Sociology The Core 8th Edition by Michael Hughes – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download

 

Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

c5

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. What we think of as deviant can be an ordinary part of everyday life.

True    False

 

2. In modern times, student cheating on college campuses has become a relatively uncommon pattern of behavior.

True    False

 

3. Deviance is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions.

True    False

 

4. Even though norms are frequently violated, they are still viewed sociologically as important mechanisms of social control and social organization.

True    False

 

5. Without norms for governing behavior, family would be the only institution capable of maintaining organized interaction.

True    False

 

6. Deviance is anything people think is deviant.

True    False

 

7. The example of the Etoro of New Guinea serves to show how deviance is not absolute, but rather relative to people and their culture.

True    False

 

8. Like in the United States, the people of the Etoro in New Guinea believe that oral sex with boys should lead to the loss of reputation and to a long prison term.

True    False

 

9. Since there are many systems of morality in existence across societies and over time, we cannot understand deviant behavior without understanding the normative context in which it may occur.

True    False

 

10. Some people believe that America has been “defining deviancy down” in an effort to explain away and make “normal” what was viewed as “deviant” not too many years ago.

True    False

 

11. Child abuse is one example of deviant behavior that has been “defined down.”

True    False

 

12. Norms seldom allow for variant behavior.

True    False

 

13. Deviance can be viewed as having positive, or “integrative,” consequences for social life.

True    False

 

14. Deviance is viewed as dysfunctional for society in that it undermines our willingness to play our roles and contribute to the larger social setting.

True    False

 

15. Because norms are not always clear, each time a member of the social group is censured for deviant behavior, the deviance tends to help highlight and sharpen the meaning of the norm.

True    False

 

16. By occasionally engaging in deviant behavior, we acquire a stronger self-identity and a sense of independent well-being.

True    False

 

17. Nonconformist patterns occur because they are not known to us in the context of our own society.

True    False

 

18. Informal sanctions are reactions to deviance that tend to occur in small communities, among groups of friends, and in the family.

True    False

 

19. Ostracism among friends is a common form of formal sanctions.

True    False

 

20. When they study deviance, sociologists tend to focus on what is “wrong” with people who deviate.

True    False

 

21. Sociologically speaking, deviance is a property inherent in one’s behavior.

True    False

 

22. Anomie is a social condition in which people have difficulty identifying the social norms guiding their behavior because the norms may be weak, unclear, or conflicting.

True    False

 

23. Structural strain theory suggests that conflicts between socially accepted goals and socially accepted ways of achieving them may produce deviant behavior.

True    False

 

24. Merton argued that when a society extols common symbols of success for all while restricting the access to approved means for acquiring such goals, then deviant behavior is generated.

True    False

 

25. Edwin H. Sutherland’s differential association theory builds on the interactionist perspective.

True    False

 

26. Richard Quinney said the U.S. legal system reflects the interests of American society as a whole.

True    False

 

27. Labeling theorists note that a minority of the members of society engage in deviant behavior by violating some norms.

True    False

 

28. Secondary deviance is behavior that violates social norms but usually goes unnoticed by the agents of social control.

True    False

 

29. Control theory’s claims people conform as an outgrowth of ideas from the conflict perspective.

True    False

 

30. Crime is an act of deviance that is prohibited by law.

True    False

 

31. Index crimes are increasing in the United States.

True    False

 

32. A large number of white-collar criminals are prosecuted and convicted, and they usually receive sentences comparable to those of other criminals.

True    False

 

33. Identity theft may be the most dramatic and widespread of the new high-tech crimes.

True    False

 

34. Women accounted for 24 percent of all arrests in 2004.

True    False

 

35. An increasing number of U.S. citizens support legalizing marijuana.

True    False

 

36. According to the text’s discussion of cheating among college students,

A. cheating is uncommon.

 

B. some studies suggest that the percentage of students who cheat in college is at least 90 percent and may be as high as 99 percent.

 

C. the motive for cheating usually has little to do with career enhancement.

 

D. None of the choices are correct.

 

37. An important concept in the analysis of deviance is that

A. whether something is deviant depends on who is evaluating it.

 

B. determining whether an act is deviant is an objective, absolute process.

 

C. when important norms are violated, social control is lost.

 

D. deviance can only be considered as a specific act and it never can be viewed in a relative manner.

 

38. Without norms for governing behavior,

A. life would go on without much change.

 

B. interaction in such groups as families would be impossible.

 

C. we would still intuit what is permissible behavior.

 

D. we would still be able to anticipate what people might do in different social settings.

 

39. In modern societies, the ___________ is the mechanism by which a good many norms – laws – are enforced.

A. neighborhood

 

B. town hall

 

C. state

 

D. informal group

 

40. Sociologically speaking, ____________ is behavior that a considerable number of people in a society view as reprehensible and beyond the limits of tolerance.

A. crime

 

B. mental illness

 

C. social control

 

D. deviance

 

41. Deviance is

A. a property inherent in certain forms of behavior.

 

B. a property conferred upon particular behaviors in an absolute manner.

 

C. what people say it is.

 

D. a behavior that often exists independently of norms.

 

42. Deviance depends to some extent on

A. who does the defining.

 

B. who has the power to make the definitions stick.

 

C. the time and place in which the deviance occurs.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

43. Among the Etoro of New Guinea,

A. homosexual acts between adult males and young boys are mildly rejected as a lower-level pattern of deviance.

 

B. homosexual acts between adult males and young boys are strongly rejected just as they are in the United States.

 

C. oral sex with boys is considered a normal and essential part of everyday life.

 

D. homosexuality does not exist.

 

44. The example of the Etoro of New Guinea shows that

A. morality has no basic importance to human experience.

 

B. deviance is relative and a matter of social definition.

 

C. “anything goes” in matters of human sexuality.

 

D. moralities across different societies tend to be very similar in content.

 

45. Deviance is often

A. defined by those who have the power to make the social definitions stick.

 

B. nonrelative to time and place.

 

C. seen as decadent, depraved, and evil, but not as an illness.

 

D. nonrelative to time and place and seen as decadent, depraved, and evil, but not as an illness are correct.

 

46. According to Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Americans are “defining deviancy down” in order to

A. make “normal” what used to be labeled as “deviant.”

 

B. make tolerable what used to be viewed as intolerable behavior.

 

C. redefine behavior that was previously viewed as illness into behavior identified as sinful and evil.

 

D. make “normal” what used to be labeled as “deviant.” and make tolerable what used to be viewed as intolerable behavior are correct.

 

47. In the real world, norms allow some latitude for behavior that is not strictly conformist. This is called

A. classic anomie.

 

B. a zone of permissible variation.

 

C. nonsense, sociologically speaking.

 

D. social disorganization.

 

48. Smoking, child abuse, and family violence are all examples of behavior that have been

A. defined downward.

 

B. viewed always as depraved.

 

C. redefined upward.

 

D. receiving less media attention than they did in the 1970s.

 

49. The dysfunctions of deviance

A. help society through the reinforcement of social organization.

 

B. include the undermining of our willingness to play our roles and contribute to the larger social scene.

 

C. result in a stronger family life.

 

D. help us to better trust our social institutions.

 

50. Deviance facilitates

A. conformity.

 

B. a clearer understanding of social norms.

 

C. stronger group ties.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

51. The methods and strategies that regulate behavior constitute

A. social structure.

 

B. social control.

 

C. deviance.

 

D. norms.

 

52. When individuals incorporate within their personalities the standards of behavior prevalent within the larger society, the process is called

A. internalization.

 

B. socialization.

 

C. conformity.

 

D. normative intervention.

 

53. Internalization, the structuring of our world experiences, and formal/informal sanctions are types of

A. dysfunctions of deviance.

 

B. functions of deviance.

 

C. social control processes.

 

D. anomie in operation.

 

54. Internalization occurs when

A. norms are “intuited” from the behavior of others.

 

B. the individual questions the legitimacy of the norms.

 

C. normative expectations are sharpened.

 

D. we understand and believe in the norms.

 

55. Many nonconformist patterns do not occur to us because

A. we are culture bound.

 

B. Americans are quite relativistic in their views of other ways of doing things.

 

C. what we see in other cultures we tend not to like.

 

D. conformity is so ingrained in our attitudes.

 

56. When biologists and psychologists look at deviants, they typically ask

A. what is wrong with them or at least different about them.

 

B. why some acts are defined as deviant in one setting and not in another.

 

C. why some people are severely punished while others are not punished for the same behavior.

 

D. why the incidence of deviance varies from group to group.

 

57. Fines, expulsion from school, and imprisonment are examples of

A. informal sanctions.

 

B. formal sanctions.

 

C. deviance reinforcement.

 

D. punishments that have little to do with the normative system itself.

 

58. Examples of informal sanctions are

A. fines and imprisonment.

 

B. community service as a court-mandated punishment.

 

C. ridicule and ostracism from a group of former friends.

 

D. probation as the result of a plea bargain.

 

59. ________ is not a sociological approach to understanding deviance.

A. Cultural transmission theory

 

B. Anomie theory

 

C. Hereditary predisposition perspective

 

D. Labeling perspective

 

60. According to Durkheim, a social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting is called

A. stress.

 

B. anomie.

 

C. deviance.

 

D. schizophrenia.

 

61. When access to socially approved means of success (material wealth) is blocked or frustrated, Merton would argue this is a condition of

A. high anxiety.

 

B. justified frustration.

 

C. structural strain.

 

D. frustration-aggression.

 

62. Merton described five responses to anomie. An embezzler stealing money from his company to fund his high mortgage payments is an example of a(n)

A. conformist.

 

B. innovator.

 

C. rebel.

 

D. retreatist.

 

63. From Merton’s perspective, those who abandon or scale down the goals of success, but compulsively abide by the rules as some bureaucrats do, are

A. innovators.

 

B. rebels.

 

C. retreatists.

 

D. ritualists.

 

64. According to Merton, anomie represents society’s struggle between its

A. conformists and deviants.

 

B. values and attitudes.

 

C. goals and means.

 

D. successes and failures.

 

65. From Merton’s perspective, those who reject both culturally approved goals and means and substitute new norms are

A. innovators.

 

B. ritualists.

 

C. rebels.

 

D. retreatists.

 

66. Studies by Messner and Rosenfeld suggest the strain toward deviance, particularly crime, is

A. stronger when the economy is a relatively weak institution in the society.

 

B. stronger when the economy is the dominant institution in the society.

 

C. not related to the position of the economy in the society.

 

D. weaker when penal institutions dominate the society.

 

67. Critics of Merton’s structural strain theory note that Merton

A. doesn’t emphasize conformity enough.

 

B. ignores the ways in which people shape their definitions of the world about them.

 

C. ignores the fact that not all deviance stems from gaps between goals and means.

 

D. ignores the ways in which people shape their definitions of the world about them and ignores the fact that not all deviance stems from gaps between goals and means are correct.

 

68. ________ was one of the first people to suggest that we acquire deviant behavior much as we acquire other behaviors.

A. Robert Merton

 

B. Gabriel Tarde

 

C. Peter Rosemont

 

D. Karl Marx

 

69. The cultural transmission perspective was developed in part from the research of a group of sociologists at the University of Chicago who concluded that

A. deviance was a problem of morality.

 

B. deviance is primarily a product of economic conditions.

 

C. deviance is culturally passed from one generation to the next.

 

D. people become deviant genetically.

 

70. Edwin Sutherland’s theory of differential association illustrates the ________ sociological perspective on deviance.

A. structural strain

 

B. cultural transmission

 

C. conflict

 

D. labeling

 

71. Individuals learn deviance primarily in intimate groups of deviant others, such as small groups of friends. This view typifies

A. differential association theory.

 

B. control theory.

 

C. Freudian theory.

 

D. labeling theory.

 

72. Marxists regard ________ as a product of the moral degeneration and estrangement fostered by the oppression and exploitation of the poor, women, and African Americans or other minorities?

A. alcholism

 

B. mental illness

 

C. prostitution

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

73. Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of crime outlined by Richard Quinney?

A. crimes of ultimatum

 

B. crimes of domination

 

C. crimes of resistance

 

D. predatory crime

 

74. Richard Quinney contended that to understand crime we have to understand the development of the political economy of capitalist society. This is a reflection of which perspective?

A. conflict

 

B. functionalist

 

C. interactionist

 

D. developmental

 

75. Conflict theorists argue that the most important question to ask regarding deviance is

A. How do deviants differ from nondeviants?

 

B. How do different groups’ values and norms increase their chances of engaging in culturally transmitted deviance?

 

C. Which group will be able to translate its values into the rules of society and make these rules stick?

 

D. Which group will experience the anomie necessary to give rise to deviance?

 

76. Crime is a normal characteristic of capitalism. This view is most likely to be expressed by

A. conflict theorists.

 

B. functionalists.

 

C. labeling theorists.

 

D. cultural transmission theorists.

 

77. Labeling theory essentially argues that

A. society needs to place more emphasis on the labeling of deviants so deviants can be singled out.

 

B. labeling deviants helps them come to grips with their personal problems.

 

C. often those who are labeled as deviant develop a deviant identity and embark on a career of deviance.

 

D. the labeling of people as deviant is a latent function arising from the world of crime and delinquency.

 

78. According to labeling theorists, deviance that individuals may adopt in response to negative labels is

A. functional deviance.

 

B. primary deviance.

 

C. secondary deviance.

 

D. tertiary deviance.

 

79. Labeling theorists promote the idea that

A. we all engage in deviant behavior by violating some norms.

 

B. deviance is something inherent in the “badness” of the act.

 

C. we engage in deviant acts only when pushed beyond normal stress limits.

 

D. deviants perceive right and wrong differently than nondeviants.

 

80. According to labeling theorists, behavior that violates social norms but goes unnoticed by agents of social control is called

A. primary deviance.

 

B. secondary deviance.

 

C. tertiary deviance.

 

D. ambulatory deviance.

 

81. William Chambliss’ study of two teenage gangs – the Saints and the Roughnecks – illustrates

A. the labeling perspective.

 

B. differential association theory.

 

C. the functionalist perspective.

 

D. the cultural transmission perspective.

 

82. Labeling theory does not explain

A. why an act may or may not be defined as deviant.

 

B. how situations may affect the definition of deviance.

 

C. what initially contributed to the occurrence of the deviant behavior.

 

D. the impact of social inequities on the definition of deviance.

 

83. The difference between “control theory” and other theories written about in the text is that

A. control theory is decidedly psychological in nature.

 

B. control theory focuses more on hereditary factors.

 

C. while the other theories focus on the “why” of deviance, control theory focuses on why some people do not deviate.

 

D. the other theories tend to concentrate on environmental factors, while control theory does not.

 

84. Control theory, as developed by Travis Hirschi, argues that young people are much more likely to conform to society’s rules if their

A. attachment level to friends and family is high.

 

B. involvement level in conventional activities such as athletics is high.

 

C. belief in conventional values and ideas about morality is strong.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

85. Hirschi’s research showed that

A. religion is ineffective as a social control mechanism.

 

B. having an intact family seems to be irrelevant to the reduction of juvenile delinquency.

 

C. attachment to school and having positive attachments to teachers reduces the chances of becoming delinquent.

 

D. attachment to school has no bearing on rates of delinquency.

 

86. Critics of control theory contend that

A. factors other than those emphasized in control theory are involved in deviant behavior around 50 percent of the time.

 

B. when someone makes an attachment to delinquent peers, this element of the social bond is associated with more delinquency.

 

C. the theory cannot explain deviance among those who are fully integrated into mainstream society.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

87. Unlike such informal norms as folkways and mores, laws are

A. rules enforced by the state.

 

B. written descriptions of immoral behavior.

 

C. universal.

 

D. rules agreed to by a majority of the population.

 

88. For an act to be considered criminal,

A. it must also be considered immoral.

 

B. the state must undertake the process of criminalizing it.

 

C. it must be proven to create a significant monetary cost to society.

 

D. it must be proven to create a significant social cost to society.

 

89. The criminal justice system includes

A. families, schools, and churches.

 

B. neighborhoods, communities, and cities.

 

C. prisons, probation, and treatment centers.

 

D. police, courts, and prisons.

 

90. Index crimes are those that are

A. most widely covered by the mass media.

 

B. most feared by the public at large.

 

C. most denounced by political officials.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

91. Data on index crime, released in 2001, showed that

A. serious crime has significantly increased.

 

B. the level of serious crime has remained steady.

 

C. crime continued to decline.

 

D. the forcible rape rate has increased, while the other three categories have declined.

 

92. If we could prevent all crimes committed by persons __________, this would eliminate most conventional crimes from society.

A. between 25 and 35 years of age

 

B. between 35 and 45 years of age

 

C. below 25 years of age

 

D. with mental illnesses

 

93. Regarding murder,

A. most were committed through the use of a “sharp instrument.”

 

B. a majority was precipitated by arguments.

 

C. a majority of the victims knew their assailants.

 

D. a majority was associated with robbery, arson, and other crimes.

 

94. Juvenile involvement in violent crime

A. just recently started a significant increase.

 

B. increased over the past several decades.

 

C. followed almost exactly the rates of adult crime.

 

D. resulted in a significant increase in arrests.

 

95. ________ is the large-scale provision of illegal goods and services.

A. Organized crime.

 

B. White-collar crime.

 

C. Corporate crime.

 

D. Business-related crime.

 

96. A violation of a social relationship of trust lies at the heart of much

A. organized crime.

 

B. white-collar crime and corporate crime.

 

C. violent crime.

 

D. victimless crime.

 

97. The difficulty of handling the problem of white-collar and corporate crime is compounded because

A. the U.S. criminal justice system is ill-equipped to deal with these types of crime.

 

B. officials typically lack the skills necessary to solve such crimes.

 

C. the sentences of white-collar criminals are less stringent than others.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

98. Studies of crime committed by government

A. have been emphasized by conflict theorists.

 

B. show that presidential power may be used to victimize personal enemies.

 

C. show that today’s students have grown up with at least one well-publicized scandal for every presidential administration, regardless of political party affiliation.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

99. Gambling, drug use, and prostitution are considered

A. corporate crimes.

 

B. victimless crimes.

 

C. white-collar crimes.

 

D. violent crimes.

 

100. In the case of victimless crime, if there is any suffering, it is by the

A. criminal justice system.

 

B. offenders themselves.

 

C. wider society.

 

D. citizenry.

 

101. ________ may be the most dramatic and widespread of the new high-tech crimes?

A. Identify theft

 

B. Child pornography

 

C. Mail bombings

 

D. Software piracy

 

102. According to the text, in 2004, __________ were reported to the police.

A. 37 percent of property crimes

 

B. 49 percent of violent crimes

 

C. 85 percent of motor vehicle thefts

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

103. According to the text’s discussion of crime measurement,

A. the rates of various crimes in the United States are substantially higher according to the NCVS than the UCR.

 

B. Justice Department studies reveal that over 75 percent of all crimes are reported to the police.

 

C. perceptions of crime vary little from community to community.

 

D. statistics on crime are among the most satisfactory of all social data.

 

104. Nearly _____ percent of adults in the United States have used illegal drugs or used prescription drugs without a physician’s prescription in their lifetime.

A. 20

 

B. 30

 

C. 40

 

D. 50

 

105. __________ American children take prescription psychiatric drugs, despite the fact that most such drugs have never been tested for use in children.

A. 100,000 to 250,000

 

B. 250,000 to 500,000

 

C. 500,000 to 1 million

 

D. 3 to 4 million

 

106. In 2001, the largest category of all arrests was

A. violent crime.

 

B. property crime.

 

C. drug abuse violations.

 

D. prostitution.

 

107. Regarding women and crime,

A. the amount of crime committed by women has been steadily declining.

 

B. a growing percentage of the criminal population is female.

 

C. more girls are likely to be involved in juvenile gangs than boys.

 

D. most girls are arrested for serious crimes rather than “status offenses.”

 

108. According to the text’s writings about the criminal justice system,

A. police officers spend over 50 percent of their time dealing with crime.

 

B. since 1973, average prison sentences have lengthened substantially.

 

C. the United States has an extremely high rate of imprisonment: 25 imprisonments per 100 crime victimizations.

 

D. in the United States, the criminal justice system is an adversary system.

 

109. ________ has the highest incarceration rate in the world?

A. Iraq

 

B. Pakistan

 

C. The United States

 

D. France

 

110. ________ is NOT one of the traditional purposes of imprisonment?

A. Punishment

 

B. Rehabilitation

 

C. Recidivism

 

D. Selective confinement

 

111. Explain the meaning of the term deviance as viewed sociologically, and explain the meaning of the “relativity of deviance.” Include concrete examples in your answer.

 

 

 

 

112. Explain the functions and dysfunctions of deviance.

 

 

 

 

113. Explain and give examples of “defining deviancy down” and “defining deviancy upward.”

 

 

 

 

114. Outline and briefly explain each of the principal components of the criminal justice system in the United States.

 

 

 

 

115. Discuss your feelings about capital punishment. Answer the questions: Does capital punishment deter crime, and is it widely used in the United States?

 

 

 

 

 

 

c5 Key

1.
(p. 133-135)
What we think of as deviant can be an ordinary part of everyday life.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #1
 

 

2.
(p. 133-135)
In modern times, student cheating on college campuses has become a relatively uncommon pattern of behavior.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #2
 

 

3.
(p. 134-135)
Deviance is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #3
 

 

4.
(p. 134)
Even though norms are frequently violated, they are still viewed sociologically as important mechanisms of social control and social organization.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #4
 

 

5.
(p. 134)
Without norms for governing behavior, family would be the only institution capable of maintaining organized interaction.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #5
 

 

6.
(p. 134-135)
Deviance is anything people think is deviant.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #6
 

 

7.
(p. 134-135)
The example of the Etoro of New Guinea serves to show how deviance is not absolute, but rather relative to people and their culture.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #7
 

 

8.
(p. 134-135)
Like in the United States, the people of the Etoro in New Guinea believe that oral sex with boys should lead to the loss of reputation and to a long prison term.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #8
 

 

9.
(p. 135)
Since there are many systems of morality in existence across societies and over time, we cannot understand deviant behavior without understanding the normative context in which it may occur.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #9
 

 

10.
(p. 136)
Some people believe that America has been “defining deviancy down” in an effort to explain away and make “normal” what was viewed as “deviant” not too many years ago.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #10
 

 

11.
(p. 138)
Child abuse is one example of deviant behavior that has been “defined down.”

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #11
 

 

12.
(p. 138)
Norms seldom allow for variant behavior.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #12
 

 

13.
(p. 138-139)
Deviance can be viewed as having positive, or “integrative,” consequences for social life.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #13
 

 

14.
(p. 138-139)
Deviance is viewed as dysfunctional for society in that it undermines our willingness to play our roles and contribute to the larger social setting.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #14
 

 

15.
(p. 138-139)
Because norms are not always clear, each time a member of the social group is censured for deviant behavior, the deviance tends to help highlight and sharpen the meaning of the norm.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #15
 

 

16.
(p. 138-139)
By occasionally engaging in deviant behavior, we acquire a stronger self-identity and a sense of independent well-being.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #16
 

 

17.
(p. 139-141)
Nonconformist patterns occur because they are not known to us in the context of our own society.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #17
 

 

18.
(p. 139-141)
Informal sanctions are reactions to deviance that tend to occur in small communities, among groups of friends, and in the family.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #18
 

 

19.
(p. 139-141)
Ostracism among friends is a common form of formal sanctions.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #19
 

 

20.
(p. 139-141)
When they study deviance, sociologists tend to focus on what is “wrong” with people who deviate.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #20
 

 

21.
(p. 139-141)
Sociologically speaking, deviance is a property inherent in one’s behavior.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #21
 

 

22.
(p. 142)
Anomie is a social condition in which people have difficulty identifying the social norms guiding their behavior because the norms may be weak, unclear, or conflicting.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #22
 

 

23.
(p. 142)
Structural strain theory suggests that conflicts between socially accepted goals and socially accepted ways of achieving them may produce deviant behavior.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #23
 

 

24.
(p. 142)
Merton argued that when a society extols common symbols of success for all while restricting the access to approved means for acquiring such goals, then deviant behavior is generated.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #24
 

 

25.
(p. 144)
Edwin H. Sutherland’s differential association theory builds on the interactionist perspective.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #25
 

 

26.
(p. 148)
Richard Quinney said the U.S. legal system reflects the interests of American society as a whole.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #26
 

 

27.
(p. 149)
Labeling theorists note that a minority of the members of society engage in deviant behavior by violating some norms.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #27
 

 

28.
(p. 151)
Secondary deviance is behavior that violates social norms but usually goes unnoticed by the agents of social control.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #28
 

 

29.
(p. 151-153)
Control theory’s claims people conform as an outgrowth of ideas from the conflict perspective.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #29
 

 

30.
(p. 153-154)
Crime is an act of deviance that is prohibited by law.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #30
 

 

31.
(p. 154)
Index crimes are increasing in the United States.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #31
 

 

32.
(p. 157-158)
A large number of white-collar criminals are prosecuted and convicted, and they usually receive sentences comparable to those of other criminals.

FALSE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #32
 

 

33.
(p. 159)
Identity theft may be the most dramatic and widespread of the new high-tech crimes.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #33
 

 

34.
(p. 163)
Women accounted for 24 percent of all arrests in 2004.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #34
 

 

35.
(p. 161)
An increasing number of U.S. citizens support legalizing marijuana.

TRUE

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #35
 

 

36.
(p. 133-135)
According to the text’s discussion of cheating among college students,

A. cheating is uncommon.

 

B. some studies suggest that the percentage of students who cheat in college is at least 90 percent and may be as high as 99 percent.

 

C. the motive for cheating usually has little to do with career enhancement.

 

D. None of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #36
 

 

37.
(p. 134-136)
An important concept in the analysis of deviance is that

A. whether something is deviant depends on who is evaluating it.

 

B. determining whether an act is deviant is an objective, absolute process.

 

C. when important norms are violated, social control is lost.

 

D. deviance can only be considered as a specific act and it never can be viewed in a relative manner.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #37
 

 

38.
(p. 134)
Without norms for governing behavior,

A. life would go on without much change.

 

B. interaction in such groups as families would be impossible.

 

C. we would still intuit what is permissible behavior.

 

D. we would still be able to anticipate what people might do in different social settings.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #38
 

 

39.
(p. 134)
In modern societies, the ___________ is the mechanism by which a good many norms – laws – are enforced.

A. neighborhood

 

B. town hall

 

C. state

 

D. informal group

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #39
 

 

40.
(p. 133-135)
Sociologically speaking, ____________ is behavior that a considerable number of people in a society view as reprehensible and beyond the limits of tolerance.

A. crime

 

B. mental illness

 

C. social control

 

D. deviance

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #40
 

 

41.
(p. 133-135)
Deviance is

A. a property inherent in certain forms of behavior.

 

B. a property conferred upon particular behaviors in an absolute manner.

 

C. what people say it is.

 

D. a behavior that often exists independently of norms.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #41
 

 

42.
(p. 133-135)
Deviance depends to some extent on

A. who does the defining.

 

B. who has the power to make the definitions stick.

 

C. the time and place in which the deviance occurs.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #42
 

 

43.
(p. 135)
Among the Etoro of New Guinea,

A. homosexual acts between adult males and young boys are mildly rejected as a lower-level pattern of deviance.

 

B. homosexual acts between adult males and young boys are strongly rejected just as they are in the United States.

 

C. oral sex with boys is considered a normal and essential part of everyday life.

 

D. homosexuality does not exist.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #43
 

 

44.
(p. 135)
The example of the Etoro of New Guinea shows that

A. morality has no basic importance to human experience.

 

B. deviance is relative and a matter of social definition.

 

C. “anything goes” in matters of human sexuality.

 

D. moralities across different societies tend to be very similar in content.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #44
 

 

45.
(p. 136)
Deviance is often

A. defined by those who have the power to make the social definitions stick.

 

B. nonrelative to time and place.

 

C. seen as decadent, depraved, and evil, but not as an illness.

 

D. nonrelative to time and place and seen as decadent, depraved, and evil, but not as an illness are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #45
 

 

46.
(p. 136)
According to Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Americans are “defining deviancy down” in order to

A. make “normal” what used to be labeled as “deviant.”

 

B. make tolerable what used to be viewed as intolerable behavior.

 

C. redefine behavior that was previously viewed as illness into behavior identified as sinful and evil.

 

D. make “normal” what used to be labeled as “deviant.” and make tolerable what used to be viewed as intolerable behavior are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #46
 

 

47.
(p. 144)
In the real world, norms allow some latitude for behavior that is not strictly conformist. This is called

A. classic anomie.

 

B. a zone of permissible variation.

 

C. nonsense, sociologically speaking.

 

D. social disorganization.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #47
 

 

48.
(p. 138)
Smoking, child abuse, and family violence are all examples of behavior that have been

A. defined downward.

 

B. viewed always as depraved.

 

C. redefined upward.

 

D. receiving less media attention than they did in the 1970s.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #48
 

 

49.
(p. 138-139)
The dysfunctions of deviance

A. help society through the reinforcement of social organization.

 

B. include the undermining of our willingness to play our roles and contribute to the larger social scene.

 

C. result in a stronger family life.

 

D. help us to better trust our social institutions.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #49
 

 

50.
(p. 138-139)
Deviance facilitates

A. conformity.

 

B. a clearer understanding of social norms.

 

C. stronger group ties.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #50
 

 

51.
(p. 139-141)
The methods and strategies that regulate behavior constitute

A. social structure.

 

B. social control.

 

C. deviance.

 

D. norms.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #51
 

 

52.
(p. 139-141)
When individuals incorporate within their personalities the standards of behavior prevalent within the larger society, the process is called

A. internalization.

 

B. socialization.

 

C. conformity.

 

D. normative intervention.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #52
 

 

53.
(p. 139-141)
Internalization, the structuring of our world experiences, and formal/informal sanctions are types of

A. dysfunctions of deviance.

 

B. functions of deviance.

 

C. social control processes.

 

D. anomie in operation.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #53
 

 

54.
(p. 139-141)
Internalization occurs when

A. norms are “intuited” from the behavior of others.

 

B. the individual questions the legitimacy of the norms.

 

C. normative expectations are sharpened.

 

D. we understand and believe in the norms.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #54
 

 

55.
(p. 139-141)
Many nonconformist patterns do not occur to us because

A. we are culture bound.

 

B. Americans are quite relativistic in their views of other ways of doing things.

 

C. what we see in other cultures we tend not to like.

 

D. conformity is so ingrained in our attitudes.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #55
 

 

56.
(p. 139-141)
When biologists and psychologists look at deviants, they typically ask

A. what is wrong with them or at least different about them.

 

B. why some acts are defined as deviant in one setting and not in another.

 

C. why some people are severely punished while others are not punished for the same behavior.

 

D. why the incidence of deviance varies from group to group.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #56
 

 

57.
(p. 139-141)
Fines, expulsion from school, and imprisonment are examples of

A. informal sanctions.

 

B. formal sanctions.

 

C. deviance reinforcement.

 

D. punishments that have little to do with the normative system itself.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #57
 

 

58.
(p. 139-141)
Examples of informal sanctions are

A. fines and imprisonment.

 

B. community service as a court-mandated punishment.

 

C. ridicule and ostracism from a group of former friends.

 

D. probation as the result of a plea bargain.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #58
 

 

59.
(p. 142)
________ is not a sociological approach to understanding deviance.

A. Cultural transmission theory

 

B. Anomie theory

 

C. Hereditary predisposition perspective

 

D. Labeling perspective

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #59
 

 

60.
(p. 142)
According to Durkheim, a social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting is called

A. stress.

 

B. anomie.

 

C. deviance.

 

D. schizophrenia.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #60
 

 

61.
(p. 142)
When access to socially approved means of success (material wealth) is blocked or frustrated, Merton would argue this is a condition of

A. high anxiety.

 

B. justified frustration.

 

C. structural strain.

 

D. frustration-aggression.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #61
 

 

62.
(p. 142-143)
Merton described five responses to anomie. An embezzler stealing money from his company to fund his high mortgage payments is an example of a(n)

A. conformist.

 

B. innovator.

 

C. rebel.

 

D. retreatist.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #62
 

 

63.
(p. 142-143)
From Merton’s perspective, those who abandon or scale down the goals of success, but compulsively abide by the rules as some bureaucrats do, are

A. innovators.

 

B. rebels.

 

C. retreatists.

 

D. ritualists.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #63
 

 

64.
(p. 142-143)
According to Merton, anomie represents society’s struggle between its

A. conformists and deviants.

 

B. values and attitudes.

 

C. goals and means.

 

D. successes and failures.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #64
 

 

65.
(p. 142-143)
From Merton’s perspective, those who reject both culturally approved goals and means and substitute new norms are

A. innovators.

 

B. ritualists.

 

C. rebels.

 

D. retreatists.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #65
 

 

66.
(p. 144)
Studies by Messner and Rosenfeld suggest the strain toward deviance, particularly crime, is

A. stronger when the economy is a relatively weak institution in the society.

 

B. stronger when the economy is the dominant institution in the society.

 

C. not related to the position of the economy in the society.

 

D. weaker when penal institutions dominate the society.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #66
 

 

67.
(p. 144)
Critics of Merton’s structural strain theory note that Merton

A. doesn’t emphasize conformity enough.

 

B. ignores the ways in which people shape their definitions of the world about them.

 

C. ignores the fact that not all deviance stems from gaps between goals and means.

 

D. ignores the ways in which people shape their definitions of the world about them and ignores the fact that not all deviance stems from gaps between goals and means are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #67
 

 

68.
(p. 144)
________ was one of the first people to suggest that we acquire deviant behavior much as we acquire other behaviors.

A. Robert Merton

 

B. Gabriel Tarde

 

C. Peter Rosemont

 

D. Karl Marx

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #68
 

 

69.
(p. 144)
The cultural transmission perspective was developed in part from the research of a group of sociologists at the University of Chicago who concluded that

A. deviance was a problem of morality.

 

B. deviance is primarily a product of economic conditions.

 

C. deviance is culturally passed from one generation to the next.

 

D. people become deviant genetically.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #69
 

 

70.
(p. 144-145)
Edwin Sutherland’s theory of differential association illustrates the ________ sociological perspective on deviance.

A. structural strain

 

B. cultural transmission

 

C. conflict

 

D. labeling

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #70
 

 

71.
(p. 144-145)
Individuals learn deviance primarily in intimate groups of deviant others, such as small groups of friends. This view typifies

A. differential association theory.

 

B. control theory.

 

C. Freudian theory.

 

D. labeling theory.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #71
 

 

72.
(p. 147)
Marxists regard ________ as a product of the moral degeneration and estrangement fostered by the oppression and exploitation of the poor, women, and African Americans or other minorities?

A. alcholism

 

B. mental illness

 

C. prostitution

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #72
 

 

73.
(p. 148)
Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of crime outlined by Richard Quinney?

A. crimes of ultimatum

 

B. crimes of domination

 

C. crimes of resistance

 

D. predatory crime

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #73
 

 

74.
(p. 148)
Richard Quinney contended that to understand crime we have to understand the development of the political economy of capitalist society. This is a reflection of which perspective?

A. conflict

 

B. functionalist

 

C. interactionist

 

D. developmental

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #74
 

 

75.
(p. 148-149)
Conflict theorists argue that the most important question to ask regarding deviance is

A. How do deviants differ from nondeviants?

 

B. How do different groups’ values and norms increase their chances of engaging in culturally transmitted deviance?

 

C. Which group will be able to translate its values into the rules of society and make these rules stick?

 

D. Which group will experience the anomie necessary to give rise to deviance?

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #75
 

 

76.
(p. 148-149)
Crime is a normal characteristic of capitalism. This view is most likely to be expressed by

A. conflict theorists.

 

B. functionalists.

 

C. labeling theorists.

 

D. cultural transmission theorists.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #76
 

 

77.
(p. 149-151)
Labeling theory essentially argues that

A. society needs to place more emphasis on the labeling of deviants so deviants can be singled out.

 

B. labeling deviants helps them come to grips with their personal problems.

 

C. often those who are labeled as deviant develop a deviant identity and embark on a career of deviance.

 

D. the labeling of people as deviant is a latent function arising from the world of crime and delinquency.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #77
 

 

78.
(p. 149-151)
According to labeling theorists, deviance that individuals may adopt in response to negative labels is

A. functional deviance.

 

B. primary deviance.

 

C. secondary deviance.

 

D. tertiary deviance.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #78
 

 

79.
(p. 149-151)
Labeling theorists promote the idea that

A. we all engage in deviant behavior by violating some norms.

 

B. deviance is something inherent in the “badness” of the act.

 

C. we engage in deviant acts only when pushed beyond normal stress limits.

 

D. deviants perceive right and wrong differently than nondeviants.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #79
 

 

80.
(p. 149-151)
According to labeling theorists, behavior that violates social norms but goes unnoticed by agents of social control is called

A. primary deviance.

 

B. secondary deviance.

 

C. tertiary deviance.

 

D. ambulatory deviance.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #80
 

 

81.
(p. 150)
William Chambliss’ study of two teenage gangs – the Saints and the Roughnecks – illustrates

A. the labeling perspective.

 

B. differential association theory.

 

C. the functionalist perspective.

 

D. the cultural transmission perspective.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #81
 

 

82.
(p. 149-151)
Labeling theory does not explain

A. why an act may or may not be defined as deviant.

 

B. how situations may affect the definition of deviance.

 

C. what initially contributed to the occurrence of the deviant behavior.

 

D. the impact of social inequities on the definition of deviance.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #82
 

 

83.
(p. 151-153)
The difference between “control theory” and other theories written about in the text is that

A. control theory is decidedly psychological in nature.

 

B. control theory focuses more on hereditary factors.

 

C. while the other theories focus on the “why” of deviance, control theory focuses on why some people do not deviate.

 

D. the other theories tend to concentrate on environmental factors, while control theory does not.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #83
 

 

84.
(p. 151-153)
Control theory, as developed by Travis Hirschi, argues that young people are much more likely to conform to society’s rules if their

A. attachment level to friends and family is high.

 

B. involvement level in conventional activities such as athletics is high.

 

C. belief in conventional values and ideas about morality is strong.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #84
 

 

85.
(p. 152)
Hirschi’s research showed that

A. religion is ineffective as a social control mechanism.

 

B. having an intact family seems to be irrelevant to the reduction of juvenile delinquency.

 

C. attachment to school and having positive attachments to teachers reduces the chances of becoming delinquent.

 

D. attachment to school has no bearing on rates of delinquency.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #85
 

 

86.
(p. 151-153)
Critics of control theory contend that

A. factors other than those emphasized in control theory are involved in deviant behavior around 50 percent of the time.

 

B. when someone makes an attachment to delinquent peers, this element of the social bond is associated with more delinquency.

 

C. the theory cannot explain deviance among those who are fully integrated into mainstream society.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #86
 

 

87.
(p. 153)
Unlike such informal norms as folkways and mores, laws are

A. rules enforced by the state.

 

B. written descriptions of immoral behavior.

 

C. universal.

 

D. rules agreed to by a majority of the population.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #87
 

 

88.
(p. 153)
For an act to be considered criminal,

A. it must also be considered immoral.

 

B. the state must undertake the process of criminalizing it.

 

C. it must be proven to create a significant monetary cost to society.

 

D. it must be proven to create a significant social cost to society.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #88
 

 

89.
(p. 153)
The criminal justice system includes

A. families, schools, and churches.

 

B. neighborhoods, communities, and cities.

 

C. prisons, probation, and treatment centers.

 

D. police, courts, and prisons.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #89
 

 

90.
(p. 153)
Index crimes are those that are

A. most widely covered by the mass media.

 

B. most feared by the public at large.

 

C. most denounced by political officials.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #90
 

 

91.
(p. 153-154)
Data on index crime, released in 2001, showed that

A. serious crime has significantly increased.

 

B. the level of serious crime has remained steady.

 

C. crime continued to decline.

 

D. the forcible rape rate has increased, while the other three categories have declined.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #91
 

 

92.
(p. 156)
If we could prevent all crimes committed by persons __________, this would eliminate most conventional crimes from society.

A. between 25 and 35 years of age

 

B. between 35 and 45 years of age

 

C. below 25 years of age

 

D. with mental illnesses

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #92
 

 

93.
(p. 155)
Regarding murder,

A. most were committed through the use of a “sharp instrument.”

 

B. a majority was precipitated by arguments.

 

C. a majority of the victims knew their assailants.

 

D. a majority was associated with robbery, arson, and other crimes.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #93
 

 

94.
(p. 156-157)
Juvenile involvement in violent crime

A. just recently started a significant increase.

 

B. increased over the past several decades.

 

C. followed almost exactly the rates of adult crime.

 

D. resulted in a significant increase in arrests.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #94
 

 

95.
(p. 157)
________ is the large-scale provision of illegal goods and services.

A. Organized crime.

 

B. White-collar crime.

 

C. Corporate crime.

 

D. Business-related crime.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #95
 

 

96.
(p. 157-158)
A violation of a social relationship of trust lies at the heart of much

A. organized crime.

 

B. white-collar crime and corporate crime.

 

C. violent crime.

 

D. victimless crime.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #96
 

 

97.
(p. -158)
The difficulty of handling the problem of white-collar and corporate crime is compounded because

A. the U.S. criminal justice system is ill-equipped to deal with these types of crime.

 

B. officials typically lack the skills necessary to solve such crimes.

 

C. the sentences of white-collar criminals are less stringent than others.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #97
 

 

98.
(p. 158)
Studies of crime committed by government

A. have been emphasized by conflict theorists.

 

B. show that presidential power may be used to victimize personal enemies.

 

C. show that today’s students have grown up with at least one well-publicized scandal for every presidential administration, regardless of political party affiliation.

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #98
 

 

99.
(p. 159)
Gambling, drug use, and prostitution are considered

A. corporate crimes.

 

B. victimless crimes.

 

C. white-collar crimes.

 

D. violent crimes.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #99
 

 

100.
(p. 159)
In the case of victimless crime, if there is any suffering, it is by the

A. criminal justice system.

 

B. offenders themselves.

 

C. wider society.

 

D. citizenry.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #100
 

 

101.
(p. 159)
________ may be the most dramatic and widespread of the new high-tech crimes?

A. Identify theft

 

B. Child pornography

 

C. Mail bombings

 

D. Software piracy

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #101
 

 

102.
(p. 160)
According to the text, in 2004, __________ were reported to the police.

A. 37 percent of property crimes

 

B. 49 percent of violent crimes

 

C. 85 percent of motor vehicle thefts

 

D. All of the choices are correct.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #102
 

 

103.
(p. 160)
According to the text’s discussion of crime measurement,

A. the rates of various crimes in the United States are substantially higher according to the NCVS than the UCR.

 

B. Justice Department studies reveal that over 75 percent of all crimes are reported to the police.

 

C. perceptions of crime vary little from community to community.

 

D. statistics on crime are among the most satisfactory of all social data.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #103
 

 

104.
(p. 160-161)
Nearly _____ percent of adults in the United States have used illegal drugs or used prescription drugs without a physician’s prescription in their lifetime.

A. 20

 

B. 30

 

C. 40

 

D. 50

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #104
 

 

105.
(p. 160-161)
__________ American children take prescription psychiatric drugs, despite the fact that most such drugs have never been tested for use in children.

A. 100,000 to 250,000

 

B. 250,000 to 500,000

 

C. 500,000 to 1 million

 

D. 3 to 4 million

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #105
 

 

106.
(p. 160-161)
In 2001, the largest category of all arrests was

A. violent crime.

 

B. property crime.

 

C. drug abuse violations.

 

D. prostitution.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #106
 

 

107.
(p. 163-164)
Regarding women and crime,

A. the amount of crime committed by women has been steadily declining.

 

B. a growing percentage of the criminal population is female.

 

C. more girls are likely to be involved in juvenile gangs than boys.

 

D. most girls are arrested for serious crimes rather than “status offenses.”

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #107
 

 

108.
(p. 164-165)
According to the text’s writings about the criminal justice system,

A. police officers spend over 50 percent of their time dealing with crime.

 

B. since 1973, average prison sentences have lengthened substantially.

 

C. the United States has an extremely high rate of imprisonment: 25 imprisonments per 100 crime victimizations.

 

D. in the United States, the criminal justice system is an adversary system.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #108
 

 

109.
(p. 166)
________ has the highest incarceration rate in the world?

A. Iraq

 

B. Pakistan

 

C. The United States

 

D. France

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #109
 

 

110.
(p. 166-168)
________ is NOT one of the traditional purposes of imprisonment?

A. Punishment

 

B. Rehabilitation

 

C. Recidivism

 

D. Selective confinement

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #110
 

 

111. Explain the meaning of the term deviance as viewed sociologically, and explain the meaning of the “relativity of deviance.” Include concrete examples in your answer.

Answers will vary.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #111
 

 

112. Explain the functions and dysfunctions of deviance.

Answers will vary.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #112
 

 

113. Explain and give examples of “defining deviancy down” and “defining deviancy upward.”

Answers will vary.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #113
 

 

114. Outline and briefly explain each of the principal components of the criminal justice system in the United States.

Answers will vary.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #114
 

 

115. Discuss your feelings about capital punishment. Answer the questions: Does capital punishment deter crime, and is it widely used in the United States?

Answers will vary.

 

Hughes – 005 Chapter… #115
 

 

 

c5 Summary

Category # of Questions
Hughes – 005 Chapter… 115

 

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Sociology The Core 8th Edition by Michael Hughes – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.