Sociology 16th Edition by Macionis – Test Bank

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Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

In this revision of the test bank, I have updated all of the questions to reflect changes in Sociology, 16th edition. In this revision, the questions are tagged according to six levels of learning that move from lower-level to higher-level cognitive reasoning. The six levels are:

 

REMEMBER: a question involving recall of key terms or factual material

UNDERSTAND: a question testing comprehension of more complex ideas

APPLY: a question applying sociological knowledge to some new situation

ANALYZE: a question requiring identifying elements of an argument and their interrelationship

 

The 106 questions in this chapter’s test bank are divided into four types of questions. True/False questions are the least demanding. As the table below shows, almost all of these questions fall within the two lowest levels of cognitive reasoning (“Remember” and “Understand”). Multiple-choice questions also fall primarily within the lowest levels of cognitive reasoning, although these questions span a broader range of skills and are somewhat more demanding. Short answer questions also span a broad range of skills (from “Understand” to “Evaluate”). Finally, essay questions are the most demanding, with almost 90% at the three highest levels of cognitive reasoning (“Analyze,” “Evaluate,” and “Create”).

 

Types of Questions

Easy to Difficult Level of Difficulty

  True/False Mult Choice Short Answer Essay Total Qs
Remember 27 (84%) 34 (65%) 0 0 61
Understand 5 (16%) 16 (30%) 8 (62%) 0 29
Apply 0 2 (4%) 1 (8%) 0 3
Analyze 0 1 (2%) 4 (30%) 8 (100%) 13
  32 53 13 8 106

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5: SOCIALIZATION

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.1

 

Psychologist John B. Watson claimed that specific patterns of human behavior are not instinctive, but learned.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.2

 

The Harlow studies found that six months of social isolation was sufficient to permanently damage infant rhesus monkeys.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.3

 

The tragic case of Anna shows that without healthful nutrition a human being cannot develop a personality or self.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.4

 

What we know about the later lives of socially isolated children such as Isabell and Genie supports the findings of the Harlow’s research.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.5

 

Even years of social isolation during infancy in humans does not cause permanent and irreversible developmental damage.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.6

 

The “id” in Freud’s work represents the human being’s basic drives, which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.7

 

The “ego” in Freud’s model of personality is the same as “conscience.”

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.8

 

In Freud’s model of personality, the superego manages the opposing forces of the id and the ego.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.9

 

According to Jean Piaget, language and other symbols were first used in the preoperational stage.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.10

 

Lawrence Kohlberg claims that individuals develop the capacity for moral reasoning in stages as they grow older.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.11

 

According to Carol Gilligan, the self-esteem of girls increases steadily through the teenage years.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.12

 

While many researchers have studied outward behavior, George Herbert Mead focused on symbolic meaning—specifically the meaning people attach to behavior.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.13

 

George Herbert Mead used the concept “the looking-glass self” to refer to significant people in our lives.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.14

 

Mead’s theory of the self is completely social; he did not recognize a role for biology in personality development.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.15

 

Mead’s concepts of the “I” and the “me” are close parallels of Freud’s concepts of the id and the superego.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.16

 

Erik H. Erikson emphasized that almost all important socialization takes place during childhood.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.17

 

Of all social institutions, the family has the greatest impact on socialization.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.18

 

Melvin Kohn demonstrated that parents of all social classes have the same expectations of their children.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.19

 

Schools provide children with early experience of bureaucracy.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.20

 

The onset of adolescence brings to an end the family’s influence on children.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.21

 

Members of a peer group share common interests, social position, and a similar age.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.22

 

Anticipatory socialization refers to efforts to avoid unpleasant social experiences.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.23

 

During the last century, the mass media have had a declining influence on people in the United States.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.24

 

U.S. school children spend about as much time in front of a television as they do at school or interacting with their parents.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.25

 

Childhood and other stages of the life course are defined in the same way in all known societies.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.4.26

 

In the United States, old age is generally thought to begin at or soon after the age of sixty-five.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.27

 

Industrialization brings with it a rise in the social standing of older people.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.28

 

Anti-elderly bias in the United States will probably decrease as the percentage of older people rises.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.29

 

As the proportion of women and men in old age increases, we can expect U.S. culture to become more comfortable with the reality of death.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.30

 

A cohort is a category of people who have something important in common, usually their age.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.5.31

 

A community college is correctly considered to be a good example of a total institution.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.5.32

 

Total institutions operate with the goal of resocializing inmates.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.33

 

The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl who was studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that _______

  1. humans have most of the same instincts found in other animal species.
  2. without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.
  3. personality is present in humans at birth.
  4. many human instincts disappear after the first few years of life.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.34

 

What concept refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?

  1. Socialization
  2. Personality
  3. Human nature
  4. Behaviorism

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.35

 

What concept refers to a person’s fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?

  1. Socialization
  2. Behavior
  3. Human nature
  4. Personality

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.36

 

Which theory, developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?

  1. Behaviorism
  2. Biological psychology
  3. Evolutionary psychology
  4. Naturalism

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.37

 

In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that _______

  1. nature is far more important than nurture.
  2. nurture is far more important than nature.
  3. nature and nurture have equal importance.
  4. neither nature nor nurture creates the essence of our humanity.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.38

 

The social sciences, including sociology, make the claim that _______

  1. humans have instincts that guide our lives.
  2. biological forces underlie human culture.
  3. as humans, to nurture is our nature.
  4. Darwin’s model of biological evolution explains the patterns of human culture.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.39

 

The Harlow experiments to discover the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys showed that _______

  1. monkeys isolated for six months were highly fearful when they were returned to others of their kind.
  2. isolated monkeys able to cuddle artificial mothers developed normally.
  3. even several days of social isolation permanently damaged infant monkeys.
  4. prolonged isolation had little effect on infant monkeys.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.40

 

Based on the Harlows’ research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna, the isolated child, one might reasonably conclude that _______

  1. the two species react differently to social isolation.
  2. both monkeys and humans “bounce back” from long-term isolation.
  3. even a few days of social isolation permanently damages both monkeys and humans.
  4. long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.41

 

If you were to put together the lesson learned from the cases of Anna, Isabelle, and Genie, you would correctly conclude that _______

  1. social experience plays a crucial part in forming human personality.
  2. both social experience and the presence of the birth mother are crucial to early development.
  3. the effect of long-term social isolation can be overcome in a relatively short time.
  4. the effect of long-term social isolation can never be overcome in any situation.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.42

 

Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud’s concept of the _______

  1. generalized other.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.43

 

In Freud’s model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person’s efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking drives?

  1. Id
  2. Ego
  3. Superego
  4. Generalized other

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.44

 

In Freud’s model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the individual?

  1. Id
  2. Ego
  3. Superego
  4. Thanatos

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.45

 

Applying Freud’s thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would conclude that _______

  1. human behavior is basically random.
  2. humans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of society.
  3. societies encourage people to become self-centered.
  4. humans can never become cultural creatures.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.46

 

Jean Piaget’s focus was on _______

  1. how children develop their motor skills.
  2. how children are stimulated by their environment.
  3. the role of heredity in shaping human behavior.
  4. cognition, or how people think and understand.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.47

 

According to Piaget, in which stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact?

  1. Sensorimotor stage
  2. Preoperational stage
  3. Concrete operational stage
  4. Formal operational stage

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.48

 

For Jean Piaget, at which stage of development do individuals first use language and other cultural symbols?

  1. Sensorimotor stage
  2. Preoperational stage
  3. Concrete operational stage
  4. Formal operational stage

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.49

 

The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg’s research was _______

  1. the importance of gender in socialization.
  2. moral reasoning.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.50

 

Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg’s research, showing that _______

  1. girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards.
  2. girls are more interested in right and wrong than boys are.
  3. boys are more interested in right and wrong than girls are.
  4. the ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young people enter the teenage years.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.51

 

Carol Gilligan’s work on the issue of self-esteem in girls showed that _______

  1. girls begin with low self-esteem, but it gradually increases as they progress through adolescence.
  2. at all ages, girls have higher self-esteem than boys.
  3. at all ages, boys have higher self-esteem than girls.
  4. girls begin with high levels of self-esteem, which gradually decrease as they go through adolescence.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.52

 

George Herbert Mead considered the self to be _______

  1. the part of an individual’s personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image.
  2. the presence of culture within the individual.
  3. basic drives that are self-centered.
  4. present in infants at the time of their birth.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.53

 

Mead claimed that the origin of the self is found in _______

  1. biological drives.
  2. social experience.
  3. the functioning of the brain.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.54

 

According to Mead, social experience involves _______

  1. understanding the world in terms of our senses.
  2. the exchange of symbols.
  3. a mix of biological instinct and learning.
  4. acting but not thinking.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.55

 

By “taking the role of the other,” Mead had in mind _______

  1. imagining a situation in terms of past experience.
  2. recognizing that people have different views of most situations.
  3. imagining a situation from another person’s point of view.
  4. trading self-centeredness for a focus on helping other people.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.56

 

When Cooley used the concept of the “looking-glass self,” he claimed that _______

  1. people are self-centered.
  2. people see themselves as they think others see them.
  3. people see things only from their own point of view.
  4. our actions are a reflection of our values.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.57

 

According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as _______

  1. role models.
  2. looking-glass models.
  3. significant others.
  4. the generalized other.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.58

 

In Mead’s model, which sequence correctly orders stages of the developing self?

  1. Imitation, play, game, generalized other
  2. Imitation, generalized other, play, game
  3. Imitation, game, play, generalized other
  4. Imitation, generalized other, game, play

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.59

 

Mead used the concept “generalized other” to refer to _______

  1. important individuals in the child’s life.
  2. a person who provides complete care for a child.
  3. any “significant other.”
  4. widespread cultural norms and values people take as their own.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.60

 

Mead would agree that _______

  1. socialization ends with the development of self in childhood.
  2. if you won $100 million in a lottery, your “self” might change.
  3. people are puppets with little control over their lives.
  4. human behavior reflects both nature and nurture.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.61

 

Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization states that _______

  1. personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages.
  2. personality involves tensions between the forces of biology and forces of culture.
  3. we come to see ourselves as we think others see us.
  4. most of our personality development takes place in childhood.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.62

 

Critics of Erikson’s theory of personality development point out that _______

  1. not everyone confronts the stages in the exact order given by Erikson.
  2. his theories are difficult to test scientifically.
  3. a large percentage of people never reach the last stage of development.
  4. his research suffers from a gender bias.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.63

 

Family is important to the socialization process because _______

  1. family members are often what Mead called “generalized others.”
  2. families pass along social identity to children in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion.
  3. families begin the process of anticipatory socialization.
  4. families set the stage for resocialization.

 

Answer: b

Learn

ing Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.64

 

Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress _____, while well-to-do parents typically stress _____.

  1. independence; protecting children
  2. independence; dependence
  3. obedience; creativity
  4. creativity; obedience

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.65

 

Communities differ in terms of the racial composition of the population. In which of the following regions of the United States is there a relatively high number of people who claim to be multiracial?

  1. The Southwest, including Arizona and southern California
  2. The Plains States, including North Dakota and South Dakota
  3. The New England states of Maine and New Hampshire
  4. The Rocky Mountain states of Montana and Wyoming

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.66

 

Osagie Obasogie did research with people who have been blind since birth and discovered that, with regard to race, these people _______

  1. were more racially prejudiced than sighted people.
  2. held much the same ideas about race as sighted people.
  3. could not imagine what “race” meant.
  4. strongly believed that race did not matter at all.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.3.67

 

A distinctive contribution of schooling to the process of socialization is  _______

  1. exposing the child to an impersonal, bureaucratic setting.
  2. exposing the child to people of similar social backgrounds.
  3. teaching children to be highly flexible and to express their individuality.
  4. helping children break free of gender roles.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.68

 

Today, the factor people most commonly use in considering a young woman or young man to have reached adulthood is whether or not the person _______

  1. has completed all schooling.
  2. has a full-time job, with the ability to support a family.
  3. is married.
  4. is married and has children.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.69

 

The special importance of the peer group is the fact that it _______

  1. has a greater effect than parents on children’s long-term goals.
  2. lets children escape the direct supervision of parents.
  3. gives children experience in an impersonal setting.
  4. halts the socialization process for a brief period.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.70

 

When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in a process that sociologists call _______

  1. group conformity.
  2. future directedness.
  3. anticipatory socialization.
  4. group rejection.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.71

 

In the historical perspective, the importance of the mass media to the socialization process has _______

  1. increased over time.
  2. been about the same over the last century.
  3. decreased over time.
  4. never been very important.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.72

 

On average, an adult in the United States watches television for about how many hours a day?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Four
  4. Fifteen

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.73

 

Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that _______

  1. childhood is a time of play and learning everywhere.
  2. rich societies extend childhood much longer than do poor societies.
  3. poor societies extend childhood much longer than do rich societies.
  4. biological immaturity is the main factor that defines childhood.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.74

 

Based on what you have read in this chapter, how would sociologists explain the fact that many young people in the United States experience adolescence as a time of confusion?

  1. There are cultural inconsistencies in the definition of this stage of life as partly childlike and partly adultlike.
  2. Hormones greatly affect young people as they mature.
  3. Growth always involves change and change is confusing.
  4. Parents are no longer providing proper guidance to young people.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.4.75

 

In the period of life called “middle adulthood,” people typically experience _______

  1. life circumstances becoming more or less set.
  2. a lack of awareness of health issues.
  3. the birth of their children
  4. juggling conflicting priorities.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.76

 

Industrial societies typically define people in old age as _______

  1. the most wise.
  2. the most knowledgeable about current fashion and trends.
  3. more out of touch and less socially important than younger adults.
  4. wealthy and powerful.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.77

 

Based on the text’s survey of the life course, you might conclude that _______

  1. life-course stages are shaped by society and have nothing to do with biology.
  2. life-course stages are similar throughout the world.
  3. while we link life-course stages to biology, they are largely a social construction.
  4. life-course stages have changed little over recent centuries.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.4.78

 

In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death _______

  1. is defined similarly in every society.
  2. is an orderly transition involving specific stages.
  3. is a topic that people in the United States have always been comfortable discussing.
  4. is a chaotic transition for most people.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.79

 

What is the term sociologists give to a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age?

  1. Age subculture
  2. Generation
  3. Age group
  4. Cohort

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.5.80

 

A setting where a staff tries to radically change someone’s personality through carefully controlling the environment is called a(n) _______

  1. anticipatory social center
  2. cohort community
  3. total institution
  4. degradation ceremony

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.5.81

 

According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is to _______

  1. help integrate a troubled patient into the outside world.
  2. give a person greater choices about how to live.
  3. radically alter a person’s personality or behavior.
  4. encourage lifelong learning in a supervised context.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.5.82

 

In a total institution, staff members _______

  1. closely supervise all the daily life of inmates.
  2. encourage the individual growth and creativity of inmates.
  3. allow inmates to choose their own food, clothing, and activities.
  4. institute informal rules to direct people’s daily routines.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.5.83

 

Goffman’s idea of the resocialization process includes _______

  1. breaking down an old identity, then building up a new identity.
  2. rewarding inmates for being creative.
  3. helping integrate inmates into the larger society.
  4. finding ways to make inmates contribute to the larger society.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.5.84.   An inmate who loses the capacity for independent living is described as _______

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.5.85

 

Based on what you have read in this chapter, you would correctly conclude that _______

society shapes how we think, feel, and act.

human beings lack spontaneity and creativity,.

human beings are locked in the prison of society.

human beings are unwilling to change society.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.86

 

Why are the cases of Anna, Isabelle, and Genie important to social scientists?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality

Topic: Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.87

 

Why did Sigmund Freud see human culture (superego) as a necessary source of repression?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.88

 

Summarize Jean Piaget’s contribution to our understanding of socialization.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.89

 

What differences did Carol Gilligan find in how males and females make moral judgments?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.90

 

What did George Herbert Mead mean by “self”? What are the steps in the development of the self?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.91

 

Explain Erik Erikson’s theory of socialization as a lifelong process.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.92

 

Explain why George Herbert Mead’s theory of self can be described as completely social.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.2.93

 

Note one criticism often made of Erik Erikson’s “Stages of Development” theory.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.94

 

Cite several ways in which the family is central to the process of socialization.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.95

 

Explain how a family’s social class position shapes the process of socialization.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.4.96

 

Provide evidence in support of the position that stages of the life course are socially constructed.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.4.97

 

Why is defining adulthood difficult for people living in the United States?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.5.98

 

According to Erving Goffman, what key traits define a total institution?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS/TOPICS FOR SHORT PAPERS

 

TB_Q5.2.99

 

Explain the nature-nurture debate. How did Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead take different positions in this debate?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.2.100

 

Summarize Freud’s theory of human personality, Piaget’s approach to human development, and Mead’s view of the development of the self. What do all the theories have in common? What are the main differences among them?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.2.101

 

Based on everything you have read in this chapter, what are some of the ways in which girls and boys differ in their socialization experience? Provide specific examples in your response.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.102

 

What specific contributions to human development are made by family, school, peer group, and mass media? Do these agents of socialization always convey the same lessons to people? In your response, provide several specific examples.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.103

 

Why is the definition of “growing up” more difficult than it used to be? What are the achievements that lead people to say that someone has become an adult? Why is adolescence longer than it was several generations ago? What difference does social class position make in the time frame for “growing up”?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.4.104

 

Describe the various stages of the human life course: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. What characteristics do most people in the United States associate with each? How do we know that these stages, although linked to biological changes, are mostly a social construction?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.4: Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life

Topic: Socialization and the Life Course

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.5.105

 

Based on the material in this chapter of the text, address the issue of human freedom in a socially structured world. That is, to what extent do you think people are free to think and act as they wish? In answering this question, consider the theories presented in the chapter—for example, why does Mead’s theory point to greater human freedom than Freud’s theory?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.5.106

 

Based on everything you have read in this chapter, write an essay in which you state your own position on the degree to which human beings can claim to have freedom. Provide specific references to chapter material in your essay.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions

Topic: Resocialization: Total Institutions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

 

 

Name ________________________________

 

Quick Quiz: Chapter 5

Socialization

 

Multiple Choice:

TB_Q5.2.107

 

The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg’s research was _______

  1. the importance of gender in socialization.
  2. moral reasoning.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.108

 

Mead claimed that the origin of the self is found in _______

  1. biological drives.
  2. social experience.
  3. the functioning of the brain.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.109

 

Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress _____, while well-to-do parents typically stress _____.

  1. independence; protecting children
  2. independence; dependence
  3. obedience; creativity
  4. creativity; obedience

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.110

 

In historical perspective, the importance of the mass media to the socialization process has _______

  1. increased over time.
  2. been about the same over the last century.
  3. decreased over time.
  4. never been very important.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.111

 

Jean Piaget’s focus was on _______

  1. how children develop their motor skills.
  2. how children are stimulated by their environment.
  3. the role of heredity in shaping human behavior.
  4. cognition, or how people think and understand.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.112

 

In Mead’s model, which sequence correctly orders stages of the developing self?

  1. Imitation, play, game, generalized other
  2. Imitation, generalized other, play, game

Imitation, game, play, generalized other

  1. Imitation, generalized other, game, play

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.113

 

On average, an adult in the United States watches television for about how many hours a day?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Four
  4. Fifteen

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

 

True/False

 

TB_Q5.2.114

 

While many researchers have studied outward behavior, George Herbert Mead focused on symbolic meaning—specifically the meaning people attach to behavior.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.115

 

Melvin Kohn demonstrated that parents of all social classes have much the same expectations of their children.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process

Topic: Agents of Socialization

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

Short Answer

 

TB_Q5.2.116

 

What differences did Carol Gilligan find in how males and females make moral judgments?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization

Topic: Understanding Socialization

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

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