Statistics For Criminology And Criminal Justice 4th Edition Bachman – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

Chapter 7: Point Estimation and Confidence Intervals

Test Bank

  1. The estimates of the mean and proportion that are obtained from a sample are referred to as ____________________ of the same values in the population.
  2. sample statistics

*b. point estimates

  1. population parameters
  2. confidence levels

@ Answer Location: Introduction; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A confidence interval is:
  2. the lower and upper boundaries of the confidence interval.

*b. the margin of error around the point estimate that consists of a range of values into which the population value falls.

  1. single values used to estimate an unknown population parameter.
  2. range of values for a variable that has a stated probability of containing an unknown population mean.

@ Answer Location: Making Inferences from Point Estimates: Confidence Intervals; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: MC

 

  1. ______________________ are the lower and upper boundaries of the confidence interval.
  2. Point estimates
  3. Population estimates

*c. Confidence limits

  1. Confidence levels

@ Answer Location: Making Inferences from Point Estimates: Confidence Intervals: Knowledge; Question Type: MC

 

  1. As sample sizes _____________________, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution decreases indicating that the sample means cluster more tightly around the population mean.

*a. increases

  1. decreases
  2. stay the same
  3. change

@ Answer Location: Properties of Good Estimates; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: MC

 

  1. For a sample of 150 that has a mean of 6540 and a s =.89, calculate the 95% confidence interval.
  2. 5433.77 to 7624.36
  3. 5946.30 to 7133.70
  4. 6173.64 to 6906.37

*d. 6116.86 to 6963.14

@ Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. What would the 95% confidence limits for a sample that included 325 individuals with a mean of 8 and a standard deviation of 0.63.

*a. (6.765, 9.235)

  1. (6.931, 9.069)
  2. (6.267, 9.235)
  3. (6.267, 9.733)

@ Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. What is the 95% confidence limit for a sample of 45 that has a mean of 34.45 and a standard deviation of 4.32?

*a. 95% CI (33.135, 35.765)

  1. 95% CI (33.135, 35.752)
  2. 95% CI (33.148, 35.752)
  3. 95% CI (33.148, 35.765)

@ Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. For a sample of 20 individuals with a mean of $64,000 and a standard deviation of $14,327, what would the confident interval be for an α = .05.

*a. 57,294.63 to 70,705.37

  1. 60,796.29 to 70,705.37
  2. 57,294.63 to 70,682.94
  3. 60,796.29, 70,682.93

@Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A researcher found that 5% of the 200 individuals surveyed had been a victim of a crime in the prior month. What would the 95% confidence interval be?
  2. 0.05 to 0.10

*b. 0.02 to 0.08

  1. 0.05 to 0.08
  2. 0.03 to 0.06

@ Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Percents with a Large Sample; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A hypothetical study found that 747 out of 1168 male high school students had used drugs in the past week. What would the 95% confidence interval be if pˆ=.640, SE(pˆ)= .014.
  2. .604 and .668
  3. .612 and .676
  4. .604 and .676

*d. .612 and .668

@Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Percents with a Large Sample; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Point estimates are the estimate of the mean and proportion that we obtained from a sample.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Introduction; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Confidence intervals are the lower and upper boundaries on the confidence limits.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: Making Inferences from Point Estimates: Confidence Intervals; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. The 99% confidence interval will be wider than the 95% confidence interval.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Making Inferences from Point Estimates: Confidence Intervals; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. The lower limit for the 95% confidence limits for a sample of 200 that had a mean of 34,500 and a standard deviation of 9,887 is 33,110.84.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: TF

 

  1. When a researcher says they are 99% confident, they are saying that the population mean will not fall within the confidence interval 1% of the time.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. If the sample size is larger than 120, the t distribution is used instead of the z distribution.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. When calculating the confidence interval for a small sample the t distribution is utilized to obtain the critical value

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. A researcher will have more confidence that the sample mean estimates the unknown population mean when the sample size is larger.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: The Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample: Application; Question Type: TF

 

  1. The estimated standard deviation of a sampling distribution gets smaller when the sample size is decreased.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. When trying to obtain greater confidence the researcher loses precision.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Samples The Estimating Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Percents with a Large Sample; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Discuss the difference between the 95% and the 99% confidence intervals.

*Answers may vary

Typically, researchers choose an alpha level of .05 or .01, which correspond to 95 percent or 99 percent confidence intervals, respectively. If α =.05, we have a 95 percent confidence level. If α =.01, we have a 99 percent confidence level. A 95 percent confidence level means that over the long run, we are willing to be wrong only 5 percent of the time. A 99 percent confidence level means that over the long run, we are willing to be wrong only 1 percent of the time. Being wrong in this case means that the population mean will not fall within the boundaries established by the confidence interval. We will later see that the size of the confidence interval is a function of how confident we want to be and how large our sample is.

@Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: SA

 

  1. Calculate the 95% confidence limits for a sample of 50 that has a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 3.4.

*95% CI (4.028, 5.972)

@Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: SA

 

  1. What would the 95% confidence limits for a sample of 120 with a mean of 51 and a standard deviation of 12?

*95% CI (38.643, 53.357)

@Answer Location: Estimating a Population Mean from Large Samples; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: SA

 

  1. For a sample of 25 drug addicts who have committed a mean of 4 drug offense with a standard deviation of 1.9, what would the 95% confidence limits be?

* 3.216 and 4.784

@Answer Location: Estimating Confidence Intervals for a Mean with a Small Sample; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: SA

 

  1. Calculate the 95% and 99% confidence interval for the following data.

n= 1018

Sample Proportion= .39

* 95% confidence interval = .36 to .42

99% confidence interval = .35 to .43

@Answer Location: The Estimating Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Percents with a Large Sample; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: SA

Chapter 1: The Purpose of Statistics in the Criminological Sciences

Test Bank

  1. Which type of research seeks to identify cases and effects of social phenomena, to predict how dependent variable will change or vary in response to variation in the independent variable?
  2. Descriptive

*b. Explanatory

  1. Evaluation
  2. Case Study

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Explanatory Research; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A researcher is analyzing one’s fear of crime and how gender, race, class, and age all have an effect. Which would be the dependent variable?
  2. Gender
  3. Class
  4. Age

*d. Fear of Crime

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Explanatory Research; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be an example of evaluation research?
  2. Analyzing the effect the D.A.R.E. program has on students using drugs
  3. Analyzing a reading intervention program to understand if students’ literacy levels increased

*c. Analyzing the concentration of gun crimes in hot spots

  1. Analyzing the effect of job training and education programs on the likelihood of recidivism by ex-felons

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Evaluation Research; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A _________________ is a smaller group of data that is selected from a population.
  2. micro-group

*b. sample

  1. sub-sample
  2. sampling error

@ Answer Location: Populations and Samples; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: MC

 

  1. What is considered to be the fundamental aspect of probability sampling?
  2. Populations
  3. Samples
  4. Unbiased selection

*d. Random selection

@ Answer Location: How Do We Obtain a Sample; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: MC

 

  1. If you wanted to select a sample by generating random numbers to select cases from the population, which type of sampling would you use?

*a. Simple random sample

  1. Systematic random sample
  2. Multistage cluster sample
  3. Stratified sample

@ Answer Location: Probability Sampling Techniques: Simple Random Samples; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which type of sampling technique allows the researcher to select subjects based solely on convenience?
  2. Simple random sample
  3. Quota sample

*c. Availability sample

  1. Purposive sample

@ Answer Location: Nonprobability Sampling Techniques: Availability Samples; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which type of statistic involves collecting, organizing, and summarizing data?
  2. Inferential
  3. Experimental

*c. Descriptive

  1. Sample

@Answer Location: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. The larger the sampling error, the _________________ representative the sample is of the population.

*a. less

  1. more
  2. same
  3. better

@Answer Location: Validity in Criminological Research; Cognitive Domain: Application; Question Type: MC

 

  1. If a researcher was trying to analyze drug use among high school students and gave the survey at several different points in time to ensure the results were approximately the same, for what would the researcher check their measure?
  2. Sample quality
  3. Sample error
  4. Validity

*d. Reliability

@Answer Location: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Random surveys are the best way to gather information about the magnitude of violent victimization according to many social scientists?

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. When a research seeks to identify the cause and effect of a social phenomenon, they are participating in evaluation research.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Explanatory Research; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. The true experimental design is a very strong research method for determining the effects of programs or policies.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Evaluation Research; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Evaluation research tests theory whereas explanatory research is used to determine whether an implemented program or policy had the intended outcomes.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Evaluation Research; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Those who are included in the sample are also included in the population.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Population and Samples; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Sampling error can be defined as the difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Population and Samples; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Nonprobability sampling methods allow us to know in advance the likelihood that any element will be selected from the population.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: How Do We Obtain a Sample; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. If a researcher wanted to obtain a systematic random sample, they would extract clusters from a sample that is available and then sample the element of interest.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: Probability Sampling Techniques; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. A reliable measure is one that will produce consistent results as long as the phenomenon being measured is not changing.

*a. True

  1. False

@ Answer Location: Validity in Criminological Research: Reliability; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. Measurement validity is concerned with the assertion that an independent variable did cause the dependent variable to change.
  2. True

*b. False

@ Answer Location: Validity in Criminological Research: Causal Validity; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: TF

 

  1. What is descriptive, explanatory and evaluation research? Give two examples of each.

*Answers may vary

Descriptive research describes the social phenomena that the researcher is investigating. Student should then list two examples of descriptive research.

Explanatory research seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena, to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon. Student should then give two examples.

Evaluation research seeks to determine the effects of a social program, policy, or other type of intervention. Student should then give two examples.

@Answer Location: The Role of Statistical Method in Criminology and Criminal Justice; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: SA

 

  1. Name and discuss the different probability sampling techniques?

*a. Answers may vary

Simple Random samples, systematic random samples, multistage cluster samples, and weighted or stratified samples.

Simple random samples require a procedure that generates numbers or identifies cases of the population for selection strictly on the basis of chance. Every element in the population has a known, equal, and independent chance of being selected.

In Systematic random samples the first element is randomly selected but after that the rest of the sample is selected systematically. The first one is randomly selected and then say every 10th or 15th is then selected. This allows for the elimination of deriving a new random number for every case being selected.

Multistage cluster samples work toward the sample through successive approximations. First a sample from a list of groups or clusters is taken and then the researcher draws a random sample of elements from within each selected cluster.

Weighted or stratified samples select elements based not on an equal chance of being selected but the elements would have a known but unequal chance of being selected.

@Answer Location: Probability Sampling Techniques; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Question Type: SA

 

  1. What are the different types of nonprobability sampling?

*Purposive and judgment

*Quota sampling

*Availability samples

@Answer Location: Nonprobability Sampling Techniques; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Question Type: SA

 

  1. What are the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics?

*Answers may vary

Descriptive statistics are used to describe characteristics of some phenomenon from either a sample or a population. Inferential statistics estimate how likely it is that statistical results based on a random sample are representative to the entire population. Descriptive statistics describe some characteristic, attribute, or phenomenon while inferential statistics allows one to make inferences to an entire population. Inferential statistics allow for the calculation of the sampling error.

@Answer Location: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: SA

 

  1. What is reliability and validity? Why are they important to statistics?

*Answers may vary

The answer should discuss what validity is, the two types of validity (measurement and causal) and what reliability is). The answer should also discuss why it is important to ensure the researcher is actually measuring what they want to measure, that a good measure should produce the same results over time, and that the independent variable does cause the dependent variable to change.

@Answer Location: Validity in Criminological Research; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Question Type: SA

 

 

 

 

 

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