Sociology A Brief Introduction Canadian 5th Edition by Schaefer – Test Bank

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05

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Philip Zimbardo’s study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards:
    A. indicated that it is impossible to replicate a “real life” situation in a laboratory.
    B. demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
    C. indicated that social interactions are not influenced by social structure characteristics.
    D. all of these

 

  1. Social interaction is:
    A. the process of learning norms, values, beliefs, and other requirements for effective participation in social groups.
    B. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
    C. the ways in which people respond to one another.
    D. a series of relationships linking a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of social interaction?
    A. Felipe watches television and does needlepoint.
    B. Mary wallpapers her bedroom walls.
    C. Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which of the following terms refer to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
    A. socialization
    B. social structure
    C. social interaction
    D. culture

 

  1. According to Herbert Blumer, the distinctive characteristic of human interaction is that:
    A. the reality of humans is shaped by our perceptions, and evaluations.
    B. humans respond to behaviour based on the meaning we attach to the actions of others.
    C. humans interpret or define each other’s actions.
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which of the following believed that the “distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that human beings interpret or ‘define’ each other’s actions instead of merely reacting to each other’s actions?”
    A. Philip Zimbardo
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Herbert Blumer
    D. Ferdinand Tönnies

 

  1. Among the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant group to:
    A. define a society’s values.
    B. define social reality.
    C. mould the “definition of the situation.”
    D. all of these.

 

  1. The analysis of how the “definition of the situation” can mould the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the:
    A. functionalist perspective.
    B. conflict perspective.
    C. interactionist perspective.
    D. feminist perspective.

 

  1. William I. Thomas notes that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. This view represents which sociological perspective?
    A. functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?
    A. status
    B. culture
    C. social structure
    D. Gemeinschaft

 

  1. Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of:
    A. statuses.
    B. social roles.
    C. groups.
    D. social networks.

 

  1. An ascribed status is a social position:
    A. attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. that is earned.
    D. that is reached as a result of negotiation.

 

  1. Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual’s:
    A. race.
    B. gender.
    C. age.
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which of the following statements about an ascribed status is correct?
    A. It is easy to change when an individual becomes older.
    B. It has the same social meaning in every society.
    C. It is based on an individual’s skills.
    D. It is biological in origin, but significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it within a given culture.

 

  1. Which of the following is an ascribed status?
    A. a major league baseball player
    B. a corporation president
    C. a South African
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which sociological perspective is especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person’s membership in a subordinate group?
    A. functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

  1. An achieved status is a social position:
    A. attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. assigned to an individual at birth.
    D. given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.

 

  1. An individual can acquire an achieved status by:
    A. attending school.
    B. establishing a friendship.
    C. inventing a new product.
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which of the following statements about achieved status is correct?
    A. it is attributed to an individual at birth.
    B. it always increases as an individual gets older.
    C. it can be acquired through high educational attainment.
    D. all of these.

 

  1. A master status is a:
    A. term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
    B. social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    C. status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position within society.
    D. series of social relationships linking a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

  1. You walk into your women’s studies class, and you look at the person sitting to your left. He is the only male in the class; he is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?
    A. his age
    B. his marital status
    C. his gender
    D. his interest in tennis

 

  1. The ______________ model emphasizes that those with disabilities face widespread prejudice, discrimination, and segregation.
    A. Gemeinschaft
    B. medical
    C. human-rights
    D. organic

 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?
    A. social role
    B. structural role
    C. achieved role
    D. ascribed role

 

  1. Which of the following statements about social roles is correct?
    A. The roles that belong to a social status are always performed in the same manner.
    B. Social roles are always performed in the same manner by those holding ascribed, but not achieved, statuses.
    C. Actual performance of a role varies from individual to individual.
    D. Role expectations and actual role performances never vary.

 

  1. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society’s stability by enabling members to anticipate the behaviour of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?
    A. functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

  1. Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?
    A. role strain
    B. role conflict
    C. role ambiguity
    D. role exit

 

  1. Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current student asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create:
    A. role strain.
    B. role conflict.
    C. role exit.
    D. status displacement.

 

  1. A woman in her mid-30s has enrolled in a local community college to earn a degree in horticulture. The night before her first major course examination, she is asked by her boss to work several additional hours because they have just received a major order that needs to be processed immediately. This student is experiencing:
    A. role reversal.
    B. role conflict.
    C. role exit.
    D. status incompatibility.

 

  1. The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as:
    A. role conflict.
    B. role strain.
    C. role exit.
    D. resocialization.

 

  1. Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh studied:
    A. role conflict among internal affairs officers in police departments.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networking among Black businesswomen.
    D. sociocultural evolution.

 

  1. Role exit is defined as:
    A. the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity and the re-establishment of an identity in a new role.
    B. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
    C. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise within one social position occupied by an individual.
    D. a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position.

 

  1. A(an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact regularly and consciously.
    A. group
    B. negotiation team
    C. organic solidarity
    D. aggregate

 

  1. A primary group is a small group that is:
    A. characterized by impersonality, with little intimacy or mutual understanding.
    B. characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
    C. used as a standard for evaluating oneself and one’s behaviour.
    D. characterized by impersonality and face-to-face associations.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about a primary group is correct?
    A. it is always composed of same-sex members.
    B. it plays an important role in the socialization process.
    C. it must contain at least three members.
    D. it is associated with formal organizations.

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to be a primary group?
    A. all of the players in the National Hockey League
    B. the American Civil Liberties Union
    C. the members of a neighbourhood softball team
    D. all of these

 

  1. The distinction between “in-groups” and “out-groups” was first made by:
    A. Erving Goffman.
    B. Philip Zimbardo.
    C. William Graham Sumner.
    D. Charles Horton Cooley.

 

  1. Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a(an):
    A. dyad.
    B. triad.
    C. in-group.
    D. out-group.

 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behaviour?
    A. primary group
    B. secondary group
    C. tertiary group
    D. reference group

 

  1. A temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal is called a:
    A. negotiation.
    B. self-help group.
    C. coalition.
    D. in-group.

 

  1. A social network is:
    A. a social structure that derives its existence from the social interactions through which people define and redefine its character.
    B. an attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.
    C. a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.

 

  1. Social networks:
    A. may constrain individuals by limiting the range of their interactions.
    B. may empower people by making vast resources available to them.
    C. do not constrain nor empower people.
    D. Both constrain and empower people.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about social networks is true?
    A. Even network connections that are weak may be useful.
    B. Social networks consist exclusively of direct ties to others.
    C. Networking in the workplace pays off more for women than for men.
    D. About 25 percent of male executives find new jobs through social networks.

 

  1. Sociological research that maps Internet relationships among Facebook users is an example of research on:
    A. ascribed statuses.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networks.
    D. social institutions.

 

  1. Which of the following is not a functional prerequisite?
    A. Preserving order
    B. Replacing personnel
    C. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
    D. All of these are functional prerequisites

 

  1. Which sociological perspective argues that social institutions fulfill certain essential functions?
    A. Feminist perspective
    B. Interactionist perspective
    C. Functionalist perspective
    D. Conflict perspective

 

  1. A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of:
    A. role connection.
    B. impression management.
    C. status assistance.
    D. social networking.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about social institutions is correct?
    A. they are built according to British architectural standards.
    B. they are organized patterns of beliefs and behaviours.
    C. they are concerned with highly abstract and ancient philosophical questions.
    D. they form and are disbanded rapidly in all human societies.

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a social institution?
    A. the Canadian government
    B. a group of passengers on an inner-city bus
    C. the members of a stamp-collecting society
    D. a children’s playgroup

 

  1. Which sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive?
    A. functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

  1. Functional prerequisites are:
    A. tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour centered on basic social needs.
    C. social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. attempts to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about functional prerequisites is correct?
    A. they include the production and distribution of goods and services.
    B. they foster the development of meaningful dialogue.
    C. they limit consensus concerning their values or commitment to the group.
    D. they encourage the need to explore new territories.

 

  1. The patriotic behaviour of U.S. citizens after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. is a testament to the importance of:
    A. teaching new recruits.
    B. preserving order.
    C. replacing personnel.
    D. providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.

 

  1. The conflict view holds that social institutions:
    A. maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.
    B. preserve order and equality.
    C. train personnel equitably.
    D. provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness.

 

  1. Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more:
    A. mechanical.
    B. organic.
    C. preservationist.
    D. institutionalized.

 

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies used the term __________ to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group.
    A. Gemeinschaft
    B. Gesellschaft
    C. mechanical solidarity
    D. organic solidarity

 

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a:
    A. Gemeinschaft.
    B. Gesellschaft.
    C. Gesundheit.
    D. Glockenspiel.

 

  1. In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies as a(an):
    A. Gesellschaft.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft.

 

  1. Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to Wendy’s and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection, where an unknown police officer raised her hand. These experiences are all characteristic of:
    A. Gesellschaft relationships.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft relationships.

 

  1. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft are concepts that were introduced to sociology by:
    A. Ferdinand Tönnies.
    B. Émile Durkheim.
    C. Jonathan Kozol.
    D. William I. Thomas.

 

  1. In Gerhard Lenski’s view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of:
    A. farming.
    B. education.
    C. technology.
    D. banking.

 

  1. An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguishes between pre-industrial and industrial societies was developed by:
    A. Ferdinand Tönnies.
    B. Gerhard Lenski.
    C. Jonathan Kozol.
    D. William I. Thomas.

 

  1. Which of the following can be defined as the long-term trends in societies resulting from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?
    A. postmodernism
    B. negotiated order
    C. industrialization
    D. sociocultural evolution

 

  1. A pre-industrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibres are readily available in order to live is called a(an):
    A. agrarian society.
    B. hunting-and-gathering society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. slash-and-burn farming society.

 

  1. The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens. Their primary tool is a stone ax, which they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a(an):
    A. agrarian society.
    B. horticultural society.
    C. hunting-and-gathering society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

  1. In the most technologically advanced form of pre-industrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. This type of society is called a(an):
    A. hunting-and-gathering society.
    B. agrarian society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

  1. A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a(an):
    A. industrial society.
    B. post-industrial society.
    C. postmodern society.
    D. pre-industrial society.

 

  1. Which of the following is characteristic of the emergence of industrial societies?
    A. Families and communities could not continue to function as self-sufficient units.
    B. Individuals, villages, and regions began to exchange goods and services and become interdependent.
    C. Formal educational institutions developed.
    D. all of these

 

  1. A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a(an):
    A. industrial society.
    B. postmodern society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. agrarian society.

 

  1. A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is a(an):
    A. pre-industrial society.
    B. post-industrial society.
    C. industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

  1. Daniel Bell views post-industrial societies as consensual, because he believes that post-industrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell’s view represents which sociological perspective?
    A. functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

  1. Which functionalist theorist views the transition from industrial to post-industrial societies as a positive development because he sees a general decline in organized working-class groups and a rise in interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment?
    A. Everett Hughes
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Daniel Bell
    D. Karl Marx

 

  1. Which conflict theorist, who wrote The Other America, is critical of the significance that functionalists place on the growing class of white-collar workers in post-industrial societies?
    A. Michael Harrington
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Daniel Bell
    D. Jonathan Kozol

 

  1. A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a(an):
    A. pre-industrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

  1. In Canada, we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat sushi and other Japanese foods, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of a(an):
    A. pre-industrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

  1. Formal organizations may vary in:
    A. size.
    B. degree of efficiency.
    C. specificity of goals.
    D. all of these.

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a formal organization?
    A. a community college basketball team
    B. the people in a New York City subway car
    C. the General Motors Corporation
    D. all of these

 

  1. Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?
    A. Max Weber
    B. Suzanne Staggenborg
    C. David Sills
    D. Norman Denzin

 

  1. A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called a(an):
    A. coalition.
    B. ideal type.
    C. metaphor.
    D. questionnaire.

 

  1. By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of:
    A. employment based on technical qualifications.
    B. hierarchy of authority.
    C. division of labor.
    D. written rules and regulations.

 

  1. Bureaucratization is:
    A. an element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour centered on basic social needs.
    C. the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
    D. the process through which an organization identifies an entirely new objective because its traditional goals have been either realized or denied.

 

  1. The “iron law of oligarchy” is a principle:
    A. of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.
    B. of organizational life according to which organizations are established on the basis of common interests.
    C. of organizational life according to which each individual in a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
    D. none of these.

 

  1. Which statement best describes the position taken by the classical theorists of formal organizations?
    A. workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards.
    B. employers manage companies mostly according to Roman tradition.
    C. workers are encouraged to respect their superiors.
    D. employers foster the development of job satisfaction.

 

  1. Simone works for a company that provides an on-site day care center and fitness club for its employees. Such practices are adopted by businesses in an effort to address what kind(s) of concerns?
    A. the dangers of collective bargaining.
    B. the role of people, communication, and participation within small groups.
    C. the conflict perspective’s critique of capitalism.
    D. workers’ feelings, frustrations, and emotional needs for job satisfaction in bureaucracies.

 

  1. Which of the following is not a form of organizational restructuring?
    A. Collective decision making
    B. Minimal hierarchy
    C. Work teams
    D. All of these are forms of organizational restructuring

 

  1. Which statement best describes telecommuters?
    A. They are employees who live at least 100 km from their workplace.
    B. They are employees who only work on Internet projects.
    C. They are employees who are not part of formal organizations.
    D. They are employees who work at home and are linked to work via phone, fax, and Internet.

 

  1. Which statement best describes recent change in the Canadian union movement?
    A. it has evolved into a gender balanced movement.
    B. there has been increasing membership from the private sector.
    C. its membership has become male dominated.
    D. there has been increasing membership from the public sector.

 

  1. In Canada, the ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses that have an important impact on one’s potential to achieve a desired professional and social status.
    True    False

 

  1. The last stage of role exit is the departure or disengagement from a role that has been central to one’s identity.
    True    False

 

  1. The distinction between primary groups and secondary groups is not always clear, as some groups may have some characteristics of each type.
    True    False

 

  1. We change reference groups as we take on different statuses during our lives.
    True    False

 

  1. The mass media is an example of a social institution.
    True    False

 

  1. Émile Durkheim argued that mechanical solidarity is characteristic of the interdependence of people in a complex society.
    True    False

 

  1. The sociocultural evolutionary approach emphasizes a developmental perspective and pictures different types of social structures coexisting within the same society.
    True    False

 

  1. A postmodern society is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and information on a mass scale.
    True    False

 

  1. A negative consequence of the written rules and regulations of a bureaucracy is that they contribute to feelings of alienation.
    True    False

 

  1. Define the differences between ascribed and achieved statuses, and give examples to support your answer.

 

 

 

 

  1. Define the concepts of in-groups, out-groups and reference groups, and describe the role of each type of group. Give examples to illustrate your answer.

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss how the three major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism view the role of social institutions in society.

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe sociologist Gerhard Lenski’s stages of sociocultural evolution and explain how his view differs from that of Émile Durkheim’s mechanical and organic solidarity and Ferdinand Tönnies’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the various components of a bureaucracy as suggested by Max Weber. How did Weber perceive the efficiency of bureaucracies?

 

 

 

 

 

 

05 Key

  1. Philip Zimbardo’s study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards:
    A.indicated that it is impossible to replicate a “real life” situation in a laboratory.
    B. demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
    C. indicated that social interactions are not influenced by social structure characteristics.
    D. all of these

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #1
 

  1. Social interaction is:
    A.the process of learning norms, values, beliefs, and other requirements for effective participation in social groups.
    B. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
    C. the ways in which people respond to one another.
    D. a series of relationships linking a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #2
 

  1. Which of the following is an example of social interaction?
    A.Felipe watches television and does needlepoint.
    B. Mary wallpapers her bedroom walls.
    C. Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.
    D. all of these

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #3
 

  1. Which of the following terms refer to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
    A.socialization
    B. social structure
    C. social interaction
    D. culture

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #4
 

  1. According to Herbert Blumer, the distinctive characteristic of human interaction is that:
    A.the reality of humans is shaped by our perceptions, and evaluations.
    B. humans respond to behaviour based on the meaning we attach to the actions of others.
    C. humans interpret or define each other’s actions.
    D. all of these

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #5
 

  1. Which of the following believed that the “distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that human beings interpret or ‘define’ each other’s actions instead of merely reacting to each other’s actions?”
    A.Philip Zimbardo
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Herbert Blumer
    D. Ferdinand Tönnies

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #6
 

  1. Among the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant group to:
    A.define a society’s values.
    B. define social reality.
    C. mould the “definition of the situation.”
    D. all of these.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #7
 

  1. The analysis of how the “definition of the situation” can mould the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the:
    A.functionalist perspective.
    B. conflict perspective.
    C. interactionist perspective.
    D. feminist perspective.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #8
 

  1. William I. Thomas notes that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. This view represents which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #9
 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?
    A.status
    B. culture
    C. social structure
    D. Gemeinschaft

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #10
 

  1. Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of:
    A.statuses.
    B. social roles.
    C. groups.
    D. social networks.

 

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Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #11
 

  1. An ascribed status is a social position:
    A.attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. that is earned.
    D. that is reached as a result of negotiation.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #12
 

  1. Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual’s:
    A.race.
    B. gender.
    C. age.
    D. all of these

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #13
 

  1. Which of the following statements about an ascribed status is correct?
    A.It is easy to change when an individual becomes older.
    B. It has the same social meaning in every society.
    C. It is based on an individual’s skills.
    D. It is biological in origin, but significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it within a given culture.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #14
 

  1. Which of the following is an ascribed status?
    A.a major league baseball player
    B. a corporation president
    C. a South African
    D. all of these

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #15
 

  1. Which sociological perspective is especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person’s membership in a subordinate group?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #16
 

  1. An achieved status is a social position:
    A.attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    B. “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
    C. assigned to an individual at birth.
    D. given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #17
 

  1. An individual can acquire an achieved status by:
    A.attending school.
    B. establishing a friendship.
    C. inventing a new product.
    D. all of these

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #18
 

  1. Which of the following statements about achieved status is correct?
    A.it is attributed to an individual at birth.
    B. it always increases as an individual gets older.
    C. it can be acquired through high educational attainment.
    D. all of these.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #19
 

  1. A master status is a:
    A.term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
    B. social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
    C. status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position within society.
    D. series of social relationships linking a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #20
 

  1. You walk into your women’s studies class, and you look at the person sitting to your left. He is the only male in the class; he is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?
    A.his age
    B. his marital status
    C. his gender
    D. his interest in tennis

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #21
 

  1. The ______________ model emphasizes that those with disabilities face widespread prejudice, discrimination, and segregation.
    A.Gemeinschaft
    B. medical
    C. human-rights
    D. organic

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #22
 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?
    A.social role
    B. structural role
    C. achieved role
    D. ascribed role

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #23
 

  1. Which of the following statements about social roles is correct?
    A.The roles that belong to a social status are always performed in the same manner.
    B. Social roles are always performed in the same manner by those holding ascribed, but not achieved, statuses.
    C. Actual performance of a role varies from individual to individual.
    D. Role expectations and actual role performances never vary.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #24
 

  1. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society’s stability by enabling members to anticipate the behaviour of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #25
 

  1. Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?
    A.role strain
    B. role conflict
    C. role ambiguity
    D. role exit

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #26
 

  1. Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current student asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create:
    A.role strain.
    B. role conflict.
    C. role exit.
    D. status displacement.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #27
 

  1. A woman in her mid-30s has enrolled in a local community college to earn a degree in horticulture. The night before her first major course examination, she is asked by her boss to work several additional hours because they have just received a major order that needs to be processed immediately. This student is experiencing:
    A.role reversal.
    B. role conflict.
    C. role exit.
    D. status incompatibility.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #28
 

  1. The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as:
    A.role conflict.
    B. role strain.
    C. role exit.
    D. resocialization.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #29
 

  1. Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh studied:
    A.role conflict among internal affairs officers in police departments.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networking among Black businesswomen.
    D. sociocultural evolution.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #30
 

  1. Role exit is defined as:
    A.the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity and the re-establishment of an identity in a new role.
    B. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
    C. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise within one social position occupied by an individual.
    D. a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #31
 

  1. A(an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact regularly and consciously.
    A.group
    B. negotiation team
    C. organic solidarity
    D. aggregate

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #32
 

  1. A primary group is a small group that is:
    A.characterized by impersonality, with little intimacy or mutual understanding.
    B. characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
    C. used as a standard for evaluating oneself and one’s behaviour.
    D. characterized by impersonality and face-to-face associations.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #33
 

  1. Which of the following statements about a primary group is correct?
    A.it is always composed of same-sex members.
    B. it plays an important role in the socialization process.
    C. it must contain at least three members.
    D. it is associated with formal organizations.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #34
 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to be a primary group?
    A.all of the players in the National Hockey League
    B. the American Civil Liberties Union
    C. the members of a neighbourhood softball team
    D. all of these

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #35
 

  1. The distinction between “in-groups” and “out-groups” was first made by:
    A.Erving Goffman.
    B. Philip Zimbardo.
    C. William Graham Sumner.
    D. Charles Horton Cooley.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #36
 

  1. Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a(an):
    A.dyad.
    B. triad.
    C. in-group.
    D. out-group.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #37
 

  1. Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behaviour?
    A.primary group
    B. secondary group
    C. tertiary group
    D. reference group

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #38
 

  1. A temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal is called a:
    A.negotiation.
    B. self-help group.
    C. coalition.
    D. in-group.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #39
 

  1. A social network is:
    A.a social structure that derives its existence from the social interactions through which people define and redefine its character.
    B. an attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.
    C. a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #40
 

  1. Social networks:
    A.may constrain individuals by limiting the range of their interactions.
    B. may empower people by making vast resources available to them.
    C. do not constrain nor empower people.
    D. Both constrain and empower people.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #41
 

  1. Which of the following statements about social networks is true?
    A.Even network connections that are weak may be useful.
    B. Social networks consist exclusively of direct ties to others.
    C. Networking in the workplace pays off more for women than for men.
    D. About 25 percent of male executives find new jobs through social networks.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #42
 

  1. Sociological research that maps Internet relationships among Facebook users is an example of research on:
    A.ascribed statuses.
    B. role exit.
    C. social networks.
    D. social institutions.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #43
 

  1. Which of the following is not a functional prerequisite?
    A.Preserving order
    B. Replacing personnel
    C. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
    D. All of these are functional prerequisites

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #44
 

  1. Which sociological perspective argues that social institutions fulfill certain essential functions?
    A.Feminist perspective
    B. Interactionist perspective
    C. Functionalist perspective
    D. Conflict perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #45
 

  1. A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of:
    A.role connection.
    B. impression management.
    C. status assistance.
    D. social networking.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #46
 

  1. Which of the following statements about social institutions is correct?
    A.they are built according to British architectural standards.
    B. they are organized patterns of beliefs and behaviours.
    C. they are concerned with highly abstract and ancient philosophical questions.
    D. they form and are disbanded rapidly in all human societies.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #47
 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a social institution?
    A.the Canadian government
    B. a group of passengers on an inner-city bus
    C. the members of a stamp-collecting society
    D. a children’s playgroup

 

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Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #48
 

  1. Which sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #49
 

  1. Functional prerequisites are:
    A.tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour centered on basic social needs.
    C. social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
    D. attempts to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #50
 

  1. Which of the following statements about functional prerequisites is correct?
    A.they include the production and distribution of goods and services.
    B. they foster the development of meaningful dialogue.
    C. they limit consensus concerning their values or commitment to the group.
    D. they encourage the need to explore new territories.

 

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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #51
 

  1. The patriotic behaviour of U.S. citizens after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. is a testament to the importance of:
    A.teaching new recruits.
    B. preserving order.
    C. replacing personnel.
    D. providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #52
 

  1. The conflict view holds that social institutions:
    A.maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.
    B. preserve order and equality.
    C. train personnel equitably.
    D. provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #53
 

  1. Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more:
    A.mechanical.
    B. organic.
    C. preservationist.
    D. institutionalized.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #54
 

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies used the term __________ to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group.
    A.Gemeinschaft
    B. Gesellschaft
    C. mechanical solidarity
    D. organic solidarity

 

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Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #55
 

  1. Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a:
    A.Gemeinschaft.
    B. Gesellschaft.
    C. Gesundheit.
    D. Glockenspiel.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #56
 

  1. In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies as a(an):
    A.Gesellschaft.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #57
 

  1. Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to Wendy’s and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection, where an unknown police officer raised her hand. These experiences are all characteristic of:
    A.Gesellschaft relationships.
    B. organic solidarity.
    C. mechanical solidarity.
    D. Gemeinschaft relationships.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #58
 

  1. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft are concepts that were introduced to sociology by:
    A.Ferdinand Tönnies.
    B. Émile Durkheim.
    C. Jonathan Kozol.
    D. William I. Thomas.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #59
 

  1. In Gerhard Lenski’s view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of:
    A.farming.
    B. education.
    C. technology.
    D. banking.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #60
 

  1. An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguishes between pre-industrial and industrial societies was developed by:
    A.Ferdinand Tönnies.
    B. Gerhard Lenski.
    C. Jonathan Kozol.
    D. William I. Thomas.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #61
 

  1. Which of the following can be defined as the long-term trends in societies resulting from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?
    A.postmodernism
    B. negotiated order
    C. industrialization
    D. sociocultural evolution

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #62
 

  1. A pre-industrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibres are readily available in order to live is called a(an):
    A.agrarian society.
    B. hunting-and-gathering society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. slash-and-burn farming society.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #63
 

  1. The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens. Their primary tool is a stone ax, which they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a(an):
    A.agrarian society.
    B. horticultural society.
    C. hunting-and-gathering society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #64
 

  1. In the most technologically advanced form of pre-industrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. This type of society is called a(an):
    A.hunting-and-gathering society.
    B. agrarian society.
    C. horticultural society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #65
 

  1. A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a(an):
    A.industrial society.
    B. post-industrial society.
    C. postmodern society.
    D. pre-industrial society.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #66
 

  1. Which of the following is characteristic of the emergence of industrial societies?
    A.Families and communities could not continue to function as self-sufficient units.
    B. Individuals, villages, and regions began to exchange goods and services and become interdependent.
    C. Formal educational institutions developed.
    D. all of these

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #67
 

  1. A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a(an):
    A.industrial society.
    B. postmodern society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. agrarian society.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #68
 

  1. A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is a(an):
    A.pre-industrial society.
    B. post-industrial society.
    C. industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #69
 

  1. Daniel Bell views post-industrial societies as consensual, because he believes that post-industrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell’s view represents which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #70
 

  1. Which functionalist theorist views the transition from industrial to post-industrial societies as a positive development because he sees a general decline in organized working-class groups and a rise in interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment?
    A.Everett Hughes
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Daniel Bell
    D. Karl Marx

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #71
 

  1. Which conflict theorist, who wrote The Other America, is critical of the significance that functionalists place on the growing class of white-collar workers in post-industrial societies?
    A.Michael Harrington
    B. William I. Thomas
    C. Daniel Bell
    D. Jonathan Kozol

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #72
 

  1. A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a(an):
    A.pre-industrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #73
 

  1. In Canada, we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat sushi and other Japanese foods, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of a(an):
    A.pre-industrial society.
    B. industrial society.
    C. post-industrial society.
    D. postmodern society.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #74
 

  1. Formal organizations may vary in:
    A.size.
    B. degree of efficiency.
    C. specificity of goals.
    D. all of these.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #75
 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a formal organization?
    A.a community college basketball team
    B. the people in a New York City subway car
    C. the General Motors Corporation
    D. all of these

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #76
 

  1. Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?
    A.Max Weber
    B. Suzanne Staggenborg
    C. David Sills
    D. Norman Denzin

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #77
 

  1. A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called a(an):
    A.coalition.
    B. ideal type.
    C. metaphor.
    D. questionnaire.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #78
 

  1. By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of:
    A.employment based on technical qualifications.
    B. hierarchy of authority.
    C. division of labor.
    D. written rules and regulations.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #79
 

  1. Bureaucratization is:
    A.an element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
    B. organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour centered on basic social needs.
    C. the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
    D. the process through which an organization identifies an entirely new objective because its traditional goals have been either realized or denied.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #80
 

  1. The “iron law of oligarchy” is a principle:
    A.of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.
    B. of organizational life according to which organizations are established on the basis of common interests.
    C. of organizational life according to which each individual in a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
    D. none of these.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #81
 

  1. Which statement best describes the position taken by the classical theorists of formal organizations?
    A.workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards.
    B. employers manage companies mostly according to Roman tradition.
    C. workers are encouraged to respect their superiors.
    D. employers foster the development of job satisfaction.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #82
 

  1. Simone works for a company that provides an on-site day care center and fitness club for its employees. Such practices are adopted by businesses in an effort to address what kind(s) of concerns?
    A.the dangers of collective bargaining.
    B. the role of people, communication, and participation within small groups.
    C. the conflict perspective’s critique of capitalism.
    D. workers’ feelings, frustrations, and emotional needs for job satisfaction in bureaucracies.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #83
 

  1. Which of the following is not a form of organizational restructuring?
    A.Collective decision making
    B. Minimal hierarchy
    C. Work teams
    D. All of these are forms of organizational restructuring

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-05 How Has the Workplace Changed?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #84
 

  1. Which statement best describes telecommuters?
    A.They are employees who live at least 100 km from their workplace.
    B. They are employees who only work on Internet projects.
    C. They are employees who are not part of formal organizations.
    D. They are employees who work at home and are linked to work via phone, fax, and Internet.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-05 How Has the Workplace Changed?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #85
 

  1. Which statement best describes recent change in the Canadian union movement?
    A.it has evolved into a gender balanced movement.
    B. there has been increasing membership from the private sector.
    C. its membership has become male dominated.
    D. there has been increasing membership from the public sector.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-05 How Has the Workplace Changed?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #86
 

  1. In Canada, the ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses that have an important impact on one’s potential to achieve a desired professional and social status.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #87
 

  1. The last stage of role exit is the departure or disengagement from a role that has been central to one’s identity.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #88
 

  1. The distinction between primary groups and secondary groups is not always clear, as some groups may have some characteristics of each type.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #89
 

  1. We change reference groups as we take on different statuses during our lives.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #90
 

  1. The mass media is an example of a social institution.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #91
 

  1. Émile Durkheim argued that mechanical solidarity is characteristic of the interdependence of people in a complex society.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #92
 

  1. The sociocultural evolutionary approach emphasizes a developmental perspective and pictures different types of social structures coexisting within the same society.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #93
 

  1. A postmodern society is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and information on a mass scale.
    TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #94
 

  1. A negative consequence of the written rules and regulations of a bureaucracy is that they contribute to feelings of alienation.
    FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #95
 

  1. Define the differences between ascribed and achieved statuses, and give examples to support your answer.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #96
 

  1. Define the concepts of in-groups, out-groups and reference groups, and describe the role of each type of group. Give examples to illustrate your answer.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #97
 

  1. Discuss how the three major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism view the role of social institutions in society.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #98
 

  1. Describe sociologist Gerhard Lenski’s stages of sociocultural evolution and explain how his view differs from that of Émile Durkheim’s mechanical and organic solidarity and Ferdinand Tönnies’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #99
 

  1. Describe the various components of a bureaucracy as suggested by Max Weber. How did Weber perceive the efficiency of bureaucracies?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured?
Schaefer – Chapter 05 #100
 

 

 

05 Summary

Category # of Questions
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 95
Blooms: Analyze 13
Blooms: Apply 13
Blooms: Remember 66
Blooms: Understand 8
Learning Objective: 05-01 How Do We Define and Reconstruct Reality? 9
Learning Objective: 05-02 What Are the Elements of Social Structure? 52
Learning Objective: 05-03 What Does a Global Perspective on Social Structure Look Like? 25
Learning Objective: 05-04 How Are Organizations Structured? 11
Learning Objective: 05-05 How Has the Workplace Changed? 3
Schaefer – Chapter 05 100

 

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