Sociology in Our Times 6th Canadian Edition by Murray – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download

 

Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5–Society, Social Structure, and Interaction

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people?
a. social structure
b. social interaction
c. psychological behaviour
d. group interaction

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 116        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the stable pattern of social relationships that exist within a particular group or society?
a. social interaction
b. structurally patterned behaviour
c. social structure
d. group interaction

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 117        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What would a sociological perspective attribute homelessness to?
a. personal problems of the homeless person
b. the growth of affordable housing
c. poverty
d. employment

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 129        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What do most Canadians who have never experienced homelessness tend to take for granted?
a. happiness
b. love and acceptance
c. economic and social resources to meet their human needs
d. good health and medical care

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 128        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Jeff feels like both an insider and an outsider in his rural community. What term would Robert Park (1928) use to refer to Jeff’s experience?
a. alienation
b. being stigmatized
c. social marginality
d. anomie

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118–119

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What name did Erving Goffman give to “any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person’s social identity that it disqualifies that person from full acceptance?”
a. deviant quality
b. stigma
c. negative identity
d. derogatory label

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of a stigma?
a. owning an expensive suit
b. wearing a psychiatric hospital uniform
c. carrying a sociology textbook
d. being right-handed

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Ramandeep is a student, a daughter, a niece, a friend and an employee. How would we refer to this list?
a. social infrastructure
b. master statuses
c. status set
d. role set

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. John is a computer programmer, a husband, a father, a resident of Ontario, and Italian. What do all these socially defined positions constitute?
a. role identity
b. status set
c. socioeconomic position
d. role diagram

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Annie is born into a Chinese family. What kind of statuses are her gender and ethnicity?
a. achieved
b. socioeconomic
c. ascribed
d. occupational

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What do sociologists mean when they employ the term status?
a. having a higher economic position relative to other members of society
b. a socially defined position with a group that has certain expectations, duties, and rights
c. the expectations, duties, and rights that come with financial security
d. specific people who occupy socially defined positions in any given society

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119–120

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What kind of status does someone assume voluntarily through personal choice, merit, or direct effort?
a. valued
b. socioeconomic
c. ascribed
d. achieved

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What term did Everett Hughes use to refer to the most important status that a person occupies?
a. conferred
b. master
c. achieved
d. ascribed

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Karen is a recently divorced single mother of three. After her landlord increased her rent she was forced to go to a homeless shelter. What is her master status?
a. mother
b. woman
c. single
d. homeless

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Bill is a CEO at Water Works Inc. and a father of twin boys. After his divorce he received full custody of his sons. What is his master status?
a. father
b. man
c. divorcee
d. CEO

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Susan has been diagnosed with life-threatening bone cancer, and she’s been told her condition is terminal. What is Susan’s illness likely to define?
a. her social position
b. her social status
c. her status set
d. her master status

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. In the past, what were the most common master statuses for women related to?
a. to ethnicity
b. to age
c. to position in the family
d. to occupation

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What do sociologists call material signs that inform others of a person’s specific status?
a. status indicators
b. status markers
c. status symbols
d. status capital

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which kind of symbol are the bags of aluminum cans and glass bottles a homeless man carries down the street?
a. status
b. role
c. group
d. disadvantage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Students in primary school are expected to address their teachers as Mr. or Mrs. rather than by their first names. What are students consistently conforming to when they follow the rules and refer to their teacher as Mr. or Mrs.?
a. conferred status
b. role expectations
c. expected norms
d. good manners

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121–122

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Which term refers to behaviours such as starting a class on time, giving lectures, and answering questions that go along with the status of professor?
a. status expectation
b. role performance
c. role expectation
d. status performance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121–122

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What do sociologists call the way a person actually plays a role?
a. role expectation
b. expected behaviour
c. normative evaluation
d. role performance

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the text’s discussion of roles?
a. Role expectations do not always match role performance.
b. Role expectations vary little in terms of specificity.
c. Role expectations are typically based on strictly defined standards.
d. Role expectations are not defined in the context of roles performed by others.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121–122

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. After his mother remarries and his stepfather and two children move in to Andrew’s home, he becomes confused about his place in this new blended family. What would a sociologist suggest is happening to Andrew?
a. He is depressed.
b. He is experiencing role ambiguity.
c. He is frustrated.
d. He is experiencing role conflict.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. The text points out that people sometimes prioritize their roles or compartmentalize their lives. Why is such behaviour likely?
a. role ambiguity
b. role frustration
c. role inconsistency
d. role conflict

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Shawna has to study for her sociology exam in the morning, but her daughter is very sick all night, thus preventing her from getting any studying done. What kind of problem is this an example of?
a. role conflict
b. role strain
c. status conflict
d. role exit

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Mandeep is scheduled to write her final exam in sociology at 9:00am on December 15th. She is also scheduled to work an eight-hour shift from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm on the same day for her employer. What is Mandeep about to experience?
a. role conflict
b. role strain
c. status conflict
d. role exit

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What typically occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies?
a. status inconsistency
b. role strain
c. status frustration
d. role conflict

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Women’s work tends to involve less money, less prestige, fewer job openings, and more career roadblocks. What is one implication of many women holding jobs that are less satisfying and more stressful than men’s jobs?
a. role strain
b. role conflict
c. status inconsistency
d. status frustration

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. As an employee at a local grocery store, Sohail sometimes stocks shelves with canned goods. What term would we use to refer to his stocking the shelves?
a. status
b. stigma
c. role strain
d. role

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What occurs when people consciously foster the impression of a lack of commitment or attachment to a particular role and merely go through the motions of role performance?
a. role distancing
b. role conflict
c. role ambiguity
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 123        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. When is role distancing most likely to occur?
a. when social identities are consistent with how a person wants to live his or her life
b. when people are in roles inconsistent with how they think of themselves or how they want others to view them
c. when role strain and role conflict are completely absent
d. when a person is unsure about his or her role expectations

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 123        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Robert retires after three decades as an administrator and educator. What process is Robert undergoing?
a. role rejection
b. role ambiguity
c. role exit
d. role conflict

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 123–124

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a secondary group?
a. families
b. best friends
c. corporations
d. colleagues from work

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following relates to a group’s ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles?
a. social networking
b. social solidarity
c. cultural bonding
d. cultural diffusion

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is a series of social relationships that link an individual to others called?
a. cultural bond
b. cohesive structure
c. social network
d. clique

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the text, for which group are social networks typically ineffective?
a. poor and homeless people
b. lower-middle class executives
c. middle-level management personnel
d. upper-level corporate vice presidents

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What kind of group would be formed if a community wanted to get involved in developing a park and playground on the site of a new school?
a. a primary social group
b. a social network
c. a secondary social group
d. a formal organization

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the term for a set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs?
a. a group
b. a social organization
c. a social institution
d. a working group

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which term best describes the postsecondary institution you are currently attending?
a. a social group
b. a primary group
c. a formal organization
d. a social structure

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What kind of group is the “street family” that homeless youth develop on the street?
a. a primary social group
b. a social network
c. a secondary social group
d. a friendship group

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the structural functional perspective, why are social institutions necessary?
a. They meet certain human biological needs.
b. They ensure specific groups conform to ideologist and behaviour patterns.
c. They provide symbolic meaning to individuals.
d. They perform essential tasks to meet society’s needs.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 126        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Suppose you choose to study the homeless by analyzing how social institutions have operated to produce current conditions. What kind of approach would you take?
a. macrosociological
b. microsociological
c. interactionist
d. developmental

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What does a functionalist believe is needed to replace and teach members of society, preserve order, and produce and distribute goods and services?
a. a democratic government
b. social institutions
c. primary groups
d. social solidarity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 126        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What concept do sociologists use to define the various tasks of a society that are divided up and performed?
a. occupational structure
b. socioeconomic structure
c. division of labour
d. pecking order

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 126        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What kind of social cohesion involves a minimal division of labour and results in people who feel united by shared values and common social bonds?
a. organic solidarity
b. mechanical solidarity
c. primitive solidarity
d. preindustrial solidarity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Emile Durkheim believed that people in preindustrial societies felt a more-or-less automatic sense of belonging. What did he name this condition?
a. organic solidarity
b. cohesive solidarity
c. primitive solidarity
d. mechanical solidarity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What did Emile Durkheim call social interaction characterized by face-to-face, intimate, primary-group relationships in societies?
a. organic solidarity
b. cohesive solidarity
c. primitive solidarity
d. mechanical solidarity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. If you follow Durkheim’s reasoning for why industrial societies have organic solidarity, which of the following statements might you make?
a. Individuals rely on each other, similar to the way that the organs of the body function together.
b. The relationships between people have a specific birth, growth, and death cycle.
c. The social interaction is generally face-to-face and intimate.
d. People are bound together by shared values.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following sociologists used the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in societies?
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Ferdinand Tönnies
c. Max Weber
d. Talcott Parsons

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What does the term Gemeinschaft refer to?
a. a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
b. a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
c. a traditional society in which social relationships have come to be based on corporate procedures
d. a social order that is largely based on achieved status

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What does the term Gesellschaft refer to?
a. a society largely based on ascribed status
b. a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
c. a traditional society in which social relationships have come to be based on corporate procedures
d. a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the text, what behaviour among the homeless has recently become an issue of public debate and government policy?
a. sleeping in the rough
b. theft
c. panhandling
d. vandalism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Who described shared meanings in his observation about two pedestrians approaching each other on a public sidewalk?
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Ferdinand Tönnies
c. Erving Goffman
d. Georg Simmel

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to Goffman, what kind of behaviour is someone displaying when they show they are aware that others are present but do not make them the object of their attention?
a. civil inattention
b. selective attention
c. passive rudeness
d. reserved non-attention

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. In what perspective are both the ethnomethodological and dramaturgical approaches strongly rooted?
a. social conflict
b. symbolic interactionist
c. structural functionalist
d. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131–132

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What is civil inattention an example of?
a. regulation of the content of social interaction
b. interaction order
c. how interactions are disordered
d. how forms and processes of social interaction go unregulated

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What did sociologist Carol Brooks Gardner determine in her study of women’s reactions to street encounters?
a. Women generally engage in conversations with the initiator.
b. Women are generally unafraid during such encounters.
c. Women do not perceive street encounters as “routine” rituals.
d. Women view street encounters in the same way that men do.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to symbolic interactionists, what strongly influences what we “see” and how we respond to situations?
a. our social construction of reality
b. our objectification of social reality
c. our subjective assessment of reality
d. our situational assessment of reality

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is a false belief or prediction that produces behaviour that makes the originally false belief come true?
a. definition of the situation
b. interactionist dialogue
c. reality impression
d. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Jack believes that Mary is shy, so every time Mary smiles or tries to initiate a conversation with Jack, he ignores her. Eventually Mary wants nothing to do with Jack. This demonstrates the power of what kind of beliefs?
a. the objective nature of reality
b. a self-fulfilling prophecy
c. attention deprivation
d. organic solidarity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Carrie decides to leave a dinner date early after she perceives that her companion is showing more interest in his upcoming basketball tournament than in getting to know her. Her date appears surprised when she cuts the evening short. What sociological concept would help explain what happened here?
a. definition of the situation
b. interaction order
c. civil inattention
d. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves?
a. behavioural modification
b. dramaturgical analysis
c. ethnomethodology
d. impression management

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. How does ethnomethodology contribute to our knowledge of social interaction?
a. It cautions us against breaching experiments.
b. It demonstrates our definition of the situation.
c. It makes us aware of the subconscious realities in our daily lives.
d. It teaches us to follow conventional behaviour patterns, both consciously and unconsciously.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Erving Goffman compared day-to-day interactions with being in a theatrical presentation. What did he name this approach?
a. ethnomethodology
b. dramaturgical analysis
c. impression management
d. presentational analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 132        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What are people doing when they present the most favourable image of themselves to others?
a. impression management
b. presentational analysis
c. dramaturgical presentation
d. spin doctoring

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 132        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. The text cites an investigation involving students’ interactions and discussions following the return of exam grades. In this study, what characterized the students’ presentations of self?
a. Managed impressions were consistent, regardless of the grade each of them earned on the exam.
b. Managed impressions had little to do with the grade that each student earned on the exam.
c. Managed impressions varied, depending on the grade earned by the other students with whom they interacted.
d. Managed impressions were related to how the professor returned the graded exams to the class.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 132–133

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Suppose you witnessed a customer at a local grocery store accidentally knock down a large display of cereal boxes, and then heard the customer say, “Where did all that wind come from?” Following Goffman, what kind of strategy would you have observed the customer using?
a. studied nonobservance
b. front and back stage behaviour
c. studied observance
d. face-saving behaviour

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 133        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Suppose a friend of yours had a memory lapse during an important speech. What would you be doing if  you continued to smile and clapped at the end of the performance?
a. studied nonobservance
b. the definition of the situation
c. front stage behaviour
d. back stage behaviour

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 133        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What term did sociologist Erving Goffman use to refer to the area where a player is not required to perform a specific role because it is out of view of a given audience?
a. front stage
b. back stage
c. centre stage
d. behind the scenes

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 133        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. According to sociologist Arlie Hochschild, what shapes the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation, including how, where, when, and with whom an emotion should be expressed?
a. emotional labours
b. face-saving behaviours
c. feeling rules
d. socio-emotional norms

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the potential negative effects of emotional labour?
a. emotionless labour
b. broken feeling rules
c. alienation and commercialization of feelings
d. absence of feeling rules

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What are students specifically attempting to make use of when they try to reduce their anxiety during exam time?
a. feeling rules
b. face saving
c. role strain
d. emotional labour

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. How are social class and emotional labour related?
a. Middle- and upper-class parents are more likely to teach their children the importance of emotional labour.
b. There is no relationship between social class and emotional labour.
c. Working-class parents, who are more likely to work with people, put the most emphasis on emotional labour.
d. All three social classes put a strong emphasis on emotional labour.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which term refers to the transfer of information between persons without the use of speech?
a. on-stage dramatization
b. nonverbal communication
c. emotional interaction
d. back stage implication

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Suppose an employee disagrees with a supervisor’s order but goes along with it anyway. What is the term for the employee’s behaviour?
a. demeanour
b. facial expression
c. deference
d. verbal communication

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What has research on gender differences in nonverbal communication revealed about how women show their interest and involvement with others?
a. Women typically maintain eye contact during conversation.
b. Women typically avoid eye contact during conversation.
c. Women typically stare at others in order to show their interest.
d. Women typically assert their own, dominant status through prolonged eye contact when not speaking.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What name did Hall give to the immediate area surrounding us that we claim as private?
a. private zone
b. distance zone
c. personal space
d. public distance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 136        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. When are gender and power differences in tactile communication evident?
a. from birth
b. in the first year of life
c. when children reach age 2–3 years
d. by the time children enter school

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 136        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is the most serious personal space violation?
a. a child who enters an adult’s personal space without invitation
b. an adult who enters the personal space of a child
c. an adult who enters the personal space of an adult
d. a child who is invited into an adult’s personal space

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 136–137

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Suppose Jane receives a call at work from her mother, informing her that she is ill and cannot look after the children. Which of the following is Jane likely to experience?
a. role expectation
b. role performance
c. role conflict
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is Jane likely to experience when she looks at her calendar and sees that all three of her children have a soccer game at the same time on a night when her husband is away?
a. role expectation
b. role performance
c. role conflict
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Suppose a teacher calls and informs Jane that her son Warren is struggling with math and requires additional support. Which of the following is Jane likely to focus on?
a. role expectation
b. role performance
c. role conflict
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Suppose Beth’s dance concert falls on a night when her mother is working. Although her mother is uncertain how it will be possible, she tells Beth that she will be there. What is the mother’s behaviour an example of?
a. role expectation
b. role performance
c. role conflict
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Mark works as a CEO for a global company and travels at least two weeks every month. Which of the following groups in Mark’s life is likely to be most adversely affected by his employment?
a. primary groups
b. secondary groups
c. work colleagues
d. emergent social institutions

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Which of the following argues that the organization of economic production is the most important structural aspect of society?
a. Karl Marx
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Erik Erikson
d. Robert Park

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which statement reflects a conflict perspective on social structure?
a. Social structure creates order and predictability.
b. Social structure is important for human development.
c. Social structure is a source of inequality.
d. Social structure contributes to the emergence of a self-concept.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What type of social institution are family, religion, education, and government examples of?
a. traditional
b. emergent
c. ascribed
d. achieved

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What do sociologists call the state of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure?
a. stigma
b. social marginality
c. dual status
d. role conflict

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What type of social group are family members, close friends, and peers examples of?
a. Emergent
b. Traditional
c. Secondary
d. Primary

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to the text, what is a convicted criminal wearing a prison uniform an example of?
a. social marginality
b. stigma
c. role conflict
d. role exit

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Michael is doing a project on the military. What type of social institution is Michael studying?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. traditional
d. emergent

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the main difference between ascribed and achieved status?
a. Achieved status is gained as a result of personal ability.
b. Ascribed status is the result of direct effort.
c. Ascribed status rarely influences achieved status.
d. Achieved status has a significant influence on ascribed status.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which term refers to the most important status a person occupies?
a. primary status
b. master status
c. high status
d. institutional status

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What do sociologists call how a group defines the way a specific role ought to be played?
a. role conditions
b. role norms
c. role performance
d. role expectation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which term refers to the uncertainties surrounding the provider-dependant aspect of the parent-child relationship?
a. role conflict
b. role ambiguity
c. role strain
d. role tension

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following best defines the term “role ambiguity”?
a. a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person with two or more statuses held at the same time
b. a situation in which incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies
c. a situation in which the expectations associated with a role are unclear
d. a situation in which a person is both an insider and an outsider in a social group

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Sandy is a university student who cleans houses for extra income on the weekend. She does not identify as a “house cleaner” and prefers to discuss university life with her clients. Which type of role is Sandy experiencing?
a. role conflict
b. role strain
c. role ambiguity
d. role distancing

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 123        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Ebaugh’s four stages of role exit?
a. feelings of certainty
b. searching for alternatives
c. taking action
d. creating a new identity

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Juan is a father who struggles to balance work commitments and family life. What is Juan most likely experiencing?
a. role tension
b. role conflict
c. role ambiguity
d. role strain

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason why role exit is difficult for homeless people?
a. Personal resources diminish over time.
b. Re-establishing family ties is unlikely.
c. Work experience and skills become outdated.
d. Possessions are often lost or stolen.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Among homeless people, breaking ties with street families is one of the most difficult aspects of what?
a. seeking shelter
b. role performance
c. finding work
d. role exit

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is a common critique of the dramaturgical approach?
a. It overlooks the underlying substance of social interaction.
b. Social life does not realistically play out like a theatre production.
c. Social interaction is less important than social structure.
d. It takes for granted that people act in certain ways in the front stage.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 133        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to functionalist perspectives, which of the following is NOT a function of social institutions?
a. It helps promote individual interests.
b. It provides a sense of purpose.
c. It teaches new members.
d. It preserves order.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 126        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes one of the conclusions reached in Gardner’s (1989) research on street encounters?
a. Middle-class children are more likely to initiate conversations with strangers.
b. Women do not perceive street encounters as routine rituals.
c. Men are more likely to avoid small talk in everyday interactions.
d. Working-class adults use different nonverbal communication styles than middle-class adults.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Adam did poorly on his exam and explains to his friends that the test was unfair. What is this an example of?
a. studied nonobservance
b. breaching experiment
c. back stage performance
d. face-saving behaviour

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 133        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What are gestures, tone of voice, and use of space examples of?
a. studied nonobservance
b. nonverbal communication
c. feeling rules
d. face-saving strategies

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Who argues that people acquire a set of “feeling rules” that shape the appropriate emotions for a given role?
a. Erving Goffman
b. Harold Garfinkel
c. Arlie Hochschild
d. C Wright Mills

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134        BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Who argues that how we behave is relative to social power?
a. Karl Marx
b. Erik Erikson
c. Arlie Hochschild
d. Erving Goffman

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135        BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between gender and nonverbal communication?
a. Women have been socialized to smile even when they are unhappy.
b. Men are more likely to smile than women.
c. Men tend to tilt their heads in deference when speaking to more powerful men.
d. Women tend to avert their eyes when challenged by their children.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135        BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes one of the conclusions reached in Hall’s (1966) research on personal space?
a. The need for personal space decreases with age.
b. Adults do not hesitate to enter the personal space of children.
c. Children are harshly punished for entering the personal space of adults.
d. Norms regarding personal space do not vary cross-culturally.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 136        BLM:  Higher Order

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Social structure may place us in arbitrary categories not of our own choosing.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 118–120

 

  1. Statuses exist independently of the specific people occupying them.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119–120

 

  1. In a sociological sense, the term status refers only to high-level positions in society.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 119–120

 

  1. All achieved statuses are things that people want to attain.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 120

 

  1. Role is the dynamic aspect of a status; while we occupy a status, we play a role.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121

 

 

  1. Role conflict takes place within one status, while role strain involves two or more statuses.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122

 

  1. Role strain always takes place within one specific status.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 122

 

  1. In secondary groups, people have few, if any, emotional ties to one another.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124

 

  1. Primary groups are more specialized than secondary ones.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 124

 

  1. A social institution is the same thing as a social group.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125

 

  1. Exiting the homeless role is easier than many people believe.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 123

 

  1. Conflict and functionalist theorists agree that social institutions are originally organized to meet society’s basic needs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 126

 

  1. Emile Durkheim asserted that preindustrial societies were held together by strong traditions and by the members’ shared moral beliefs and values.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127

 

  1. Elliot Liebow noted that homelessness is rooted in poverty.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 129

 

  1. Ethnicity, gender, and social class have little effect on the meanings we give to our social interactions with others.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130

 

  1. Our perception of reality is caused by what is happening; there is very little subjective input.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130

 

 

  1. In order to uncover people’s background expectancies, ethnomethodologists frequently “obey” the rules without exception so that they can observe people’s responses to conformity.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131

 

  1. Ethnomethodologists are interested in answering the questions: How do we know how to interact in a given situation? What rules do we follow?

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131

 

  1. The need for impression management is most intense when role players have widely divergent or devalued statuses.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 132

 

  1. Emotional labour may produce feelings of estrangement from one’s “true” self.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

  1. Arlie Hochschild’s contribution to the sociology of emotions has been criticized for overemphasizing the cost of emotional labour and emotional controls that exist outside of the individual.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

  1. Nonverbal communication can include vocal features such as inflection, volume, or pitch.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

  1. Eye contact can be a sign of domination or deference.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135

 

  1. Celebrity status has taken over some of the more traditional status indicators.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 121

 

  1. The need for personal space decreases with age.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 136

 

  1. Women are socialized to smile even when they are unhappy.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 135

 

  1. Emotional labour is a feature of service-oriented occupations.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

 

  1. Emotional labour can produce a feeling of estrangement from oneself.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

  1. Breaching experiments helps us understand how people manage back stage and front stage behaviour.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 131

 

  1. Canada is best described as a Gesellschaft type of society.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   page 127

 

ESSAY

 

  1. List and describe the main components of social structure.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Describe and distinguish between Durkheim’s notions of mechanical and organic solidarity.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Compare and contrast role conflict and role strain.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Compare and contrast a functionalist and a conflict perspective on the role of social institutions in society.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

 

  1. Are homeless people primarily responsible for their own situation? Explain your answer using examples. Outline social structural issues that may be relevant to a discussion of means for eradicating homelessness.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Demonstrate how homelessness is related to the social structure of Canadian society.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Using an example, discuss the benefits of using “breaching experiments” to study social structure.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Use the concept of “feeling rules” to discuss the emotional labour involved in a specific situation. Use an example.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

PTS:   1

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain how emotional labour can produce feelings of estrangement from one’s “true” self.

 

ANS:

When we sell our personality in the course of selling goods or services, we engage in a self-alienating process by humanizing our work role performance.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   page 134

 

 

  1. Define impression management and provide an example of how people manage impressions in the classroom.

 

ANS:

People’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favourable to their own interests or image. Examples will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   page 132

 

  1. Define the term self-fulfilling prophecy and provide an example.

 

ANS:

A false belief or prediction that produces behaviour that makes the originally false belief come true.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   page 130

 

  1. Discuss how social networks work for homeless people.

 

ANS:

A social network is a series of social relationships that link an individual to others. Social networks among homeless people are generally formed around issues of survival and support.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125

 

  1. What is the main difference between a group and a social institution?

 

ANS:

A group is composed of specific, identifiable people. An institution is a standardized way of doing something.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   page 125

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Sociology in Our Times 6th Canadian Edition by Murray – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.