B) will.
  3. C) hope.
  4. D) fidelity.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 1 – religion and hope)

  1. 88

 

34) Erikson believed this cultural support makes the wisdom of past generations available to help with healing and growth.

  1. A) Religion
  2. B) Education
  3. C) Law
  4. D) Competition

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 1 – religion and hope)

  1. 87 and 88

 

35) Unresolved issues from the second psychosocial stage are most relevant to the cultural institution of

  1. A) law.
  2. B) technology.
  3. C) marriage.
  4. D) religion.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 2 – law and will)

  1. 88

 

 

 

36) What cultural support legitimizes and provides boundaries for the development of autonomy?

  1. A) Religion
  2. B) Law
  3. C) Education
  4. D) Technology

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 2 – law and will)

  1. 88

 

37) Culture’s “ideal prototypes” support the ego strength of

  1. A) autonomy.
  2. B) identity.
  3. C) fidelity.
  4. D) initiative.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 3 – ideal and purpose)

  1. 88

 

38) What can a society do to support people’s sense of initiative, according to Erikson’s theory?

  1. A) Reward their efforts
  2. B) Provide cultural models or prototypes
  3. C) Pay them well
  4. D) Nothing; based on childhood experience, you either have initiative or you don’t.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 3 – ideal and purpose)

  1. 88

 

39) Erikson’s theory implies that problems with technology are relevant to which stage of development?

  1. A) second
  2. B) fourth
  3. C) sixth
  4. D) seventh

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 4 – technology and competence)

  1. 88

 

 

 

40) Technological elements in culture support a person’s sense of

  1. A) identity.
  2. B) initiative.
  3. C) autonomy.
  4. D) competence.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 4 – technology and competence)

  1. 88

 

41) Ideological perspectives, such as those presented by political movements, are especially relevant to

the __________ psychosocial stage.

  1. A) fourth
  2. B) fifth
  3. C) sixth
  4. D) seventh

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 5 – ideology and fidelity)

  1. 88

 

42) Based on Erikson’s theory, we may interpret political activists as working on the ego strength of

  1. A) identity.
  2. B) autonomy.
  3. C) hope.
  4. D) integrity.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 5 – ideology and fidelity)

  1. 88

 

43) Which of the following is/are a way culture can provide the support of cooperation and competition?

  1. A) Marriage
  2. B) Homosexual relationships
  3. C) Nonsexual relationships
  4. D) All the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 6 – relationships and love)

  1. 88

 

 

 

44) The capacity to love develops in Erikson’s __________ stage.

  1. A) first
  2. B) third
  3. C) sixth
  4. D) seventh

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 6 – relationships and love)

  1. 88

 

45) The seventh psychosocial stage is expressed in the role of

  1. A) parent.
  2. B) teacher.
  3. C) mentor.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 7 – education, tradition, and care)

  1. 89

 

46) Resolving conflict over sexual orientation

  1. A) contributes importantly to a person’s identity.
  2. B) is healthier than remaining in a moratorium.
  3. C) is different from sexual identity.
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the concepts

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation

  1. 89 and 90

 

47) In old age, people develop the ego strength of

  1. A) fidelity.
  2. B) love.
  3. C) wisdom.
  4. D) industry.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understanding the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 8 – wisdom)

  1. 89

 

 

 

48) Erikson’s theory describes the attainment of __________ in old age.

  1. A) financial security
  2. B) love
  3. C) generativity
  4. D) wisdom

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 8 – wisdom)

  1. 89

 

49) Which of the following is not a social institution that supports ego strengths?

  1. A) Religion
  2. B) Humor
  3. C) Law
  4. D) Technological elements

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and ego strengths

  1. 87–89

 

50) Based on Erikson’s theory, we could help people to maintain their ego strengths through

  1. A) loving them.
  2. B) modeling.
  3. C) cultural supports.
  4. D) money.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Cultural supports and ego strengths

  1. 87–89

 

51) Jose thinks of himself as Chicano. This is an example of

  1. A) an ethnic identity.
  2. B) a cultural neurosis.
  3. C) individualism.
  4. D) pseudospeciation.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development

  1. 90 and 91

 

 

 

52) Individuals may adjust to a new culture by doing the following.

  1. A) Assimilate themselves into the mainstream culture
  2. B) Emphasize their ethnicity
  3. C) Become bicultural
  4. D) All the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity, adjustment, and identity development

  1. 91 and 92

 

53) Identity development, from Erikson’s perspective, includes which of the following?

  1. A) Racial identity
  2. B) Ethnic identity
  3. C) Sexual identity
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development

  1. 89

 

54) The stage which has been most frequently studied by researchers is the __________ stage.

  1. A) autonomy
  2. B) industry
  3. C) identity
  4. D) intimacy

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity)

  1. 93

 

55) Which term refers to the mature resolution of the identity crisis?

  1. A) Identity diffusion
  2. B) Identity foreclosure
  3. C) Identity achievement
  4. D) Identity confusion

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Status (Identity achievement)

  1. 93

 

 

 

56) Erikson’s theory has generated research suggesting that people can be classified into one of four identity statuses, depending on their commitment to ideology and occupation. The four identity statuses identified by Marcia (1966) include which of the following?

  1. A) Sexual identity, Sexual orientation, Racial identity, and Ethnic identity
  2. B) Identity diffusion, Moratorium, Identity achiever, and Foreclosure
  3. C) Identity adjustment, Cognitive identity, Cultural identity, and Biological Identity
  4. D) Epigenetic, Non epigenetic, Identity ideology, and Fidelity

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Statuses

  1. 93

 

57) A person who thinks conventionally, is moralistic, and has always known what he or she has wanted to become for a career fits the __________ category of Marcia’s identity scale.

  1. A) Identity Achiever
  2. B) Identity Diffusion
  3. C) Foreclosure
  4. D) Moratorium

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What Your Know

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Status (Foreclosure)

  1. 93

 

58) Identity foreclosure was thought by Erikson to be unhealthy. Later research found that

  1. A) Erikson’s claim that identity foreclosure was a dead end was supported across cultures.
  2. B) some people move out of foreclosure into moratorium, and as a result, become healthier.
  3. C) foreclosure was actually the healthiest of all identity statuses across cultures.
  4. D) None of the above are true.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research on Identity Status

  1. 93

 

59) Research finds that people are more likely to be concerned with helping other people, through work or

political activity or social activism, if they are high in

  1. A) trust.
  2. B) autonomy.
  3. C) generativity.
  4. D) integrity.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Generativity)

  1. 95 and 96

 

60) As Erikson predicted, research finds less fear of death among people who score high on a measure of

  1. A) trust.
  2. B) initiative.
  3. C) generativity.
  4. D) ego integrity.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Ego integrity)

  1. 96

 

True/False

 

1) Children do not benefit from psychoanalysis.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Effectiveness of Psychoanalysis for children

  1. 96

 

2) In contrast to Freud’s psychosexual theory, Erikson offered a psychosocial theory.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Freud vs. Erikson

  1. 83

 

3) In Erikson’s theory, each stage of development has a characteristic crisis.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages and crises

  1. 83

 

4) The two-year-old child is vulnerable to developing a sense of shame.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Stage 2)

  1. 83

 

 

 

5) Erikson supported the idea of identity exploration before settling on an identity in adolescence.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Stage 5)

  1. 83

 

6) A teenager who is exploring various identities is in a period of moratorium.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Stage 5 – Moratorium)

  1. 83

 

7) The virtue of fidelity develops during the fifth psychosocial stage.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Stage 5 – Fidelity)

  1. 83

 

8) Erikson suggested that psychological intimacy requires that individual identity first be established.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 83

 

9) Marriage guarantees that the intimacy versus isolation crisis will be resolved successfully.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 83

 

10) In the intimacy versus isolation stage, the person focuses entirely on the past.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 83

 

 

 

11) The elderly people are dealing with the task of integrity versus despair.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 83

 

12) In old age, if life seems meaningless, the person is experiencing “stagnation.”

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 83

 

13) Erikson’s theory ignores cultural factors.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Cultural influence on the psychosocial stages

  1. 87

 

14) According to Erikson, religion misleads people by giving them false hope.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Religion)

  1. 87 and 88

 

15) Erikson noted that society’s gender roles support the ego strength of initiative.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 3)

  1. 88

 

16) Technological elements in culture provide a way to support a sense of competence.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Cultural and psychosocial stages (Stage 4)

  1. 88

 

 

 

17) An overemphasis of work as a basis of identity can be harmful to development according to Erikson.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 4 into Stage 5)

  1. 88

 

18) In adolescence, a person develops a sense of fidelity to an ideology.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and  psychosocial stages (Stage 5)

  1. 88

 

19) Society influences adolescents but, according to Erikson, they do not influence society.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 5)

  1. 88

 

20) Cultural rituals threaten ego strengths.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 1)

  1. 88

 

21) Research shows that individualistic cultures show greater levels of generativity than do collectivist cultures.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 7)

  1. 89

 

22) Erikson suggested that people can express generativity in their careers as well as in their roles as

parents.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages (Stage 7)

  1. 89

 

 

 

23) Erikson’s theory has been criticized as reflecting the values of his culture.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.3

Topic: Culture and psychosocial stages

  1. 89

 

24) Different racial and ethnic groups face different cultural influences on identity formation.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development (Ethnic and Racial Identity)

  1. 90–92

 

25) Sexual orientation exploration can possibly affect broader identity exploration.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development (Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation)

  1. 90

 

26) Cross-cultural research confirms that having a foreclosed identity status is always negative.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity status)

  1. 93

 

27) There has been little empirical research on Erikson’s concept of identity.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity status)

  1. 93

 

28) “Identity confusion” and “identity diffusion” both refer to inadequate resolution of the identity crisis.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity status)

  1. 93

 

 

 

29) Erikson said that a moratorium period comes after identity achievement.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity status)

  1. 93

 

30) People who master the early psychosocial stages well are likely to develop more maturely in the

later stages than those who have had a more difficult time in early life.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Research on Other Psychosocial Stages)

  1. 94

 

 

Essay

 

1) Discuss Erikson’s analysis of Mahatma Gandhi. Talk about influential experiences in Gandhi’s

identity development and Gandhi’s experience moving through the psychosocial stages of development.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Identity and Psychosocial stages of development

  1. 79

 

2) Compare and contrast Erikson’s psychosocial model of development with Freud’s psychosexual

model.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial vs. psychosexual models

  1. 83–87

 

3) Explain Erikson’s “epigenetic principle.”

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: The Epigenetic Principle

  1. 82

 

4) List Erikson’s eight psychosexual stages. Describe the crisis of each stage. What ego strength is developed at each stage?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objectives: 5.2 and 5.3

Topic: Psychosocial stages, crises, and ego strengths

  1. 83–89

 

5) Describe Erikson’s proposed ninth stage of psychosocial development. How does this stage impact

very old adults?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Stage 9)

  1. 86

 

6) Describe a healthy resolution of the identity crisis. Name and explain two types of unhealthy

resolution.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2.2

Topic: Healthy and unhealthy resolution of identity crisis (Stage 5)

  1. 85

 

7) What is a psychosocial moratorium? Explain by describing how college can provide a moratorium.

Under what circumstances does college not provide a moratorium for an individual?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.2.2

Topic: Psychological moratorium – application to college (Stage 5)

  1. 85

 

8) Select one of Erikson’s first four stages of development. What crisis occurs at that stage? What ego

strength develops? How does culture support that ego strength?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objectives: 5.2 and 5.3

Topic: Psychosocial stages and crises, cultural influence, and ego-strengths

  1. 83–89

 

9) What ideas does Erikson contribute to the understanding of racial conflicts?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development (Racial conflicts)

  1. 89–92

 

10) Describe the process of identity formation for members of a cultural minority.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.4

Topic: Diversity and identity development (Cultural minority)

  1. 89–92

 

 

 

11) Describe how researchers measure identity status. Discuss one or two research findings.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.5.1

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity Status)

  1. 93 and 94

 

12) List and discuss the four identity statuses of identity development.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5.1

Topic: Research in psychosocial development (Identity Status)

  1. 93 and 94

 

13) It has been shown by research that how individuals resolve Erikson’s stages does correlate to certain outcomes. Discuss the research findings around this.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Research in psychosocial development

  1. 93–97

 

Name:________________________________

 

Chapter 5 – Quick Quiz

 

1) In contrast to Freud’s emphasis on sexuality, Erikson emphasized the __________ aspects of

personality.

  1. A) work-oriented
  2. B) anal
  3. C) oral
  4. D) social

 

2) Erikson’s basic principle for understanding development was the __________ principle.

  1. A) compensatory
  2. B) epigenetic
  3. C) self-actualization
  4. D) conflict

 

3) According to Erikson, personality develops

  1. A) primarily before the age of five.
  2. B) primarily in adolescence.
  3. C) throughout the life span, in five stages.
  4. D) throughout the life span, in eight stages.

 

4) According to Erikson, the crisis of infancy is

  1. A) life or death.
  2. B) autonomy or shame.
  3. C) trust or mistrust.
  4. D) eat or throw up.

 

5) According to Erikson’s theory, a sense of inferiority is particularly likely to develop during the

__________ stage of development.

  1. A) second
  2. B) third
  3. C) fourth
  4. D) fifth

 

6) The identity crisis can be thought of as finding an answer to the question __________ that is mutually

agreeable to the individual and to other people.

  1. A) “Who am I?”
  2. B) “What is the meaning of life?”
  3. C) “When may I leave home?”
  4. D) “Is this the right thing to do?”

 

7) In old age, people typically

  1. A) are considering whether life was meaningful.
  2. B) are at the stage of developing generativity.
  3. C) have completed all psychological development, so no tasks remain in old age.
  4. D) are more neurotic than they were in youth.

 

 

8) Which term refers to the mature resolution of the identity crisis?

  1. A) Identity diffusion
  2. B) Identity foreclosure
  3. C) Identity achievement
  4. D) Identity confusion

 

9) Teenagers who are rebellious, nonconforming, and philosophically concerned are typical of those in

the category of __________ on Marcia’s measure.

  1. A) identity achiever
  2. B) moratorium
  3. C) identity diffusion
  4. D) foreclosure

 

10) A person who thinks conventionally, is moralistic, and has always known what he or she has wanted to become for a career fits the __________ category of Marcia’s identity scale.

  1. A) identity achiever
  2. B) identity diffusion
  3. C) foreclosure
  4. D) moratorium

 

Answer Key

Chapter 5 – Quick Quiz

 

1) Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial development

  1. 83

 

2) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.1

Topic: The Epigenetic Principle

  1. 82

 

3) Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: Psychosocial stages of development (Lifespan)

  1. 83

 

4) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: The Psychosocial Stages (Stage 1 – Trust)

  1. 83 and 84

 

5) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective 5.2

Topic: The Psychosocial Stages (Stage 4 – Inferiority)

  1. 85

 

6) Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: The Psychosocial Stages (Stage 5 – Identity)

  1. 85

 

7) Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 5.2

Topic: The Psychosocial Stages (Stage 8 – Integrity)

  1. 85

8) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Status (Identity Achievement)

  1. 93

 

9) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Status (Moratorium)

  1. 93

 

10) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 5.5

Topic: Identity Status (Foreclosure)

  1. 93

 

 

 

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