Sociology in Modules 4th Edition By Schaefer – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Philip Zimbardo’s study of a simulated prison environment, using college students as prisoners and prison guards,
    A.indicated that it is impossible to replicate a “real life” situation in a laboratory.
    B. demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
    C. indicated that social interactions are not influenced by social structure characteristics.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social interaction

  1. Social interaction is
    A.the process of learning norms, values, beliefs, and other requirements for effective participation in social groups.
    B. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
    C. the ways in which people respond to one another.
    D. a series of relationships linking a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social interaction

 

  1. According to Herbert Blumer, a distinctive characteristic of human interaction is that
    A.the reality of humans is shaped by our perceptions and evaluations.
    B. humans respond to behavior based on the meaning we attach to the actions of others.
    C. humans interpret or define each other’s actions.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social interaction

  1. Which of the following is true regarding marriage in Japan?
    A.Most husbands do not call their wife by name.
    B. Husbands say “I love you” more often than those of other nationalities.
    C. Most married Japanese couples do not actually love one another.
    D. Marriage is considered more a relationship than a social status.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social interaction

  1. One crucial aspect of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant group to
    A.define a society’s values.
    B. define social reality.
    C. mold the “definition of the situation.”
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social interaction

 

  1. When observing that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that person or situation has for them, William I. Thomas was writing from which perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Social interaction
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
    A.socialization
    B. social structure
    C. social interaction
    D. culture

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?
    A.status
    B. culture
    C. social structure
    D. Gemeinschaft

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure
Topic: Status

 

  1. Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of
    A.statuses.
    B. social roles.
    C. groups.
    D. social networks.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social structure
Topic: Status

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?
    A.social role
    B. structural role
    C. achieved role
    D. ascribed role

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social roles
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which of the following statements about social roles is correct?
    A.The roles that belong to a social status are always performed in the same manner.
    B. Social roles are always performed in the same manner by those holding ascribed, but not achieved, statuses.
    C. Actual performance of a role varies from individual to individual.
    D. Role expectations and actual role performances never vary.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social roles
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society’s stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. A social network is
    A.a social structure that derives its existence from the social interactions through which people define and redefine its character.
    B. an attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.
    C. a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social networks
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which of the following terms is used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs?
    A.social networks
    B. social institutions
    C. functional prerequisites
    D. communities

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a social institution?
    A.the U.S. government
    B. a group of passengers on an inner-city bus
    C. the members of a stamp-collecting society
    D. a children’s playgroup

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Social structure

  1. Ray is an African American who is currently enrolled at a four-year university where he is studying social work. Which of the following is his achieved status?
    A.social worker
    B. male
    C. African American
    D. college student

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Status

  1. An ascribed status is a social position
    A.attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. that is earned.
    D. that is reached as a result of negotiation.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Status

 

  1. Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual’s
    A.race.
    B. gender.
    C. age.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

  1. Which of the following is an achieved status?
    A.race
    B. gender
    C. occupation
    D. age

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

  1. Which sociological perspective is especially interested in ascribed statuses because they often confer privileges or reflect a person’s membership in a subordinate group?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

 

  1. You walk into your women’s studies class, and you look at the person sitting to your left. He is the only male in the class; he is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?
    A.his age
    B. his marital status
    C. his gender
    D. his interest in tennis

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Status

  1. Which of the following statements about an ascribed status is correct?
    A.It is easy to change when an individual becomes older.
    B. It has the same social meaning in every society.
    C. It is based on an individual’s skills.
    D. It is generally biological in origin, but it is significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it within a given culture.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

  1. An achieved status is a social position
    A.attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. that is assigned to an individual at birth.
    D. that is given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Status

 

  1. An individual can acquire an achieved status by
    A.attending school.
    B. establishing a friendship.
    C. inventing a new product.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

  1. A master status is a
    A.category used by sociologists for any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
    B. social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    C. status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position within society.
    D. series of social relationships linking a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Status

  1. When Malcolm X’s eighth grade teacher ignored Malcolm’s academic and social successes, dismissed his desired career goal of lawyer, and instead suggested he become a carpenter, the teacher was viewing Malcolm’s race as a(n)
    A.achieved status.
    B. master status.
    C. ascribed status.
    D. assigned status.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Status

 

  1. Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?
    A.role strain
    B. role conflict
    C. role ambiguity
    D. role exit

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Role conflict

  1. Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create
    A.role strain.
    B. role conflict.
    C. role exit.
    D. status displacement.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Role conflict

  1. The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as
    A.role conflict.
    B. role strain.
    C. role exit.
    D. resocialization.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Role strain

 

  1. Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh studied
    A.role conflict among internal affairs officers in police departments.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networking among Black businesswomen.
    D. sociocultural evolution.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Role exit

  1. Role exit is defined as
    A.the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
    B. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
    C. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise within one social position occupied by an individual.
    D. a set of expectations of people who occupy a given social position.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Role exit

  1. In Ebaugh’s four stages of the process of role exit, which of the following is a core element of the first stage?
    A.searching for alternatives
    B. identity creation
    C. doubt
    D. action

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Role exit

 

  1. A(n) ________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.
    A.group
    B. negotiation team
    C. organic solidarity
    D. aggregate

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

  1. Which of the following statements about social networks is true?
    A.Even network connections that are weak may be useful.
    B. Social networks consist exclusively of direct ties to others.
    C. Networking in the workplace pays off more for women than for men.
    D. Social networks do not benefit those who are unemployed.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social networks

  1. Studies have shown that which of the following is true in terms of the use of social networks for job searching and career advancement?
    A.Networking pays off more for white men.
    B. Men are more likely to rely on classified advertisements.
    C. Networking pays off more for women.
    D. More female executives use networking than male executives.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social networks

 

  1. Sociological research that maps sexual relationships among high school students is an example of research on
    A.ascribed statuses.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networks.
    D. social institutions.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social networks

  1. A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of
    A.role connection.
    B. impression management.
    C. status assistance.
    D. social networking.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social networks

  1. Which of the following is true of obesity in regards to social ties?
    A.The obese are most frequently in social groups with the non-obese.
    B. Weight gain in one person is often related to weight gain of that person’s friends and family.
    C. Obese people have few social ties.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social networks

 

  1. Which sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Functional prerequisites are
    A.tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
    C. social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. attempts to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Which of the following functional prerequisites was NOT fulfilled by the religious sect known as the Shakers?
    A.replacing personnel
    B. teaching new recruits
    C. producing and distributing goods and services
    D. preserving order

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

 

  1. The patriotic behavior of U.S. citizens on January 20, 2009, in coming to witness the Inauguration of President Barack Obama represents what kind of functionalist prerequisite?
    A.teaching new recruits
    B. preserving order
    C. replacing personnel
    D. providing and maintaining a sense of purpose

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. The conflict perspective holds that social institutions
    A.maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.
    B. preserve order and equality.
    C. train personnel equitably.
    D. provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Mitchell Duneier studied the social network and social behavior of whom, as a method of researching the effects of social institutions on them?
    A.street corner preachers
    B. female word processors
    C. warehouse workers
    D. tollbooth operators

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social institutions

 

  1. Mitchell Duneier’s work regarding social networks operates from which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their social behavior?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Question Category: Application-Perspectives
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. In a society organized around mechanical solidarity, which of the following tasks would you likely engage in?
    A.preparing food
    B. building homes
    C. making clothing
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more
    A.mechanical.
    B. organic.
    C. preservationist.
    D. institutionalized.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies used the term ________ to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group.
    A.Gemeinschaft
    B. Gesellschaft
    C. mechanical solidarity
    D. organic solidarity

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies with the term
    A.Gesellschaft.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a
    A.Gemeinschaft.
    B. Gesellschaft.
    C. Gesundheit.
    D. Glockenspiel.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

  1. Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to a fast-food restaurant and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection, where an unknown police officer raised her hand. These experiences are all characteristic of
    A.Gesellschaft relationships.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft relationships.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social structure

  1. In Gerhard Lenski’s view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of
    A.farming.
    B. education.
    C. technology.
    D. banking.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguishes between preindustrial and industrial societies was developed by
    A.Ferdinand Tönnies.
    B. Gerhard Lenski.
    C. Jonathan Kozol.
    D. William I. Thomas.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which of the following can be defined as the long-term trends in societies resulting from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?
    A.postmodernism
    B. negotiated order
    C. industrialization
    D. sociocultural evolution

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live is called a(n)
    A.agrarian society.
    B. hunting-and-gathering society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. slash-and-burn farming society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens. Their primary tool is a stone ax, which they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a(n)
    A.agrarian society.
    B. horticultural society.
    C. hunting-and-gathering society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social structure

  1. In the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. This type of society is called a(n)
    A.hunting-and-gathering society.
    B. agrarian society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. The Industrial Revolution, which took place largely in England, pushing societies from agrarian-based economies to those dependent on mechanization, first appeared when?
    A.1910-1940
    B. 1870-1905
    C. 1835-1870
    D. 1760-1830

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a(n)
    A.industrial society.
    B. postindustrial society.
    C. postmodern society.
    D. preindustrial society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which of the following was characteristic of the emergence of industrial societies?
    A.Workplaces moved from the family cottage to centralized locations.
    B. Individuals, villages, and regions began to exchange goods and services and become interdependent.
    C. Formal educational institutions developed.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

  1. A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a(n)
    A.industrial society.
    B. postmodern society.
    C. postindustrial society.
    D. agrarian society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is a(n)
    A.preindustrial society.
    B. postindustrial society.
    C. industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

  1. Daniel Bell views postindustrial societies as consensual, because he believes that postindustrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell’s view represents which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure
Topic: Sociological perspectives

 

  1. Which functionalist theorist views the transition from industrial to postindustrial societies as a positive development because he sees a general decline in organized working-class groups and a rise in interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment?
    A.Everett Hughes
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Daniel Bell
    D. Karl Marx

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Social structure

  1. A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a(n)
    A.preindustrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. postindustrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. In the United States, we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat sushi and other Japanese foods, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of a(n)
    A.preindustrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. postindustrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. A primary group is a small group that is
    A.characterized by impersonality, with little intimacy or mutual understanding.
    B. characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
    C. used as a standard for evaluating oneself and one’s behavior.
    D. characterized by impersonality and face-to-face associations.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

  1. Which type of group plays a pivotal role in the socialization process and the development of roles and statuses?
    A.secondary groups
    B. primary groups
    C. aggregates
    D. formal organizations

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Groups

  1. Which of the following is likely to be a primary group?
    A.all of the players in the National Hockey League
    B. the American Civil Liberties Union
    C. the members of a neighborhood softball team
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Groups

 

  1. Which type of group is most important for socialization?
    A.primary groups
    B. coalitions
    C. out-groups
    D. All of these groups are critical for socialization.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Groups

  1. Which term is used to refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding?
    A.primary group
    B. secondary group
    C. tertiary group
    D. reference group

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

  1. Which of the following is most likely to be a secondary group?
    A.the members of a small weekly seminar class in cultural diversity
    B. the members of a small commune in Idaho
    C. the members of the United Nations General Assembly
    D. the members of a family

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Groups

 

  1. The distinction between “in-groups” and “out-groups” was first made by
    A.Erving Goffman.
    B. Philip Zimbardo.
    C. William Graham Sumner.
    D. Charles Horton Cooley.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Groups

  1. Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a(n)
    A.dyad.
    B. triad.
    C. in-group.
    D. out-group.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

  1. A group to which people feel they do not belong is called a(n)
    A.social network.
    B. primary group.
    C. reference group.
    D. out-group.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

 

  1. Proper behavior for the in-group is often viewed as unacceptable behavior for the out-group. Sociologist Robert Merton describes this process as the conversion of “in-group virtues” into
    A.”in-group vices.”
    B. “out-group virtues.”
    C. “out-group vices.”
    D. goal displacement.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Groups

  1. The destructive consequences of tensions between in-groups and out-groups would probably be stressed by which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Perspectives
Topic: Groups
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. A woman who has not attended school in 13 years enrolls for classes at the local community college. She is afraid that her younger classmates might not accept her. On the first day of class, she observes the clothing styles of her classmates, and after school she goes shopping and purchases similar clothes. Her classmates could be considered
    A.a reference group.
    B. a secondary group.
    C. a focus group.
    D. a status group.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Groups

 

  1. Which sociological perspective would emphasize the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Perspectives
Topic: Groups
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior?
    A.primary group
    B. secondary group
    C. tertiary group
    D. reference group

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Groups

  1. A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered
    A.an out-group.
    B. a focus group.
    C. a triad.
    D. a reference group.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Groups

 

  1. Special-purpose groups designed and structured in the interests of maximum efficiency are known as
    A.informal organizations.
    B. formal organizations.
    C. coalitions.
    D. primary groups.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Social structure

  1. Formal organizations may vary in
    A.size.
    B. degree of efficiency.
    C. specificity of goals.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which of the following is an example of a formal organization?
    A.a community college basketball team
    B. the people in a New York City subway car
    C. the General Motors Corporation
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Which one of the following is a typical ascribed status that influences people’s self-images within formal organizations?
    A.gender
    B. college education
    C. job title
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Social structure

  1. A bureaucracy is a(n)
    A.two-member group.
    B. small group in which there is little intimacy or mutual understanding and in which relationships are impersonal.
    C. organization established on the basis of common interest whose members volunteer or even pay to participate.
    D. component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies
Topic: Social structure

  1. Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?
    A.Max Weber
    B. Suzanne Staggenborg
    C. David Sills
    D. Norman Denzin

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called a(n)
    A.coalition.
    B. ideal type.
    C. metaphor.
    D. questionnaire.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of
    A.employment based on technical qualifications.
    B. hierarchy of authority.
    C. division of labor.
    D. written rules and regulations.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels charged that the capitalist system reduces workers to a mere “appendage of the machine,” which leads to extreme
    A.motion sickness.
    B. alienation.
    C. anomie.
    D. goal displacement.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. Which of the following does Marx and conflict theorists believe is weakened by restricting workers to very small tasks?
    A.job security
    B. family values
    C. economic positions
    D. hierarchy of control

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems is known as
    A.goal displacement.
    B. oligarchy.
    C. manifest destiny.
    D. trained incapacity.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. The failure of various government intelligence-gathering organizations to detect the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, illustrates which poorly functioning aspect of government bureaucracy?
    A.division of labor
    B. hierarchy of authority
    C. impersonality
    D. employment based on technical qualifications

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. A college is run by a board of trustees, which hires a president, who in turn selects vice presidents, deans, and other administrators. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of
    A.written rules and regulations.
    B. division of labor.
    C. impersonality.
    D. hierarchy of authority.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. Goal displacement is
    A.the tendency for workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems.
    B. a principle of organizational life according to which each individual within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
    C. overzealous conformity to official regulations within a bureaucracy.
    D. the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. A domestic abuse counselor fails to listen to an injured woman because the woman has no valid proof of U.S. citizenship. This is an example of
    A.goal displacement.
    B. goal multiplication.
    C. trained incapacity.
    D. hierarchy of authority.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. Which of these comments about a bureaucracy is correct?
    A.The division of labor has the positive consequence of producing efficiency in large-scale organizations.
    B. The hierarchy of authority has the negative consequence for the individual of depriving employees a voice in decision making.
    C. An organization’s written rules and regulations have the negative consequence of leading to goal displacement.
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. Which of the following is an example of a negative consequence of bureaucratization?
    A.the Peter principle
    B. employees deprived of a voice in decision making
    C. the stifling of initiative and imagination
    D. All of these answers are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. The untested hypothesis that every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence is referred to as
    A.goal displacement.
    B. the Peter principle.
    C. trained incapacity.
    D. bureaucracy.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. Bureaucratization is
    A.an element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
    C. the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
    D. the process through which an organization identifies an entirely new objective because its traditional goals have been either realized or denied.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. The “iron law of oligarchy” is a principle
    A.of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.
    B. under which organizations are established on the basis of common interests.
    C. of organizational life according to which each individual in a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
    D. None of these answers is correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. Oligarchies emerge because
    A.people in leadership roles have skills, knowledge, or charismatic appeal.
    B. the most capable people always rise to the top of a bureaucracy, and they are respected by their followers, who permit them to rule unhindered.
    C. the rank and file of a movement or organization look to leaders for direction and thereby reinforce the process of rule by a few.
    D. people in leadership roles have skills, knowledge, or charismatic appeal; and the rank and file of a movement or organization look to leaders for direction and thereby reinforce the process of rule by a few.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. Activists in a large city join forces to create a new organization with the goal of preserving landmark buildings that have historical importance. At first, the organization functions democratically, but over time it is taken over by three people. These leaders establish a bureaucratic structure that helps them to maintain control of the organization. These developments can be best explained by
    A.Parkinson’s law.
    B. the Peter principle.
    C. the iron law of oligarchy.
    D. the scientific management approach.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Application-Concept
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

  1. According to the classical theory of formal organizations, workers are motivated almost entirely by
    A.economic rewards.
    B. fear of their superiors.
    C. norms of conformity to the group.
    D. the need for job satisfaction.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Definition
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. Planning based on the human relations approach focuses on
    A.the dangers of collective bargaining.
    B. the role of people, communication, and participation among company executives.
    C. the conflict perspective’s critique of capitalism.
    D. workers’ feelings, frustrations, and emotional needs for job satisfaction in bureaucracies.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Information
Topic: Bureaucracies

  1. The phrase “bureaucracy’s other face,” which refers to the unofficial activities and interactions that are a basic part of daily organizational life, was coined by
    A.Peter Blau.
    B. James Tucker.
    C. Alvin Gouldner.
    D. Charles Page.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Question Category: Sociologists
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. The 2004 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal brought new relevance to the 1970s prison experiments conducted with college students at Stanford University.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Topic: Social interaction

  1. Reality is shaped by our definitions—but not our perceptions and evaluations.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain the relationship between social reality and social interaction.
Topic: Social interaction

  1. Positive age-seniority language distinctions are uncommon in the United States.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Topic: Status

  1. Age is an achieved status.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Topic: Status

 

  1. Gender is an ascribed status.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Topic: Status

  1. In the U.S., the ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses that have an important impact on one’s potential to achieve a desired professional and social status.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Topic: Status

  1. The last stage of role exit is the departure or disengagement from a role that has been central to one’s identity.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: Give examples of role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
Topic: Role exit

  1. Friends and family are examples of social networks.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Topic: Social networks

 

  1. Social networks influence the way in which people behave.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Topic: Social networks

  1. The mass media are an example of a social institution.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Topic: Social institutions

  1. Émile Durkheim argued that mechanical solidarity is characteristic of the interdependence of people in a complex society.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Topic: Social structure

  1. The sociocultural evolutionary approach emphasizes a developmental perspective and pictures different types of social structures coexisting within the same society.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. A postmodern society is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and information on a mass scale.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Topic: Social structure

  1. One defining characteristic of groups, in sociological terms, is that members of a group share some sense of belonging to that group.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Topic: Groups

  1. Formal organizations are designed for special purposes but are, unlike bureaucracies, structured for members’ personal goal satisfaction rather than for organizational efficiency.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Topic: Bureaucracies

 

Essay Questions

  1. Explain the difference between ascribed and achieved statuses, and give examples to support your answer.

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: Explain how ascribed status and master status can constrain achieved status.
Topic: Status

 

  1. Discuss how the three major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism view the role of social institutions in society.

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: Analyze the functionalist, interactionist, and conflict views of social institutions.
Topic: Social institutions
Topic: Sociological perspectives

  1. Explain the ways in which a social network can either help or hinder a person.

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: List and summarize the five elements of social structure.
Topic: Social networks

  1. Describe sociologist Gerhard Lenski’s stages of sociocultural evolution and explain how his view differs from that of Émile Durkheim’s mechanical and organic solidarity and Ferdinand Tönnies’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: Describe Durkheim’s, Tönnies’s, and Lenski’s approaches to classifying forms of social structure.
Topic: Social structure

 

  1. Using the sociological study of group participation following the Virginia Tech shootings of April 2007 as an example, discuss the value of social groups in the face of tragedy. Which appears more valuable at such times: continued participation in established group membership, or participation in groups formed specifically to address a precipitating event such as the shootings? Why might this be the case?

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: Differentiate among the five different types of groups.
Topic: Groups

  1. Describe some of the potential negative consequences of the process of bureaucratization.

Answer may vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: List and describe the five basic characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy according to Weber.
Topic: Bureaucracies

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