Stand Up Speak Out The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking v2.0 by Jason S. Wrench – Test Bank

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Chapter 5 – Audience Analysis

 

Section #1

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Public speaking is an activity that is:

 

  1. academically-centered.
  2. audience-centered.
  3. delivery-centered.
  4. information-centered.
  5. research-centered.

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Audience analysis gathers information about the audience in order to:

 

  1. decide how to get them to agree with you.
  2. figure out how to impress them with your perspectives.
  3. find a topic that will be entirely new to them.
  4. learn something deeply personal about them.
  5. understand their needs, values, and expectations.

(key: e)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Students should choose a topic that:

 

  1. is already very familiar to the audience.
  2. is interesting both to them and the audience.
  3. they already know a great deal about.
  4. will be simple enough for any audience.
  5. will surprise and titillate the audience.

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Controversial topics:

 

  1. are inappropriate topics because there is no universal agreement.
  2. are inappropriate topics because they are too boring.
  3. are too dangerous and difficult for student speeches.
  4. often confront people’s fundamental beliefs and values.
  5. should be left to the experts.

(key: d)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Demographic information refers to:

 

  1. characteristics such as income, social influence, and prestige.
  2. the degree to which the audience will agree with the views expressed by a speaker.
  3. measures such as gender, age range, marital status, race, and ethnicity.
  4. religious, educational, and political affiliations.
  5. whether or not the audience members are citizens in good standing.

(key: c)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Diversity refers to:

 

  1. beliefs and superstitions that conflict with modern scientific standards.
  2. factors of difference, including race, sexual orientation, religion, and wealth.
  3. groups that are unable to conform to American patterns of behavior.
  4. groups that do not conform to the American model of society.
  5. respect for people who are disadvantaged through no fault of their own.

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. The term “frame of reference” refers to a:

 

  1. person’s individual outlook as influenced by his or her unique life experience.
  2. speaker’s research strategies, including specific reference materials.
  3. standard way of understanding things in an academic or professional field.
  4. strategy for identifying the right audience for a particular speech.
  5. written code to which you can refer in order to decide your topic and approach.

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Respecting your audience means:

 

  1. avoiding comments that offend, exclude, or trivialize them or their values.
  2. being aware that they want to express their beliefs as much as you do.
  3. knowing that they are teachable, and challenging them to learn.
  4. making a statement that specifically expresses your respect.
  5. trusting them to understand and agree with your message.

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Psychographic information refers to:

 

  1. a person’s degree of willingness to consider alternative points of view.
  2. beliefs, attitudes, values, and opinions that might be difficult to predict.
  3. descriptive information about social realities that impact mental health.
  4. perceptions about what topics are considered “fit for discussion.”
  5. statistics concerning patterns of community mental health.

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. The perception that a speaker is honest and trustworthy is:

 

  1. adaptation.
  2. convergence.
  3. credibility.
  4. persuasion.
  5. sensitivity.

(key: c)

(difficulty: M)

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Public speaking is an idea-centered activity.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. You should adapt your speech to audience needs.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Stereotyping is the tendency to assume that the members of groups are all the same.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Credibility is not important as long as the facts in the speech are accurate.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Controversial topics are to be avoided at all costs.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. A good audience analysis will contain ____________ information.

 

(key: demographic)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. _______________ is the tendency to assume that all members of a given culture or social group are alike.

 

(key: Stereotyping)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. A person’s _____________________ is influenced by her or his unique life experiences.

 

(key: frame of reference)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. The perception that a speaker is honest, knowledgeable, and trustworthy is _______________.

 

(key: credibility)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. People’s beliefs, attitudes, and values are elements of ________________ information.

 

(key: psychographic)

(difficulty: E)

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What do we mean when we say that speakers jointly create meaning with audiences?

 

The act of public speaking is a shared activity that involves interaction between speaker and audience. In order for your speech to get a fair hearing, you need to create a relationship with your listeners.

 

  1. What kinds of information do we seek when gathering demographic information?

 

Demographic information includes factors such as gender, age range, marital status, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

 

  1. Why should we conduct an audience analysis?

 

While audience analysis does not guarantee against errors in judgment, it will help you make good choices in topic, language, style of presentation, and other aspects of your speech. The more you know about your audience, the better you can serve their interests and needs.

 

  1. Why is audience diversity a consideration in topic selection?

 

Diversity should be considered when choosing a topic because if you don’t strive to avoid racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, ageism, elitism, and other assumptions in the topic that you choose to speak about, you will alienate your audience and they will stop listening to your message.

 

  1. What is a controversial topic?

 

This is a topic that is surrounded by diverse and deeply felt feelings and opinions.

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. What is credibility, and how is it created?

 

Credibility is the perception that the speaker is honest, knowledgeable, and rightly motivated.

Your ethos, or credibility, must be established as you build rapport with your listeners. You can establish credibility by showing that you put effort into learning about your audience and choosing a topic that both you and the audience are interested in. Working to ensure that your speech is honest and that you are sensitive to the preexisting beliefs of your audience members will also help to build your credibility with the audience.

 

  1. How do we show respect for the audience?

 

In order to convey regard and respect for the audience, you must be sincere. You must consider the motives behind your topic choice, the true purpose of your speech, and your willingness to do the work of making sure the content of the speech is accurate and honest. You should also conduct an audience analysis to ensure that you are being polite and respectful to all members of your audience and to avoid being offensive toward them.

 

  1. To what does the term “diversity” refer, and why is it important?

 

“Diversity” refers to the differences among the members of your audience. Diversity goes well beyond the different races, ethnicities, and genders of the members of the audience that you will be speaking to. Being mindful of diversity means being respectful of all people and striving to avoid racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, ageism, elitism, and other assumptions. Diversity is a key dimension of audience membership and, therefore, of audience analysis. This is important because if you cannot connect with your audience or if you offend them, then it is unlikely that your audience will be receptive to your message.

 

Chapter 5 Test Items

Section #2

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Demographic analysis is concerned with:

 

  1. culture, education, gender, age, occupation, and the like.
  2. generational groups, such as boomers, Xers, and so on.
  3. the pattern of political opinions in a particular region.
  4. patterns of relocation of families from one region to another.
  5. perceived occupational and pay equity between the sexes.

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Gender is an important consideration because:

 

  1. gender is a topic that appeals to men more than to women.
  2. married and unmarried women have very different outlooks.
  3. men will understand facts and women will understand concepts.
  4. women have a different cultural experience from that of men.
  5. women should be the speakers to audiences that are mainly women.

(key: d)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. The age range in an audience is also an important consideration because:

 

  1. as a speaker, you must decide who to address and who to ignore.
  2. audience members prefer to listen to speakers of their own age group.
  3. elderly people with hearing loss might not get much out of the speech.
  4. people of different ages have experienced different world events.
  5. you must paraphrase your remarks to accommodate each age grouping.

(key: d)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Cultural differences within an audience mean that:

 

  1. some audience members will be unable to understand concepts.
  2. some audience members will not listen to a female speaker.
  3. the speaker should emphasize the views of the dominant culture.
  4. speakers should share the same cultural origins as the audience.
  5. there is no general sharing of values, assumptions and beliefs.

(key: e)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Religion is included in demographic analysis because:

 

  1. if there is a wide range of religious believers, religious topics must be avoided.
  2. listeners might have widely varied religious values, beliefs, and attitudes.
  3. the speaker must focus his or her remarks toward Christians in the audience.
  4. the speaker must focus his or her remarks toward non-Christians in the audience.
  5. you should not try to present a scientific topic to devout religious followers.

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. The purpose of psychographic analysis is to:

 

  1. decide how simple you must make your presentation aids.
  2. judge the level of language they will be able to understand.
  3. know how formal your presentation is expected to be.
  4. predict the probability of heckling and psychotic behavior.
  5. understand audience beliefs, attitudes, values, and opinions.

(key: e)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. When you speak to an audience that is cognitively complex, you must:

 

  1. acknowledge the complexity of the topic but state you will focus on one dimension.
  2. apologize for dragging them through all the definitions and extended explanations.
  3. find a new, unique way to express the concepts and facts while still being accurate.
  4. give listeners an opportunity to leave if they already know a lot about your topic.
  5. make sure that your topic is sufficiently complex that listeners won’t get bored.

(key: a)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. When you prepare an audience analysis, you should try to:

 

  1. find out whether they would be willing to pay to hear your speech.
  2. ignore responses that don’t make sense or are irrelevant to your topic.
  3. learn what the audience already knows or believes about your topic.
  4. make sure all survey questions are neutral and non-threatening.
  5. quote something from the responses at least once during your speech.

(key: c)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Situational analysis is concerned with such things as:

 

  1. current social realities like immigration and the economy.
  2. voluntariness of the audience, occasion, and audience size.
  3. whether or not your speech will treat audience members fairly.
  4. your motivations behind your choice of your topic.
  5. your speech’s position on a list of many presentations.

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. If you are called upon to deliver bad news in a speech, you should:

 

  1. be honest and give accurate, concrete information.
  2. downplay the seriousness and consequences of the bad news event.
  3. emphasize the seriousness of the news and instruct listeners to stay calm.
  4. promise that you will answer their questions after the speech.
  5. tell everyone to remain calm and remain calm yourself.

(key: a)

(difficulty: D)

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Demographic information usually reveals deeply personal information about audience members.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Psychographic information addresses how intellectually talented audience members are.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Demographic information helps a speaker better serve the needs and interests of the audience.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. The “melting pot” metaphor misrepresents the American culture.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. You should prepare to entertain the captive audience.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. Differences in cultural experiences and ________ can be attributed to gender difference.

 

(key: perspectives)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. A ______________ expresses one’s judgment of what is desirable and undesirable, right and wrong, or good and evil.

 

(key: value)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Audience size is a consideration in _____________ analysis.

 

(key: situational)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. A ____________ audience is an audience required to be present at a speech.

 

(key: captive)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Information about an audience’s attitudes and opinions is called ________________ analysis.

 

(key: psychographic)

(difficulty: E)

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Why is culture an important element of audience analysis?

 

Differences among different cultures and even within cultures are what make each group interesting and are important sources of knowledge, perspectives, and creativity when analyzing one’s audience.

 

 

  1. Why does a listener’s education matter to a speaker?

 

If you know the education levels attained by members of your audience, you might not know their motivations, but you will know to what extent they could somehow afford the money for an education, afford the time to get an education, and survive educational demands successfully. Knowing the particular field of education of your audience is also important.

 

  1. What kind of information are you seeking in a psychographic analysis?

 

In a psychographic analysis you are seeking such things as the values, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs of your audience members.

 

  1. Why should you consider preexisting notions about your topic? Use an example.

 

Psychographic analysis can reveal preexisting notions that limit your audience’s frame of reference. By knowing about such notions ahead of time, you can address them in your speech. Audiences are likely to have two basic kinds of preexisting notions: those about the topic and those about the speaker. It’s important to know your audience in order to make a rational judgment about how their views of your topic might be shaped.

 

  1. What does the physical setting of a speech have to do with your preparation?

 

The physical setting can make or break even the best speeches, so it is important to exercise as much control as you can over it. Wherever you are giving your presentation, it is a good idea to visit the venue ahead of time if at all possible and make note of any factors that will affect how you present your speech.

 

Essay Question

 

  1. Explain what psychographic analysis is and why it’s important to a speaker.

 

Psychographic information includes such things as values, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs. While demographic information is fairly straightforward and verifiable, psychographic information is much less clear-cut. Two different people who both say they believe in the something may have very different interpretations of what that “something” means. People inherit some of their values from their family upbringing, cultural influences, and life experiences. Audiences are likely to have two basic kinds of preexisting notions: those about the topic and those about the speaker. Psychographic analysis can reveal these preexisting notions that limit your audience’s frame of reference. By knowing about such notions ahead of time, you can address them in your speech.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5 Test Items

Section #3

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. What is a one-on-one exchange in which you ask questions of a respondent?

 

  1. direct observation
  2. existing data
  3. focus group
  4. interview
  5. survey

(key: d)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Tika is preparing for a speech. As part of her audience analysis, she asks her potential audience members to go online and answer a series of written questions with multiple-choice answers. What have Tika’s potential audience members completed?

 

  1. direct observation
  2. existing data
  3. a focus group
  4. an interview
  5. a survey

(key: e)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Daniel has been asked to complete a survey. What role in the survey process has Daniel taken on?

 

  1. subject
  2. audience member
  3. respondent
  4. source
  5. feedback provider

(key: c)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Penelope is sitting in a small circle with six other people who are responding to questions asked by a researcher. What is Penelope participating in?

 

  1. direct observation
  2. existing data
  3. a focus group
  4. an interview
  5. a survey

(key: c)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Jose wants to determine if students in his class take effective notes as an attempt to determine if note taking would be a good speech topic. What form of audience analysis is Jose conducting?

 

  1. direct observation
  2. existing data
  3. a focus group
  4. an interview
  5. a survey

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a strategy for using interviews and surveys?

 

  1. make sure the questions directly relate to your speech topic.
  2. create and use a standard set of questions.
  3. avoid telling respondents the real purpose of your interview or survey.
  4. keep interviews and surveys short.
  5. don’t rely on just a few respondents.

(key: c)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. If you use information from the US Census Bureau to learn more about your possible audience members, what type of audience analysis technique have you utilized?

 

  1. direct observation
  2. existing data
  3. a focus group
  4. an interview
  5. a survey

(key: b)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of conducting surveys discussed in the text?

 

  1. you can conduct surveys online.
  2. you can conduct surveys over the telephone.
  3. you must manually tabulate your results.
  4. it increases respondents’ willingness to answer personal questions.
  5. it increases respondents’ willingness to answer/participate.

(key: c)

(difficulty: D)

 

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Careful interpretation is not necessary as long as you are observing nonverbal patterns of behavior.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. It’s ok to “ad lib” when conducting an interview.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. People are sometimes less than honest in describing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Focus group researchers should never start with a prepared list of questions.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Using preexisting data about an audience is not appropriate for an audience analysis.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. _________ __________ __________ occurs when people are less than honest in describing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

 

(key: Socially desirable responding)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. __________ __________ occurs when someone intentionally portrays herself or himself in a favorable light.

 

(key: Impression management)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. __________-__________ __________ occurs when someone exaggerates her or his good qualities, often unconsciously.

 

(key: self-deceptive enhancement)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. Using material from someone else’s research about your audience is referred to as using _________ ________.

 

(key: existing data)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. A ___________ is someone who responds to a survey, questionnaire, interview, or focus group.

 

(key: respondent)

(difficulty: E)

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Explain how direct observation can help a researcher learn about her or his potential audience.

 

By observing nonverbal patterns of behavior, you can learn a great deal as long as you are careful how you interpret the behaviors. You can also listen to conversations going on around you in order to find out the issues that concern people.

 

  1. Explain how surveys can help a researcher learn about her or his potential audience.

 

Surveys are an efficient way to collect a lot of data on your audience fairly quickly. Using an online survey provides the advantage of keeping responses anonymous, which may increase your audience members’ willingness to participate and to answer personal questions honestly.

 

  1. Explain how interviews can help a researcher learn about her or his potential audience.

 

Interviews may be conducted face-to-face, by phone, or by written means, such as texting. They allow more in-depth discussion than surveys, and they are also more time consuming to conduct.

 

  1. Explain how focus groups can help a researcher learn about her or his potential audience.

 

A focus group is a small group of people who give you feedback about their perceptions. You can conduct a focus group to better understand your audience’s beliefs, attitudes, and values specifically related to your topic.

 

  1. Explain how existing data can help a researcher learn about her or his potential audience.

 

You can use existing data to help you find facts about your audience as you complete an audience analysis. This kind of information should help you respond to the concerns and interests of your audience in your message to them.

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Which of the five ways for conducting audience analyses discussed in this chapter do you think is the most useful? Why?

 

Answers will vary.

 

  1. You’ve been asked to work on the senatorial campaign for a politician. One of your tasks is conducting an audience analysis for an upcoming speech on jobs. What method of audience analysis would you think is the most useful given this speaking context?

 

Answers will vary.

 

Chapter 5 Test Items

Section #4

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a factor of a good audience analysis?

 

  1. preparation
  2. processing
  3. systemization
  4. thought
  5. time

(key: c)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true about preparing content with your audience in mind?

 

  1. you need to carefully think through your approach to the content.
  2. you can find a topic that is interesting to you as an individual and your audience.
  3. you can ensure that your topic is clear for your intended audience.
  4. you can avoid using poorly chosen words.
  5. you can ensure that your speech will be persuasive.

(key: e)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. During her speech, Donna told her audience that “using these strategies will help you ‘ace’ your next test.” “Ace” is an example of what?

 

  1. a colloquialism
  2. an idiom
  3. malapropism
  4. a simile
  5. a metaphor

(key: b)

(difficulty: D)

 

  1. What is a word or phrase where the meaning cannot be predicted from normal dictionary definitions?

 

  1. a colloquialism
  2. an idiom
  3. malapropism
  4. a simile
  5. a metaphor

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. A successful audience analysis can help you adjust your speech “on the fly.”

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. “By the books” is an example of an idiom.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Knowing your audience can help you deliver content that will be more meaningful and persuasive for a given audience.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

  1. Once you’ve started a speech, you really shouldn’t adjust your content based on audience feedback.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: b)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. Adjusting your content and adjusting your physical setting are two ways to adjust your speech based on an audience analysis.

 

  1. True
  2. False

(key: a)

(difficulty: M)

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. A(n) __________ is a word or phrase where the meaning cannot be predicted from normal, dictionary definitions.

 

(key: idiom)

(difficulty: E)

 

  1. A(n) __________ speaker truly takes into consideration his or her audience’s needs, desires, and wishes.

 

 

(key: ethical)

(difficulty: E)

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Explain how an audience analysis can help a speaker prepare her or his content with her or his audience in mind.

 

A good audience analysis can help you focus your content for your specific audience. Your audience analysis should help you identify the interests of your audience and ensure that your speech will be as clear and understandable as possible. You may need to adjust your approach to or even change your topic based on the audience that you will be speaking to.

 

  1. Explain how an audience analysis can help a speaker adjust his or her actual speech as it’s being given.

 

The feedback you receive from your audience during your speech is a valuable indication of ways to adjust your presentation. If your audience seems tired or bored, you can make adjustments to liven up the tone of your speech. You can add humor or ask questions based on the information that you have gathered about your audience.

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Provide a specific example of how an audience analysis could help a speaker make adjustments to a speech as they are giving it?

 

Answers will vary.

 

  1. How do different physical surroundings impact a speech and how can solid audience analysis help a speaker make appropriate adjustments to her or his physical surroundings?

 

Answers will vary.

 

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