Sociology Pop Culture to Social Structure 3rd Edition By Brym – Test Bank

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Chapter 5   Deviance, Crime, and Social Control

Questions included in web quizzing are marked in bold

 

Student Learning Objectives

 

After reading Chapter 5, students should be able to:

 

  1. Express how people define deviance and crime differently in different times and places.

 

  1. Interpret differences in crime rates over time and between different population categories.

 

  1. Compare how deviance was treated in the past with how it is treated today.

 

  1. Explain why punishment for criminal acts has become harsher in the United States in recent decades.

 

  1. Explain why fear of crime is increasing in the United States.

 

  1. Describe the growing movement for criminal rehabilitation.

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The Tukano Indians of Brazil greet people by asking if they have bathed today. The Yanomamo rubbed their hands over the body of an anthropologist when they first met. In Korea, beckoning with the index finger is only done with cats and dogs. These are examples used in the text to demonstrate that:

 

  1. it is impossible to understand the customs of others.
  2. deviance is relative.
  3. other countries views animals differently than we do in the U.S.
  4. people in some other countries lack manners.
  5. saying hello is a cultural universal.

 

ANS: b      TYPE: conceptual       PG: 95             SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. A norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies is called a(n):

 

  1. sanction
  2. tariff
  3. law
  4. authorization
  5. mandate

 

ANS: c      TYPE: conceptual       PG: 95             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Susan B. Anthony and Martin Luther King, Jr. were both considered deviant and criminal in their lifetimes but are not considered deviant and criminal today. This illustrates that definitions of deviance and crime

 

  1. remain constant.
  2. change over time.
  3. are dependent on the issue at stake.
  4. are always political.
  5. only apply to minority group members.

 

ANS: b     TYPE: applied            PG: 96             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. From a sociological standpoint

 

  1. all deviance is crime.
  2. definitions of crime and deviance are universally the same.
  3. everyone is a criminal.
  4. everyone is deviant in one social context or another.
  5. sociologists have never been considered deviant.

 

ANS: d      TYPE: conceptual       PG: 95             SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. The sociological term for non-normative behavior that departs from expected behavior is _____.

 

  1. sanctions
  2. crime
  3. deviance
  4. sociopathology
  5. serendipity

 

ANS: c     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 95             SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. According to the text, deviance and crime

 

  1. are easy to define
  2. are defined differently in different historical periods
  3. are easy to understand because people always act in the same ways
  4. are only the same thing in Western societies.
  5. are always the same.

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 96             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Whether a particular act is considered deviant or not depends upon the _____ definition of the behavior.

 

  1. criminal
  2. moral
  3. ethical
  4. social
  5. legal

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 95             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. A _____ is a means of showing disapproval of devian

 

  1. stigma
  2. negative sanction
  3. social standard
  4. institutional punishment
  5. social norm

 

ANS: b      TYPE: conceptual       PG: 96             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 3

 

  1. Mild sanctions such as raising eyebrows or ostracism, are called _____.

 

  1. informal punishment
  2. formal punishment
  3. stigmatization
  4. social sanctions
  5. informal and formal punishment

 

ANS: a     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 96             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 3

 

  1. When people are _____ they are negatively evaluated because of a marker that distinguishes them from others.

 

  1. conforming
  2. stigmatized
  3. deviant
  4. compliant
  5. reactive

 

ANS: b      TYPE: factual             PG: 96             SOURCE: modified   LO: 3

 

  1. When people receive severe punishment because they broke a law they receive _____.

 

  1. informal punishment
  2. formal punishment
  3. stigmatization
  4. cognition
  5. deviation

 

ANS: b    TYPE: applied           PG: 96             SOURCE: modified  LO: 3

 

  1. Which of the following is not a dimension for determining types of deviance and crime?

 

  1. severity of the social response
  2. perceived harmfulness of the deviant or criminal act
  3. degree of public agreement about whether an act should be considered deviant
  4. whether or not the acts are considered deviant in other places
  5. how much the act is thought to injure society or the community

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 97             SOURCE: modified   LO: 3

 

  1. Coca-Cola got its name because, in the early 1900s, the soda contained a derivative of cocaine. Now cocaine is an illegal drug because

 

  1. it was extremely harmful.
  2. studies found it was dangerous even in small amounts.
  3. other soda manufacturers lobbied against Coca-Cola.
  4. its perceived harmfulness changed.
  5. it was not being properly taxed.

 

ANS: d     TYPE: applied            PG: 96             SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. People disagree about whether smoking marijuana should be considered a crime, especially since it may have therapeutic value in treating cancer or pain associated with cancer. This highlights which dimension for the classification of deviance and crime?

 

  1. severity of the social response
  2. perceived harmfulness of the deviant or criminal act
  3. degree of public agreement about whether an act should be considered deviant
  4. the invariability of social definitions of deviance and crime
  5. whether or not a substance can be used for multiple purposes

 

ANS: c     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 96             SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. The _____ is the major source of statistics on crime in the U.S.

 

  1. Census Bureau
  2. National Incident-Based Reporting System
  3. Bureau of U.S. Crime Statistics
  4. Uniform Crime Reports
  5. Journal of the American Sociological Association

 

ANS: d      TYPE: factual           PG: 97            SOURCE: modified  LO: 2

 

  1. Many crimes are not incorporated in the major crime indexes published by the FBI. Indeed,    several types of crimes are excluded.  These excluded crimes are often _____.

 

  1. street crimes
  2. robbery and aggravated assault
  3. non-negligent manslaughter
  4. victimless crimes
  5. violent crimes

 

ANS: d     TYPE: factual             PG: 97             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Crimes that involve violations of the law in which no victim steps forward and is identified are called _____.

 

  1. street crimes
  2. state crimes
  3. public crimes
  4. victimless crimes
  5. violent crimes

 

ANS: d     TYPE: factual             PG: 97             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Self-report surveys

 

  1. show about three times the rate of serious crime as official statistics.
  2. show about the same rate of less serious crime as official statistics.
  3. show less white-collar crime than official statistics.
  4. are rarely conducted these days due to serious methodological flaws.
  5. find 2 to 3 times the rate of less serious crime than official statistics.

 

ANS: e     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. Rates of crime are

 

  1. calculated only for white-collar crime.
  2. the actual number of crimes committed annually in any given crime category.
  3. the number of crimes per thousand people in a given area.
  4. the number of crimes committed in a given crime category per 100,000 population.
  5. not calculated for the U.S.

 

ANS: d     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Between 1960 and 1992, the United States experienced roughly a _____ increase in the rate of violent crime, including murder and non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

 

  1. 10 percent
  2. 50 percent
  3. 100 percent
  4. 200 percent
  5. 500 percent

 

ANS: e     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. FBI crime statistics show that since 1990

 

  1. the rates for all forms of major crime began to fall.
  2. a dramatic increase in serious crime.
  3. twice as many Americans have been victims of crime.
  4. no change in the rates or trends of crime.
  5. only the rate of victimless crime has decreased.

 

ANS: a     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Which of the following is not a factor in explaining the decline of crime in the 1990s?

 

  1. more police were put on the streets
  2. communities established their own systems of surveillance and patrol
  3. the number of young men in the population declined
  4. the economic expansion of the 1990s
  5. decreased police surveillance results in fewer arrests on record

 

ANS: e     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. Which of these is not consider an explanation for lower crime rates after the 1990s?

 

  1. tougher penalties and incarceration of more criminals
  2. more police were put on the streets
  3. communities established their own systems of surveillance and patrol
  4. the number of young men in the population declined
  5. the economic expansion of the 1990s

 

ANS: a     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: new           LO: 2

 

  1. A controversial finding among some researchers is that the recent decline in crime started nineteen years after

 

  1. the Kennedy assassination.
  2. abortion was legalized.
  3. gun buy-back programs.
  4. the Brady bill.
  5. Prohibition ended

 

ANS: b     TYPE: factual             PG: 98             SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. The sociological term for the process of ensuring conformity through the use of punishments and rewards is _____.

 

  1. social control
  2. socialization
  3. punitive interaction
  4. politics
  5. castigation

 

ANS: a     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: new           LO: 3

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding gender and crime is false?

 

  1. men are six times more likely than women to be arrested
  2. middle-age women are as likely as younger women to be engaged in crime
  3. women are rapidly catching up with, and will soon outpace men in terms of rate of arrest
  4. men make up 81 percent of those arrested for violent crime
  5. 75 percent of the people arrested in 2009 were men

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. How do sociologists explain the increasing rate of crime among young females in recent decades?

 

  1. hormonal changes
  2. less strict imposition of conventional norms for femininity
  3. increased aggression due to autoimmune deficiencies
  4. earlier maturation
  5. lack of two parent households

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 100           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. The age cohort that is the most crime-prone is _____.

 

  1. 8-15 year-olds
  2. 15-19 year-olds
  3. pre-adolescents
  4. the baby boomer generation
  5. no one age cohort accounts for more crime than the others

 

ANS: b     TYPE: factual             PG: 101           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Most crime is committed by

 

  1. youth in gangs
  2. men in their early 30s
  3. people who haven’t reached middle age
  4. pre-teens
  5. former convicts

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Which of the following is not a factor in the disproportionately high arrest, conviction, and incarceration rates of African Americans?

 

  1. geographical distribution
  2. the low average class position of blacks in American society
  3. racial discrimination in the criminal justice system
  4. police attitudes toward racial minorities in American society
  5. bias in the way crime statistics are collected

 

ANS: a     TYPE: applied            PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. In 2009 about _____ of the prison population consisted of African Americans, who comprise about 12 percent of the total U.S. population.

 

  1. 7 percent
  2. 12 percent
  3. 20 percent
  4. 35 percent
  5. 42 percent

 

ANS: e     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: new           LO: 2

 

  1. Statistical bias in the way that crime statistics are collected is due largely to the absence of data on white-collar crimes in the official crime indexes. This makes it appear as if

 

  1. blacks commit a higher proportion of all crimes than they actually do.
  2. whites commit a higher proportion of all crimes than they actually do.
  3. blacks and whites have the same rates of crime.
  4. blacks are more involved in white-collar crime than most people realize.
  5. officials are overly concerned about white-collar crime.

 

ANS: a      TYPE: applied            PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding race and the criminal justice system is false?

 

  1. a disproportionate number of street crimes are committed by African Americans
  2. a disproportionate number of white-collar crimes are committed by whites
  3. the rate of imprisonment for young white men and young black men is equal
  4. the criminal justice system tends to be more zealous in arresting and convicting African American offenders than white offenders
  5. poverty is associated with higher crime rates and African Americans are disproportionately poor

 

ANS: c      TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: new           LO: 2

 

  1. A crimes that are generally committed on the job by people with respectability and high social status are called _____.

 

  1. street crime
  2. public-order crime
  3. white-collar crime
  4. victimless crime
  5. state crime

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Such crimes as embezzlement, false advertising, tax evasion, insider stock trading, fraud, copyright infringement, and price fixing are all examples of _____.

 

  1. white-collar crime
  2. public-order crime
  3. street crime
  4. state crime
  5. victimless crime

 

ANS: a     TYPE: applied            PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2, 3

 

  1. What kind of crimes are committed disproportionately by people from the lower classes?

 

  1. white-collar crime
  2. public-order crime
  3. street crime
  4. state crime
  5. victimless crime

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2, 3

 

  1. Which of these is not one of the reasons on which most sociologists agree, for the disproportionately high arrest, conviction, and incarceration rates of African Americans?

 

  1. bias in the way crime statistics are collected
  2. African Americans tend to be more criminal than whites
  3. the low average class position of blacks in American society
  4. racial discrimination in the criminal justice system
  5. high rates of unemployment for African Americans

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 100           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Today, the United States government spends _____ times more on drug control than it did in 1980.

 

  1. 2
  2. 5
  3. 10
  4. 20
  5. 35

 

ANS: d     TYPE: factual             PG: 102           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2, 4

 

  1. A major consequence of the War on Drugs in the U.S. since the 1980s is

 

  1. an extreme reduction in the number of hard-core drug users in the U.S.
  2. a lack of available illegal drugs in the U.S.
  3. a dramatic increase in the incarceration rate for non-violent offenders
  4. application of the European model of decriminalization of formerly illegal drugs
  5. an end to the illegal drug trade in the U.S.

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 102           SOURCE: new           LO: 3

 

  1. Which of the following is the most cost effective drug policy?

                                   

  1. drug testing in schools and employment
  2. stopping drugs at the border
  3. arresting drug traders and users
  4. drug prevention and treatment
  5. controlling the drug trade abroad

 

ANS: d    TYPE: factual           PG: 102          SOURCE: modified  LO: 4

 

  1. In regards to the controversial policy of legalizing at least some drugs,

 

  1. most agree there is no way for the policy to be implemented.
  2. there is a great deal of evidence it would not work.
  3. evidence from other countries suggests it would not result in increased drug use.
  4. the U.S. has no experience with prohibiting or legalizing intoxicants.
  5. it would likely lead to an increase in use of even harder drugs.

 

ANS: c      TYPE: factual             PG: 102           SOURCE: modified   LO: 4

 

  1. Howard Becker found that in order to become a habitual marijuana user one must

 

  1. be a musician.
  2. pass through a three-stage learning process.
  3. prove oneself as a criminal.
  4. be a loner and socially isolated.
  5. like using other drugs.

 

ANS: b     TYPE: factual             PG: 103           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. Howard Becker’s research on the process of becoming a marijuana user is an application of which type of theory?

 

  1. motivational theory
  2. constraint theory
  3. strain theory
  4. symbolic interactionism
  5. functionalism

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 103           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. The perspective of _____ would acknowledge that the type of deviance or crime available in the social environment will influence the type of deviance or crime a delinquent youth becomes engaged in.

 

  1. conflict theory
  2. constraint theory
  3. strain theory
  4. symbolic interactionism
  5. functionalism

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. When terms like “deviant,” “criminal,” and “con” become attached to individuals they are called _____.

 

  1. approximations
  2. social opinions
  3. labels
  4. typifications
  5. none of these choices

 

ANS: c     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Which theoretical perspective is most focused on learning and labeling deviant and criminal roles?

 

  1. motivational theory
  2. constraint theory
  3. strain theory
  4. symbolic interactionism
  5. techniques of neutralization

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. Labeling theory holds that deviance results

 

  1. when one’s deviant associations are more numerous and influential than one’s non-deviant associations.
  2. not just from the actions of the deviant but also from the responses of others.
  3. when social control is weak.
  4. when strain recognized goals and the means of achieving them is strong.
  5. when some aspect of society has become dysfunctional.

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Durkheim’s controversial claim that deviance is actually beneficial for society is part of the _____ perspective on deviance and crime.

 

  1. functionalist
  2. constraint theory
  3. strain theory
  4. symbolic interactionist
  5. conflict theory

 

ANS: a     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. Which of these is not one of the positive functions of deviance first described by Durkheim?

 

  1. a broken rule is an opportunity for others to condemn and punish the transgression
  2. policing deviance and crime is functional for the economy of a population
  3. deviant acts help to clarify the moral boundaries of the group
  4. when others are deviant it reminds others in the group of their shared values
  5. deviance and crime help societies adapt to social change

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 104           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. A point illustrated in the film Easy A that is related to Durkheim’s thinking but was not made by Durkheim is that

 

  1. norm-breakers can provide outsiders with the opportunity to become insiders.
  2. policing deviance and crime is functional for the economy of a population
  3. deviant acts help to clarify the moral boundaries of the group
  4. when others are deviant it reminds others in the group of their shared values
  5. deviance and crime help societies adapt to social change

 

ANS: a     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 105           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. The theory of deviance and crime that emphasizes the disparity between the value placed on success and the opportunities for achieving it is called _____.

 

  1. motivational theory
  2. constraint theory
  3. strain theory
  4. subcultural theory
  5. techniques of neutralization

 

ANS: c     TYPE: conceptual     PG: 106          SOURCE: modified  LO: 1

 

  1. The theory of deviance and crime that emphasizes the disparity between the value placed on success and the opportunities for achieving it was introduced by _____.

 

  1. Robert Merton
  2. Karl Marx
  3. Emile Durkheim
  4. Talcott Parsons
  5. Howard Becker

 

ANS: a     TYPE: factual             PG: 106           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. According to Robert Merton, which of the following social types would accept cultural goals but replace the conventional means with alternative means of achieving them?

 

  1. conformist
  2. innovator
  3. ritualist
  4. retreatist
  5. rebel

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 106           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Although it is often difficult to achieve the material success that is so highly valued in American culture, most people accept the strain and adhere to the social norms. These people are considered _____ within the theory of Robert Merton.

 

  1. conformists
  2. innovators
  3. ritualists
  4. retreatists
  5. rebels

 

ANS: a     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 106           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. If a gang member says that a crime victim “had it coming to him,” the gang member is using a(n) _____.

 

  1. justification
  2. subcultural adaptation
  3. innovation
  4. social bond
  5. social philosophy

 

ANS: a     TYPE: applied            PG: 106           SOURCE: modified   LO: 2

 

  1. The creation of justifications and rationalizations, such as an appeal to higher loyalties or condemning those who pass judgment on them, enables criminals to

 

  1. learn how to commit crimes.
  2. retreat.
  3. conform to broad societal norms.
  4. clear their consciences and commit crimes.
  5. get into graduate school.

 

ANS: d     TYPE: applied            PG: 106           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. A major criticism of the functionalist perspective on deviance is that it

 

  1. assumes deviants do not share the same goals as the larger society.
  2. tends to emphasize white-collar crime more than other types of crime.
  3. is too micro-level in its analysis and ignores cultural norms and values.
  4. focuses to sharply on the structural inequality within the criminal justice system.
  5. overstates the relationship between crime and social class.

 

ANS: e     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 106           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. The sociological term for the ability to carry out one’s will against the resistance of others is _____.

 

  1. power
  2. authority
  3. legitimacy
  4. social control
  5. crime

 

ANS: a     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 107           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. Which theory focuses on the power and influence of the wealthy and elites in defining those with less power as deviant and criminal?

 

  1. functionalism
  2. conflict
  3. cultural-transmission
  4. differential association
  5. control

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 107           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Which of these does not explain why the rich and powerful are not prosecuted as often or as harshly as those of other social classes?

 

  1. the rich and the powerful do not commit crimes that are harmful to society
  2. the white-collar crimes committed by higher status people are more difficult to detect because they occur in private
  3. people in higher social classes can afford the best legal experts and public relations firms
  4. high status offenders may be influential in advocating for laws that lessen the likelihood of prosecution for particular offenses
  5. in general penalties for white collar crime are less harsh than for street crime

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 107           SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Which theory contends that criminals are those likely to have few social attachments, few legitimate opportunities, weak conventional beliefs, and few involvements in their community?

 

  1. labeling
  2. structural-strain
  3. cultural-transmission
  4. differential association
  5. control

 

ANS: e     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 108           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Travis Hirschi argued that adolescents are more prone to deviance and crime because

 

  1. they are not fully socialized and lack self-control.
  2. they are not employed and they have more time to engage in deviance.
  3. they are more likely to hang out with friends, and this can encourage deviance.
  4. their hormonal imbalances make them more unstable.
  5. the activities that young people engage in are considered more deviant than those of adults.

 

ANS: e     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 108           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Which of these is not one of the types of social control Hirschi argued was lacking in juveniles prone to deviance.

 

  1. social attachment to parents, teachers and other role models
  2. availability of material goods to enhance self-esteem
  3. legitimate opportunities for education and employment
  4. involvements in conventional institutions
  5. beliefs in traditional values and morals

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 108           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. _____ sociologists have argued that gender-based inequality has been influential in definitions of crime and its prosecution.

 

  1. Conflict
  2. Functionalist
  3. Control theory
  4. Feminist
  5. Symbolic interactionist

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 108           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. After 1970, more attention was brought to crimes against women that had been largely overlooked previously. New laws brought attention to date rape and marital rape, as well as sexual harassment. What is the explanation for these changes?

 

  1. the rate of sexual assault skyrocketed to the point that it could no longer be ignored
  2. men in the criminal justice system became more sympathetic as their daughters were growing up
  3. other crime had declined sharply, leaving more resources for crimes against women
  4. women achieved greater status within the family, employment and other social institutions
  5. the construction of new prisons allowed for more criminals to be incarcerated

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 109           SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. A person who drinks too much is more likely to be treated rather than imprisoned. This is an example of _____.

 

  1. diagnostic medicalism
  2. deviant behaviorism
  3. categorical mental illness
  4. medicalization of deviance
  5. public mental health awareness

 

ANS: d     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 110           SOURCE: modified   LO: 3

 

  1. During the 1970s and 1980s psychiatrists and other doctors, and lobbyists and advocates debated what “conditions”, such as homosexuality, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder, should be diagnosed as mental disorders. What does this illustrate about deviance?

 

  1. deviance is largely medical and should be diagnosed by doctors
  2. laws governing who could be considered mentally ill had gotten too weak
  3. the medicalization of deviance is partly a social and political process
  4. evidence of the organic basis for mental illness had become stronger since the 19th century
  5. there is no medical or scientific basis for mental disorders

 

ANS: c     TYPE: conceptual     PG: 111          SOURCE: new          LO: 1, 3

 

  1. How has the diagnosis of mental illness changed since the 19th century?

 

  1. there are many more possibly mental health diagnoses today than in the 19th century
  2. today Americans are more comfortable turning their problems into medical or psychological conditions than in an earlier century
  3. institutions like the family, religion, and the government are much stronger and more involved in the treatment of mental health issues than ever before
  4. the higher standard of living today has reduced stress and reduced the incidence of mental health diagnoses
  5. the number of formal diagnoses in the DSM has shrunk from almost 300 to just 50

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 111           SOURCE: new           LO: 1, 3

 

  1. Depriving people of their freedom by putting them in prison is

 

  1. the primary form of punishment in pre-agricultural tribal societies.
  2. considered less inhumane than other forms of punishment, within industrialized societies.
  3. falling out of favor and used much less often today than 50 years ago.
  4. most strongly associated with agricultural society.
  5. more humane than the medicalization of most forms of deviance.

 

ANS: b     TYPE: conceptual       PG: 112           SOURCE: new           LO: 1, 3

 

  1. Which of the following is false in regards to prisons in the S.?

 

  1. most people no longer believe the purpose of prisons is rehabilitation
  2. many believe imprisonment is a form of deterrence to crime
  3. prison often turns criminals into even worse criminals
  4. as society has become modern, revenge is no longer a motivation for prisons
  5. the prison population has been increasing since the 1970s

 

ANS: d      TYPE: conceptual       PG: 113           SOURCE: pickup       LO: 3

 

  1. In 2009, about _____ people were incarcerated in state and federal prisons in the United States.

 

  1. 110,000
  2. 1 million
  3. 2.4 million
  4. 6 million
  5. 10 million

 

ANS: c     TYPE: factual             PG: 113           SOURCE: modified   LO: 4

 

  1. What country has the highest rate of incarceration, more than any place else in the world?

 

  1. the United States
  2. Russia
  3. China
  4. India
  5. Iraq

 

ANS: a     TYPE: factual             PG: 113           SOURCE: modified   LO: 4

 

  1. In recent years, the American public, lawmakers, and officials in the criminal justice system have been motivated by strong fears that crime poses a grave and immediate threat to society. What is the sociological term for this condition?

 

  1. a moral panic
  2. normalcy
  3. cultural lag
  4. social disaster
  5. value crisis

 

ANS: a     TYPE: applied            PG: 113           SOURCE: modified   LO: 5

 

  1. Which of these statements about social control and criminal justice in the U.S. is false?
    1. the U.S prison system has changed radically since 1970
    2. a “moral panic” in the U.S. motivated the “War on Drugs”
    3. along with most of the world, the U.S. abolished the death penalty when it lost support among most of the population
    4. hundreds of thousands of nonviolent offenders in the U.S. have been imprisoned since the 1970s
    5. since the “moral panic” of the 1970s in the U.S., sentencing has become more harsh

 

ANS: c     TYPE: applied            PG: 113           SOURCE: modified   LO: 5

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding capital punishment is false?

 

  1. capital punishment costs 6 times more than a life sentence
  2. capital punishment saves taxpayers money in the long run
  3. capital punishment has not been applied in a consistent and impartial manner.
  4. sentencing mistakes have resulted in nearly 40 percent of capital cases since 1977 being overturned.
  5. there is little evidence capital punishment serves as a deterrent to crime

 

ANS: b      TYPE: factual             PG: 116           SOURCE: modified   LO: 6

 

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Crime is less relative than other types of devian

 

ANS: False            PG: 95             SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 1

 

RESPONSE: Crime is just as relative as other forms of deviance. What is considered criminal at some times and in some places may not be criminal at another time or place.

 

  1. Some forms of deviance are beneficial for society.

 

ANS: True             PG: 96             SOURCE: new                       LO: 1

 

  1. All deviant acts general receive some form of punishment, even if it is very mild.

 

ANS: False            PG: 96             SOURCE: new                       LO: 1

 

RESPONSE: Many deviant acts escape notice or are too trivial to attract attention or negative sanctions.

 

  1. Crime is classified in terms of how much actual harm it does to society.

 

ANS: False            PG: 96             SOURCE: modified               LO: 1

 

RESPONSE: Crime is classified according to its perceived harmfulness and the severity of the social response it receives, regardless of how harmful it is in actuality.

 

  1. The source of most social problems is behavior that is inherently criminal or devian

 

ANS: False           PG: 96             SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 1

 

RESPONSE: Deviance and criminality are not inherent in the actions themselves. Social problems are socially constructed as norms and laws are created that stigmatize groups of people and various forms of behavior.

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Reports of the FBI are not an accurate representation of all illegal activity in the U.S.

 

ANS: True            PG: 97             SOURCE: new                       LO: 2

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Reports and National Incident-Reporting System are fairly complete sources of data on crime in the S.

 

ANS: False            PG: 97             SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: Actually, a lot of crime is never reported to the police. In addition, authorities and the wider public decide which criminal acts to report and which to ignore.  If the authorities decide to focus on a specific type of crime such as drug use, then more drug-related crimes will be counted.

 

  1. The rate of crime has been increasing over the past several decades.

 

ANS: False           PG: 97             SOURCE: new                       LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: Actually, the rates for all forms of crimes have fallen since the 1990s.

 

  1. Self-report surveys are an effective means of gathering data on victimization in the S.

 

ANS: True             PG: 98             SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

  1. The recent economic recession has created a dramatic increase in crime rates.

 

ANS: False            PG: 100           SOURCE: new                       LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: Surprisingly even during the recession and rising unemployment of 2008 and 2009, crime rates continued to decline.

 

  1. Improvements in women’s position in society have resulted in increased awareness and prosecution of crimes of violence against women.

 

ANS: True            PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

  1. Most crime is committed disproportionately by people from lower classes.

 

Answer: False       PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: White collar crimes are committed disproportionately by people from middle and upper classes.

 

  1. White-collar crime is very costly for society, so it is aggressively searched out. This results in many prosecutions and still more convictions.

 

ANS: False            PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: White-collar crime results in few prosecutions and still fewer convictions for two main reasons.  First, much white-collar crime takes place in private and is therefore difficult to detect.  Second, corporations can afford legal experts, public relations firms, and advertising agencies that advise their clients on how to bend laws, build up their corporate image in the  public mind, and influence lawmakers to pass laws “without teeth.”

 

  1. There is no longer a gender gap in arrests; women are now arrested as often as men.

 

ANS: False           PG: 100           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

RESPONSE: The gender gap is closing slowly but men are still six times more likely than women to be arrested.

 

  1. One must learn how to get high, and also to recognize the effects of marijuana. These things do not just occur “naturally.”

 

ANS: True             PG: 103           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 1, 3

 

  1. If a person is exposed to more deviant experiences than nondeviant experiences, there is a good chance that person will learn to become a devian

 

ANS: True             PG: 104           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 2

 

  1. Deviant acts help non-deviants reaffirm the boundaries of acceptable behavior.

 

ANS: True             PG: 104           SOURCE: new                       LO: 3

 

  1. One of the positive aspects of the death penalty is that because it is so severe it is applied in a just and consistent way for all persons convicted of crimes.

 

ANS: False            PG: 116           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 4

 

RESPONSE: A white person who murders a black person very rarely gets sentenced to death, but a black person who murders a white person is one of the most likely types of people to get the death penalty.

 

  1. After trials and appeals, a typical execution costs the taxpayer six times as much as a 40-year stay in a maximum-security prison.

 

ANS: True             PG: 116           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 6

 

  1. Putting more people in prison and imposing tougher penalties for crime increases crime rates.

 

ANS: False            PG: 117           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 6

 

RESPONSE: The evidence reviewed in the textbook shows that taking these actions does not lower the crime rate, but the evidence does not show that taking these actions increases the crime rate either.

 

  1. Being in prison often results in inmates behaving even more violently.

 

ANS: True             PG: 117           SOURCE: pickup                   LO: 6

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What is the difference between deviance and crime?

ANS: Deviance is behavior that breaks a norm and that others view negatively. Crime is a specific type of deviance that breaks a law, a norm that is created and enforced by government bodies.

PG: 95       SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. What are sanctions?

ANS: Sanctions are actions, such as a frown or putting someone in prison, that indicate disapproval of deviance.

PG: 96       SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. How are crime statistics generated in the S.?

ANS: Law enforcement agencies throughout the country report offenses and arrests to the FBI. They are compiled into the Uniform Crime Reports, made available in an annual publication called Crime in the United States.

PG: 97       SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. What are victimless crimes?

ANS: Victimless crimes involve violations of the law, such as prostitution and drug use, in which no victim has stepped forward and been identified.

PG: 97       SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. What is white-collar crime?

ANS: White-collar crime refers to an illegal act committed by a respectable, high-status person in the course of work.

PG: 100     SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. Which theoretical perspective focuses on deviance as something that is learned.

ANS: Social interactionism.

PG: 103     SOURCE: new           LO: 1

  1. Give an example of how deviance is beneficial for society.

ANS: Social change has occurred through the actions of leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr., and Susan B. Anthony.

PG: 103     SOURCE: new           LO: 1

 

  1. How does conflict theory consider deviance and crime?

ANS: Conflict theory holds that deviance and crime arise out of conflict between the powerful and the powerless. The powerful is able to label the less powerful as deviants, while using their money and influence to avoid any punishment for their own misdeeds.

PG: 107     SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. What is the medicalization of deviance?

ANS: Medicalization treats deviant behavior as a disease that is treatable, often with medication.

PG: 110     SOURCE: new           LO: 3

 

  1. What was the only officially recognized mental health disorder in the 19th century?

ANS: Idiocy/insanity was the only officially recognized diagnosis.

PG: 111     SOURCE: new           LO: 3

 

  1. What is moral panic?

ANS: A moral panic occurs when many people fervently believe that some form of deviance or crime poses a profound threat to society’s well-being. The war on drugs is a recent example.

PG: 114     SOURCE: pickup       LO: 5

 

  1. What is the Second Chance Act of 2008?

ANS: The Second Chance Act is federal legislation that allocates monies to programs designed to help prison inmates re-enter society.

PG: 117     SOURCE: new           LO: 6

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Explain why sociologists believe that everyone is a deviant in one social context or another.

ANS: From a sociological perspective deviance is relative. It depends on the time and place in which the behavior occurs. Norms for behavior vary considerably throughout the world. What is considered normal in one place is often deviant in another. No act is inherently deviant; it is determined by the social context.

PG: 95-96  SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Define and explain the different types of sanctions and how they are applied.

ANS: Sanctions are acts that indicate disapproval of deviance. Informal sanctions are applied by other people and may include stares, gossip, or ostracism. Stigmatizing a person, distinguishing and negatively evaluating that person, is an informal sanction. Formal sanctions are applied by those in authority when laws are broken.

PG: 96       SOURCE: pickup       LO: 3

 

  1. Sociologically, what are the three dimensions used to classify types of crime? Give examples.

ANS: Crime may be classified according to the severity of the social response, the perceived harmfulness of the act, and the degree of public agreement about whether or not an act should be considered deviant. Examples in the text are infanticide among the Inuit and workplace accidents.

PG: 96       SOURCE: modified   LO: 1

 

  1. Explain the difference between white-collar and street crimes, including why one is prosecuted more harshly than the other.

ANS: White collar crime is committed by people considered respectable, in the course of their employment activities. Street crime includes crimes like burglary, assault, and other illegal acts that are disproportionately committed by people from lower social classes. While street crime may be considered more threatening, white collar crime is extremely costly for society. The wealthier and higher status people who commit white-collar crime are better able to afford legal and other assistance, have more influence over policies, and their crimes are most often committed in private.

PG: 100, 107         SOURCE: modified   LO: 2, 3

 

  1. How do sociologists explain the disproportionate rate of arrest, conviction and incarceration of African Americans?

ANS: Most sociologists agree that African Americans are disadvantaged by bias in the ways that crime statistics are gathered, the generally low social class position of blacks in American society, and racial discrimination in the criminal justice system.

PG: 100-101          SOURCE: pickup       LO: 2

 

  1. Outline Merton’s strain theory of deviance and crime.

ANS: Merton argued that while material success is promoted as an important cultural value, there are not enough legitimate means for everyone to succeed. This leads to deviant behavior. When people experience this strain by adhere to norms, this is called conformity. If a person finds alternate ways of achieving society’s goals, Merton called this innovation. Some people reject social goals and drop out of conventional society; this is retreatism. Those who reject the goals but continue to follow the rules are practicing ritualism. Rebellion occurs when people work to replace society’s goals with alternate goals and values.

PG: 106     SOURCE: pickup       LO: 1

 

  1. Define the medicalization of deviance and give examples.

ANS: Medicalization refers to the process through which explanations of deviance have changed from a belief in the evil nature of the deviant, or a lack of will power or control, to a belief the deviant is suffering from a medical condition. In the past, alcoholics would have been ostracized or punished for their behavior. Today they are more likely to received treatment in order to detoxify. The response to people with rage and poor impulse control is medication. Drug abuse, specifically heroin use, is treated medically, as are forms of mental illness that in the past would have resulted in being labeled deviant.

PG: 110     SOURCE: pickup       LO: 3

 

  1. What are the origins of imprisonment and how have attitudes toward incarceration changed over time?

ANS: Imprisonment emerged within industrializing society as a more “civilized” response to criminal behavior than the public humiliation or death imposed in preindustrial societies. The goal of incarceration in the 1960s and 1970s as considered rehabilitation through counseling, drug therapy, and job training. By the 1990s, most people had come to believe the goal of imprisonment was deterrence, or even revenge. Today, these attitudes continue to predominate along with a belief in prison as a means of incapacitating criminals to keep them from inflicting further harm.

PG: 112-117          SOURCE: pickup       LO: 4, 6

 

 

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