Stuttering Foundations And Clinical Applications 2nd Edition By Ehud Yairi – Test Bank

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Chapter 5.  Why Do People Stutter?  Evaluating Theories and Models

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. When a theory explains only a few, but not all of the phenomena associated with stuttering, it lacks this criterion to be strong or credible:
  2. prediction
  3. testability
  4. simplicity
  5. exhaustiveness

 

  1. In contrast with a theory that offers an explanation, a model offers a:
    1. definition
    2. representation
    3. speculation
    4. validation

 

  1. When a theory uses the smallest number of variables to explain the greatest number of factual phenomena, it is described as:
  2. parsimonious
  3. flexible
  4. valid
  5. consistent

 

  1. The idea that a stuttering theory should be multifactorial means:
  2. that multiple contributing variables are included
  3. it explains the most facts
  4. it includes multiple subtypes of stuttering
  5. that many observations of stuttering served as evidence

 

  1. The problem with concluding that the cause of stuttering has been found by research revealing a particular characteristic in adults who stutter that was not present in non-stuttering controls is that:
  2. the characteristic could be typical of groups with other communication disorders not tested as controls
  3. the characteristic could emerge at a later age, but not be present in children at stuttering onset
  4. the characteristic and the stuttering might both have been caused by another variable
  5. all of the above

 

  1. When a theory explains all the facts revealed about a phenomenon, it is described as:
  2. parsimonious
  3. exhaustive
  4. exclusive
  5. elegant

 

  1. When the essence of a theory can be proved or disproved, it is described as:
  2. predictive
  3. flexible
  4. valid
  5. testable

 

  1. When a theory is elegant, it is particularly:
  2. succinct
  3. predictive
  4. flexible
  5. testable

 

  1. Which of the following has NOT been a challenge to testing theories of stuttering:
  2. variable and inconsistent occurrence of stutter events
  3. how difficult it is to observe its onset
  4. the amount of research of stuttering that has been conducted
  5. ethical problems of testing variables that may induce stuttering

 

  1. The high likelihood that multiple etiological factors contribute to stuttering has led to the proposal that:
  2. the stuttering disorder should be viewed as a “pathognomonic monolith”
  3. the stuttering disorder may consist of subtypes
  4. the stuttering disorder should be modeled with sequential rather than hierarchical components
  5. the stuttering disorder will most likely never be explained

 

  1. Which is not a good example of a precipitating factor for stuttering?
    1. a genetic defect
    2. a burst in vocabulary growth
    3. the transition of moving into a new house
    4. a new sibling being born into the family

 

  1. A factor that may perpetuate a stuttering disorder:
    1. genetics
    2. being teased by peers after stuttering moments
    3. periods of silence imposed every time a person stutters
    4. tapping while speaking

 

  1. The best example of a predisposing factor for stuttering:
    1. social reactions
    2. genetics
    3. low academic performance
    4. potty training

 

 

  1. Being male is best described as which type of factor for stuttering?
    1. protective factor
    2. precipitating factor
    3. perpetuating factor
    4. risk factor

 

  1. The best example of a protective factor from developing a stuttering disorder:
    1. a male gender
    2. a few years of virtually chronic stuttering post-onset
    3. a family history of persistence
    4. a family history of natural recovery

 

True – False Questions

 

  1. When two variables are correlated, a causal relationship can be inferred.
  2. Demosthenes was considered to be the “Father of Medicine.”
  3. The literature reveals a plethora of theoretical notions about the nature and cause of stuttering.
  4. A theory and a model can handle the explanation of a phenomenon slightly differently.
  5. Systems of classification usually take the form of taxonomies with a hierarchy of divisions and subdivisions.
  6. A “risk” factor is another term that means the same thing as “protective” factor.
  7. Scholars appreciate that the cause of stuttering can best be explained within a multifactorial framework.
  8. The idea that stuttering is caused by tickling is an example of a testable theory.
  9. Cluttering can be considered as a stuttering subtype.
  10. Research supports the idea that stuttering is not a unique disorder, but represents merely a greater quantity and intensity of events that are common to the same continuum with normal speech disfluency.

 

Essay questions

 

  1. What is a theory? What is a model?  What are their purposes and significance?  109-110
  2. What makes for a strong theory? P. 115-116
  3. What difficulties are encountered in testing theories of stuttering? 117-118
  4. Discuss reasons why there have been such a wide range of explanations of stuttering. 120-123
  5. Discuss the issue of stuttering subtypes.  Are there currently stuttering subtypes?    What are the advantages of having subtype classification?   P. 119-121

 

 

 

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