Social Psychology Goals in Interaction 6th Edition By Kenrick – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

Attitudes and Persuasion

Total Assessment Guide (T.A.G.)

Topic Question Type Remember the Facts Understand the Concepts Apply What You Know
The Nature of Attitudes Multiple Choice 6, 7, 9, 12, 14 2, 8, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20 1, 3, 4, 5, 11, 18, 19
True/False 101    
Short Answer 111, 112    
Essay   121, 122  
What Is Persuasion? Multiple Choice 21, 23, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 42, 46, 48, 49 24, 25, 31, 41, 44, 45 22, 26, 27, 32, 35, 36, 40, 43, 47
True/False 102, 103   104
Short Answer 115 114 113
Essay   123, 124 125
Having an Accurate View of the World Multiple Choice 51, 53, 57, 60, 62, 65, 68 50, 52, 63, 64, 67, 69, 70 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 66, 71
True/False 107 105, 106  
Short Answer 116, 118, 119   117
Essay 127   126
Being Consistent in One’s Attitude and Actions Multiple Choice 72, 76, 81, 89, 92 73, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 90 74, 75, 78, 86, 87, 91, 93
True/False 109 108  
Short Answer 120    
Essay     128, 129
Gaining Social Approval Multiple Choice 96 94, 97, 100 95, 98, 99
True/False 110    
Short Answer      
Essay     130

 

Chapter 5 Attitudes and Persuasion

Multiple Choice Questions

1) Peter met Hal on a very cold and windy day. Peter didn’t like Hal very much because he associated Hal with the negative experience of being cold. In this example, Peter’s attitude toward Hal was influenced by the process of

  1. A) associative conditioning.
  2. B) observational learning.
  3. C) operant conditioning.
  4. D) classical conditioning.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Apply What You Know

2) When attitudes are formed through the process of classical conditioning, the degree of liking for something is influenced by

  1. A) its association with something we already like or dislike.
  2. B) being rewarded or punished for expressing a particular attitude.
  3. C) observing how others are rewarded or punished for expressing a particular attitude.
  4. D) the degree of inconsistency between attitude and behavior.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

3) In a study by Insko (1965), students at the University of Hawaii were surveyed by phone about their attitudes toward the creation of a Springtime Aloha Week. The interviewer said “good” after some students expressed a favorable attitude, but said “good” after other students expressed an unfavorable attitude. One week later, a survey revealed that the interviewer’s comments influenced students’ attitudes toward Springtime Aloha Week via the process of

  1. A) classical conditioning.
  2. B) cognitive dissonance.
  3. C) operant conditioning.
  4. D) observational conditioning.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Apply What You Know

4) Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning potentially influencing an attitude?

  1. A) A voter listens to a political candidate speaking in a dark, noisy, and cramped auditorium.
  2. B) A teacher smiles and nods when a student expresses a political view that the teacher likes.
  3. C) Children watch a video that shows other children having fun recycling.
  4. D) A woman tries sushi for the first time with her new boyfriend in a romantic setting.

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Apply What You Know

5) Which of the following is an example of observational learning potentially influencing an attitude?

  1. A) A voter listens to a political candidate speaking in a dark, noisy, and cramped auditorium.
  2. B) A teacher smiles and nods when a student expresses a political view that the teacher likes.
  3. C) Children watch a video that shows other children having fun recycling.
  4. D) A woman tries sushi for the first time with her new boyfriend in a romantic setting.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Apply What You Know

6) Your text described attitudes being formed from all of the following processes EXCEPT

  1. A) heredity.
  2. B) operant conditioning.
  3. C) schemas.
  4. D) observational learning.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Remember the Facts

7) Which of the following statements related to attitudes and heredity is true?

  1. A) Attitudes develop exclusively through learning.
  2. B) Genetically influenced attitudes are fairly weak and do not influence behavior to a significant extent.
  3. C) Many political and religious attitudes have been found to have a genetic component.
  4. D) People can be persuaded to change their genetically influenced attitudes fairly easily.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Remember the Facts

8) Strong attitudes are more resistant to persuasion because

  1. A) people who hold strong attitudes have logically reviewed numerous arguments for and against their initial position.
  2. B) people who hold strong attitudes are less certain that their position is correct.
  3. C) strong attitudes are more related to additional features of the person.
  4. D) people who hold strong attitudes are more likely to systematically process the arguments against their initial attitudes.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 144–145

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.2 Identify the two components of a strong attitude that make it resistant to change.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

9) Which of the following are the two qualities of strong attitudes that make them resistant to change?

  1. A) consistency and dissonance
  2. B) commitment and embeddedness
  3. C) inoculation and balance
  4. D) relatedness and complexity

Answer: B

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 145

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.2 Identify the two components of a strong attitude that make it resistant to change.

Skill: Remember the Facts

10) Embeddedness makes attitudes resistant to change because

  1. A) it makes people reject contradictory information.
  2. B) changing the attitude would mean changing many other aspects of the self.
  3. C) it makes people more committed to the attitude.
  4. D) it makes people review relevant information in a biased fashion.

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 144–146

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.2 Identify the two components of a strong attitude that make it resistant to change.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

11) Suppose that you hold a strong attitude against capital punishment and you are shown an essay that opposes your position. According to a study by Pomeranz, Chaiken, & Tordesillas (1995), you would be likely to perceive the essay arguments as

  1. A) strong, but do not change your position.
  2. B) strong, and slightly change your position.
  3. C) weak, but nevertheless change your position.
  4. D) weak, and do not change your position.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref:146

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.2 Identify the two components of a strong attitude that make it resistant to change.

Skill: Apply What You Know

12) Your text described how all of the following can influence attitude-behavior consistency EXCEPT

  1. A) attitude accessibility.
  2. B) knowledge.
  3. C) personal relevance.
  4. D) dissonance level.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 146–148

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

13) The two aspects of knowledge that strengthen the link between attitudes and behavior are

  1. A) the personal relevance of the knowledge and the reliability of the knowledge.
  2. B) the speed with which the knowledge comes to mind and the degree of control one has over the knowledge.
  3. C) the amount of knowledge gained and the direct versus indirect nature of the knowledge.
  4. D) the rewards and the punishments associated with the knowledge.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 146–148

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

14) A study (Sivacek & Crano, 1982) was conducted at Michigan State University when the government proposed raising the drinking age from 18 to 21. Which students volunteered to campaign against the proposal and why?

  1. A) Students who were under 20 were more likely to volunteer because the issue was more personally relevant to them.
  2. B) Students majoring in law or government were more likely to volunteer because they had greater knowledge about the issue.
  3. C) Students who were under 20 were more likely to volunteer because students 21 and over were not against the proposal.
  4. D) Students who drank more frequently were more likely to volunteer because their attitudes were more accessible.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 146–148

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

15) The speed with which an attitude springs to mind is known as attitude

  1. A) embeddedness.
  2. B) relevance.
  3. C) pliability.
  4. D) accessibility.

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 147

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

16) The theory of planned behavior characterizes attitudes as influencing action by first influencing

  1. A) knowledge.
  2. B) personal relevance.
  3. C) attitude accessibility.
  4. D) behavioral intention.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 148

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

17) According to the theory of planned behavior, behavioral intentions are influenced by all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) perceived behavioral control.
  2. B) attitude accessibility.
  3. C) attitudes.
  4. D) subjective norms.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 148

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

18) Emily has a strong attitude about the issue of gun control, but all her close friends hold the opposite attitude about the issue. Consequently, Emily is not active politically on this issue. According to the language of the theory of planned behavior, Emily’s reduced consistency between her attitude and her actions is influenced by

  1. A) reduced attitude accessibility.
  2. B) personal relevance of the issue.
  3. C) perceived behavioral control.
  4. D) subjective norms.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 147

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

19) Jose is enthusiastic about a new political candidate but feels that he has no time to campaign in support of this candidate. In this example, Jose’s behavior has been influenced by

  1. A) subjective norms.
  2. B) perceived behavioral control.
  3. C) attitude strength.
  4. D) persuasive messages.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 147

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

20) According to the theory of planned behavior, the BEST predictor of behavior is

  1. A) behavioral intentions.
  2. B) attitudes.
  3. C) subjective norms.
  4. D) perceived behavioral control.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 147

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

21) The text defines persuasion as

  1. A) an observable change in a behavior that indicates public conformity to a group norm.
  2. B) the use of legitimate authority to enforce compliance with society’s laws and regulations.
  3. C) a change in a private attitude or belief resulting from the receipt of a message.
  4. D) the use of subliminal suggestions to induce unconscious compliance in the target.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 148

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Remember the Facts

22) Imagine that you have given a speech to your colleagues about the potential health hazards of smoking. Your message can be considered persuasive if, after hearing the speech, your colleagues

  1. A) agree to sign a petition to prohibit smoking in public places in order to avoid a confrontation with you.
  2. B) come to privately believe more strongly that smoking is bad for their health.
  3. C) are more friendly toward you.
  4. D) start to smoke more as a result of reactance.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 148–149

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Apply What You Know

23) Nonreactive measurement

  1. A) does not change participants’ responses while recording them.
  2. B) is measurement in which participants subjectively report their responses.
  3. C) is reported when experimenters are not physically present.
  4. D) removes from the responses the effect of physiological reactions to the treatment.

Answer: A

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Remember the Facts

24) It is preferable to use self-report measures of attitudes rather than covert measures when

  1. A) the attitudes are strong.
  2. B) the study is conducted in laboratory settings.
  3. C) people have no good reason to hide their true feelings.
  4. D) there is a control group.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

25) After-only design should be used for measuring attitude change only when

  1. A) there isn’t a control group in the design of the study.
  2. B) participants are placed in either the treatment or control condition completely by chance.
  3. C) covert measures of attitudes are used.
  4. D) there isn’t random assignment.

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 151–152

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

26) A researcher who wanted to test the persuasiveness of a message against abortion sent a letter to half of the households in the sample. Later, she called all of the households in the sample and asked them about their attitudes toward abortion. What kind of design was employed in the study?

  1. A) before-after
  2. B) nonreactive
  3. C) after-only
  4. D) before-only

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 149

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Apply What You Know

27) In order to measure whether a message produced an attitude change when an after-only design was used, you should compare the attitudes of the people who received the message with

  1. A) their attitudes toward similar issues.
  2. B) their attitudes toward the same issue at least two weeks ago.
  3. C) the attitudes of people who received the message two weeks after the first group.
  4. D) the attitudes of people who did not receive the message.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 149

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Apply What You Know

28) The cognitive response model of persuasion emphasizes

  1. A) the ability to remember elements of the persuasive message.
  2. B) the importance of what a target says to himself or herself after hearing a persuasive communication.
  3. C) the use of reactance, where a desired freedom is made to seem scarce and thus more desirable.
  4. D) social norms that guide the target into socially acceptable behavior.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

29) According to the cognitive response model of persuasion, persuasion is affected most strongly by

  1. A) the strength of the arguments.
  2. B) how well the person remembers the message arguments.
  3. C) what the person says to himself or herself after receiving the message.
  4. D) the ability to process the message.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

30) Encouraging positive self-talk, inhibiting counterarguments, and defeating a message through inoculation are implications of

  1. A) the cognitive response model.
  2. B) reactance theory.
  3. C) consistency theory.
  4. D) balance theory.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

31) According to the text, one persuasive strategy recommended by the cognitive response model is to

  1. A) repeat the information enough times so that it is well-remembered by the target.
  2. B) have the target learn the information well enough so that he or she can explain it to someone else.
  3. C) provide punishment immediately after the target fails to engage in the desired behavior.
  4. D) give the audience little time to formulate counterarguments.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 151

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

32) As mentioned in your text, the interrogators of Peter Reilly did not let him eat or sleep for about 24 hours before the formal questioning. According to the cognitive response model, how did this affect his false confession?

  1. A) He wanted to get out as soon as possible, so that he could rest.
  2. B) He was not able to think straight in order to form counterarguments.
  3. C) He made the false confession, hoping that he would be rewarded with food.
  4. D) The exhaustion made him experience cognitive dissonance.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 150–151

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Apply What You Know

33) According to your text, William McGuire’s (1964) inoculation procedure refers to

  1. A) a technique for inhibiting counterarguing through distraction.
  2. B) the use of preventive measures to ensure both physical and mental health.
  3. C) the presentation of easily defeated, weak arguments for the opposition’s position.
  4. D) the presentation of complex arguments followed by simple answers.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 151–152

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

34) According to the cognitive response model, all of the following tactics would reduce counterarguing against a persuasive message EXCEPT

  1. A) encouraging “self-talk” by the target.
  2. B) having a quote from an expert supporting the persuasive message.
  3. C) giving targets little time to respond.
  4. D) distracting targets during the presentation of the persuasive message.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 151–152

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

35) The text discusses how anti-tobacco groups aired TV ads that parodied ads by tobacco companies, such as the ad where tough Marlboro Man-like characters were reduced to wheezing and coughing. These parody ads were effective because they induced viewers to

  1. A) reduce the attitude accessibility of pro-tobacco attitudes.
  2. B) experience cognitive dissonance.
  3. C) eliminate self-talk that could convince them to keep smoking.
  4. D) register counterarguments against the tobacco company ads.

Answer: D

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 151–152

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Apply What You Know

36) Imagine you are an incumbent politician who wants to employ inoculation in a campaign letter so your constituents will vote against your challenger. Which of the following techniques best employs the inoculation procedure (McGuire, 1964)?

  1. A) Present your arguments without reference to your opponent’s arguments.
  2. B) Present both your and your opponent’s strongest arguments, but present yours first.
  3. C) Present a few of the weaker arguments that your opponent will use against you.
  4. D) Present a few of the stronger arguments that your opponent will use against you.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 151

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Apply What You Know

37) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion is an example of a

  1. A) dual-process model.
  2. B) nonreactive model.
  3. C) balance model.
  4. D) motivational model.

Answer: A

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

38) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion is considered a dual process model because it postulates that there are two

  1. A) types of messages: long and short.
  2. B) types of counterarguments: strong and weak.
  3. C) routes to persuasion: central and peripheral
  4. D) routes to persuasion: motivation and ability.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

39) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) proposes that message recipients will centrally process a communication when they

  1. A) are motivated to attend to it and have the ability to do so.
  2. B) have heard the message repeatedly and have thoroughly learned it.
  3. C) are convinced that an expert supports the message.
  4. D) associate the message with obtaining a reward or avoiding a punishment.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

40) Suppose that you are presented with an essay favoring comprehensive exams at your school. Which of the following would most likely affect your attitudes if you are told that the policy will not go into effect for 10 years?

  1. A) the quality of the arguments
  2. B) the number of strong arguments
  3. C) the number of weak arguments
  4. D) the total number of arguments

Answer: D

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Apply What You Know

41) According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, all of the following are factors associated with peripheral route processing of a message EXCEPT

  1. A) number of arguments.
  2. B) attractiveness of the communicator.
  3. C) expert status of the communicator.
  4. D) high personal relevance of the message.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

42) The tendency to enjoy and engage in deliberate thought is known as

  1. A) need for cognition.
  2. B) cognitive dissonance.
  3. C) need for structure.
  4. D) achievement orientation.

Answer: A

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

43) Suppose that the students on your campus are presented with a message favoring using a helmet when bicycling. Which of the following groups would be most likely to process the arguments in the message centrally?

  1. A) students who were in a hurry
  2. B) students who were in a good mood while reading the message
  3. C) students with a high need for structure
  4. D) students with a high need for cognition

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Apply What You Know

44) When should you try to change someone’s attitudes through central processing of the message?

  1. A) when your arguments are weak
  2. B) when your goal is to achieve temporary attitude change
  3. C) when the audience has a low need for cognition
  4. D) when your goal is to achieve attitude change that is resistant to counterattacks

Answer: D

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 153–155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

45) Central processing of a persuasive message leads to ________ than peripheral processing.

  1. A) stronger emotions
  2. B) more immediate attitude change
  3. C) higher likelihood of attitude change
  4. D) more enduring attitude change

Answer: D

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 153–155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

46) In Alba and Marmorstein’s (1987) study, participants were presented with ads of two cameras. When were the participants most likely to prefer the camera that was described as superior on three important features over the camera that was described as superior on eight less important features?

  1. A) when participants were exposed to each of the features for two seconds
  2. B) when participants were exposed to each of the features for five seconds
  3. C) when participants were given unlimited time to consider the features
  4. D) when the ads were presented by an attractive experimenter

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 153–155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

47) Suppose that you have to deliver a message that contains primarily weak arguments. What could you do to increase its persuasiveness?

  1. A) Present the arguments slowly, so the audience can process them centrally.
  2. B) Present the message in print.
  3. C) Present the arguments rapidly, so the audience will not have enough time to consider them centrally.
  4. D) Make sure that there are no distractions while the audience is processing your ad.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref:153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Apply What You Know

48) Central processing of a persuasive message, as opposed to peripheral processing, is associated with which of the following?

  1. A) higher levels of motivation and the ability to analyze the message
  2. B) lower personal relevance of the topic
  3. C) less time to consider the message
  4. D) lower need for cognition

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153–155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

49) Peripheral processing of a persuasive message, as opposed to central processing, is associated with which of the following?

  1. A) higher levels of motivation and the ability to analyze the message
  2. B) more enduring attitude change
  3. C) higher need for cognition
  4. D) lower personal relevance of the topic

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153–155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

50) When people wish to make accurate judgments, but don’t have the time or ability to analyze the evidence closely, they

  1. A) experience cognitive dissonance.
  2. B) rely on “shortcut” evidence.
  3. C) develop a strong need for cognition.
  4. D) rely on their well-developed counterarguments.

Answer: B

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 158–161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

51) When people wish to make accurate judgments, but don’t have the time or ability to analyze the evidence closely, they often rely on “shortcut” evidence. According to the text, shortcut evidence can be gathered from all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) strength of the arguments.
  2. B) credible communicators.
  3. C) others’ responses.
  4. D) cognitively ready ideas.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 158–161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Remember the Facts

52) Credibility of the communicator is used as a shortcut when people are motivated to

  1. A) be consistent.
  2. B) be accurate.
  3. C) gain social rewards.
  4. D) gain social approval.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 158–159

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

53) A credible communicator is defined as one who is both

  1. A) expert and attractive.
  2. B) expert and trustworthy.
  3. C) expert and knowledgeable.
  4. D) attractive and knowledgeable.

Answer: B

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 158–159

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Remember the Facts

54) Imagine you are trying to persuade an audience that is hostile to your view and suspicious that you are presenting arguments for personal gain. How might you best increase your trustworthiness with the audience?

  1. A) Provide evidence for both sides of the argument.
  2. B) Speak slowly and present a few important points for your position.
  3. C) Speak rapidly and present many points for your position.
  4. D) Attempt to address the audience on the radio or TV rather than print.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 160

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Apply What You Know

 

55) Vinny is a professional thief and currently in prison. As such, he’s not what most people would consider a trustworthy communicator. However, if Vinny were to voice one of the following messages, he could be considered a trustworthy communicator. Which one would make him the most trustworthy?

  1. A) He should promote shorter jail terms.
  2. B) He should promote longer jail terms.
  3. C) He should promote a liberal candidate for public office.
  4. D) He should promote greater access to educational materials in the prison system.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Apply What You Know

56) Imagine you need to create a TV advertisement for a political candidate who is not trusted by the public. Of the following choices, which would be the best way to start an ad that made your candidate look more trustworthy?

  1. A) “My opponent has not gone far enough in fighting crime.”
  2. B) “Although my opponent has a good record of fighting crime,…”
  3. C) “I’ll be tough in fighting crime.”
  4. D) “The opposing party has consistently been soft on crime.”

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Apply What You Know

57) The tactic known as “stealing the opponent’s thunder” refers to

  1. A) stealing the opponent’s evidence in a court case.
  2. B) preparing strong arguments to counter the opponent’s claims.
  3. C) acknowledging a minor weakness in one’s own position.
  4. D) finding weaknesses in the opponent’s argument.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Remember the Facts

58) Criminal interrogators often tell the suspect that they have an eyewitness who agrees with them. According to the text, this tactic is

  1. A) successful, because criminal interrogators never use it if there really isn’t an eyewitness.
  2. B) successful, because the suspect uses the eyewitness testimony in order to form an “accurate” judgment of whether he or she committed the crime.
  3. C) not successful, because criminal interrogators sometimes use false evidence.
  4. D) not successful, because more than one eyewitness testimony is necessary to influence the suspect.

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Apply What You Know

59) Imagine that you are a participant in the Kassin and Kiechel (1996) study, in which you are falsely accused of pressing a “forbidden” keyboard button while performing a computer task. According to the results of the study, you would be more likely to “confess” that you really pressed the button if you were

  1. A) cognitively overloaded during the task.
  2. B) inoculated.
  3. C) high in need for cognition.
  4. D) high in need for consistency.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 162

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Apply What You Know

60) According to the text, cognitively ready ideas are

  1. A) ideas that result from cognitive dissonance.
  2. B) ideas that are easy to picture or bring to mind.
  3. C) our ideas of what we are going to say in social interactions.
  4. D) our ideas of what others think about us.

Answer: B

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 162

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

61) As in the Peter Reilly case, interrogators often ask suspects to imagine how they could have committed the crime. According to your text, this strategy is effective because

  1. A) it reduces the self-esteem of the suspects.
  2. B) it makes suspects mention details that are later used against them.
  3. C) it creates a cognitively ready idea about committing the crime.
  4. D) the story can be recorded and presented as an eyewitness testimony.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 162–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Apply What You Know

62) Accuracy motives can become more prominent when

  1. A) people are in a happy mood.
  2. B) the decision is already made.
  3. C) the content of the message conflicts with what the recipient wants to hear.
  4. D) the issue is personally relevant.

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 162

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

63) In a study by Burnkrant & Unnava (1989), participants were presented with an advertisement for disposable razors which either did or did not contain the self-referencing pronoun “you.” The results of the study revealed that the use of the word “you” caused people to be

  1. A) less persuaded by the ad only when the ad contained strong arguments.
  2. B) more persuaded by the ad only when the ad contained strong arguments.
  3. C) less persuaded by the ad regardless of the strength of the arguments.
  4. D) more persuaded by the ad regardless of the strength of the arguments.

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 162

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

64) How would the use of the pronoun “you” in a persuasive message affect the way you would process the message?

  1. A) It will make you process the message more centrally.
  2. B) It will make you process the message more peripherally.
  3. C) It will make you less concerned about whether you understand the message.
  4. D) It would distract you from processing the message.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 162

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

65) The desire to make accurate judgments is highest

  1. A) when the topic is of low personal relevance.
  2. B) when the person is in a happy mood.
  3. C) when a person is self-confident.
  4. D) before a decision is made.

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 162–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

66) Imagine that you are about to buy a new car. You would have

  1. A) more negative thoughts about the car before you buy it than after you buy it.
  2. B) more negative thoughts about the car after you buy it than before you buy it.
  3. C) more positive thoughts about the car before you buy it than after, only if you have low self-esteem.
  4. D) equally positive and negative thoughts about the car before and after the purchase.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 162–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Apply What You Know

67) How do people process persuasive information that agrees with their personal preferences and positions?

  1. A) They look for weaknesses in the message.
  2. B) They try to form counterarguments.
  3. C) They think deeply about the message.
  4. D) They don’t expend the effort to look for flaws in the message.

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 162–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

68) Individuals who are most likely to engage in denial even when confronted with troubling information are

  1. A) chronic unrealistic optimists.
  2. B) low need for cognition individuals.
  3. C) mildly depressed individuals.
  4. D) people with high but unstable self-esteem.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 162–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

69) Messages that include fear appeals are most effective when

  1. A) the message generates high levels of fear, and the targets are told what to do to reduce the danger.
  2. B) the message generates high levels of fear, and the targets are left feeling vulnerable.
  3. C) the message generates low levels of fear, and the targets are left feeling vulnerable.
  4. D) the message generates low levels of fear, and the targets are told what to do to reduce the danger.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 163–164

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

70) In a study conducted by Cooper, Bennett, and Sukel (1996), a jury was most persuaded by a witness who was

  1. A) moderately expert in his field and spoke in complex, almost incomprehensible language.
  2. B) moderately expert in his field and spoke in ordinary, easy-to-understand language.
  3. C) highly expert in his field and spoke in complex, almost incomprehensible language.
  4. D) highly expert in his field and spoke in ordinary, easy-to-understand language.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 164–165

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

71) Imagine that you are an attorney trying to prove that a certain chemical caused your client’s cancer. Your arguments will be more persuasive if your witness is

  1. A) Dr. Fallon, described as highly expert in the field, who simply says, “The chemical causes liver cancer, several other diseases of the liver, and diseases of the immune system.”
  2. B) Dr. Fallon, described as highly expert in the field, who states, “The chemical leads to tumor induction as well as hepatomegaly, hepatomegalocytosis, and lymphoid atrophy of the spleen and thymus.”
  3. C) Dr. Bryan, described as moderately expert in the field, who simply says, “The chemical causes liver cancer, several other diseases of the liver, and diseases of the immune system.”
  4. D) Dr. Bryan, described as moderately expert in the field, who states, “The chemical leads to tumor induction as well as hepatomegaly, hepatomegalocytosis, and lymphoid atrophy of the spleen and thymus.”

Answer: B

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 164–165

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Apply What You Know

72) The consistency principle states that people will

  1. A) change their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and actions to achieve consistency.
  2. B) seek long-lasting relationships with others who act consistently.
  3. C) seek a balance between consistency and inconsistency in their attitude, beliefs, perceptions, and actions.
  4. D) seek long-lasting relationships with others who are similar to themselves.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 165

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Remember the Facts

73) Which of the following phenomena would NOT be explained by balance theory?

  1. A) We want to agree with the people we like and disagree with those we dislike.
  2. B) We want to see things that are alike in one way as alike in other ways, too.
  3. C) We want to return favors that we receive from others.
  4. D) We want to associate good things with good people.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 166

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

74) Dwayne purchased a Sony TV ten years ago. Now he wants to purchase a new wide-screen TV, and when he goes to the store, he looks at the Sony TVs first. What principle might account for his behavior?

  1. A) the recency principle
  2. B) the spreading activation principle
  3. C) the consistency principle
  4. D) the contrast principle

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 165

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Apply What You Know

75) Franklin dislikes the Rush Limbaugh radio talk show. At a party, Franklin meets Jefferson, who lavishly praises the Rush Limbaugh show. Franklin takes an instant dislike to Jefferson. Which of the following psychological theories would best predict Franklin’s response to Jefferson?

  1. A) cognitive dissonance theory
  2. B) balance theory
  3. C) learning theory
  4. D) reciprocity theory

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 166

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Apply What You Know

76) Which of the following pairs of theories is derived from the human desire to be consistent?

  1. A) cognitive response theory and cognitive dissonance theory
  2. B) behaviorism and learning theory
  3. C) cognitive response theory and self-enhancement theory
  4. D) balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 166–167

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Remember the Facts

77) According to balance theory, which of the following best explains why one only has to be liked, not an expert, in order to be convincing?

  1. A) Experts are usually not convincing because they talk in an incomprehensible language.
  2. B) Experts are usually not convincing because they are not seen as trustworthy.
  3. C) People tend to agree with those whom they like in order to preserve cognitive consistency.
  4. D) People tend to undermine the expertise of those whom they like.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 166

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

78) Which of the following persuasive strategies of McDonald’s Corporation would be best explained by balance theory?

  1. A) showing in their ads that many kids like their hamburgers
  2. B) holding sweepstakes
  3. C) offering free gifts with happy meals
  4. D) hiring Michael Jordan to endorse their products

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 166

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Apply What You Know

79) According to cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), people are motivated to

  1. A) be accurate in their social perceptions.
  2. B) reduce psychological arousal via relaxation techniques.
  3. C) affiliate with others, especially those who agree with them.
  4. D) reduce inconsistency only to the extent that it involves something important.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

80) Which of the following theories best explains how a person’s actions can change his or her attitudes and beliefs?

  1. A) balance theory
  2. B) cognitive dissonance theory
  3. C) elaboration likelihood model
  4. D) counterattitudinal theory

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

81) According to dissonance theory, people are likely to ________ when they experience cognitive inconsistency, and they will be motivated to ________.

  1. A) learn faster; restructure their cognitions as a result
  2. B) think illogically; become more logical by central route thinking
  3. C) feel tension; reduce tension by reducing inconsistency
  4. D) act irrationally; seek rational solutions

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Remember the Facts

82) In an experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959), participants had to perform a boring task and were paid either $1 or $20 to tell the next participant that the task was interesting. The results of the experiment demonstrated that

  1. A) those who received $20 saw the task as more enjoyable than those who received $1.
  2. B) those who received $1 saw the task as more enjoyable than those who received $20.
  3. C) participants were not likely to tell the lie regardless of the payment.
  4. D) even though participants told the next participant that they enjoyed the task, later they confessed that they had not enjoyed the task, regardless of how much they were paid.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

83) More cognitive dissonance arises when the action or decision

  1. A) can be withdrawn.
  2. B) can be justified as due to strong rewards or threats.
  3. C) is seen as freely chosen.
  4. D) produces positive consequences.

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 168

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

84) A tiny reward that gets you to perform an activity that you dislike can make you like this activity more than a larger reward would. Simply making a decision can make you have more favorable feelings toward what you have chosen and more negative feelings toward what you have rejected. What theory of attitude change would be consistent with these statements?

  1. A) cognitive dissonance
  2. B) elaboration likelihood
  3. C) social learning theory
  4. D) social comparison theory

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 168

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

85) Strong cognitive dissonance effects are NOT likely to occur when

  1. A) the actor feels he or she had free choice in acting contrary to his or her beliefs.
  2. B) a decision is final.
  3. C) there is strong external justification for acting contrary to one’s beliefs.
  4. D) the self is involved.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 168

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

86) Suppose you are in a situation in which you perform an act that you think is inconsistent with what you believe. You would be more likely to experience cognitive dissonance if you were given a

  1. A) large reward before you performed the act.
  2. B) large number of reasons (justifications) for performing the act.
  3. C) high degree of choice in deciding whether or not to do it.
  4. D) threat that if you fail to do it, you will be strongly punished.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 168

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

87) According to the text, after people place a bet on a horse, they are more confident in their choice. Why?

  1. A) After making the bet, the bettors experience postdecisional dissonance.
  2. B) People are more motivated to be accurate after making the bet.
  3. C) People bet as a result of cognitive dissonance.
  4. D) Placing a bet increases people’s self-esteem and makes them more confident in their actions.

Answer: A

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 168

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

88) What is the role of arousal in the effect of cognitive dissonance on attitude change?

  1. A) People change their attitudes as a result of pleasant arousal.
  2. B) People are more likely to experience cognitive dissonance when they are pleasantly aroused.
  3. C) Inconsistency between attitudes and behavior leads to unpleasant arousal, which prevents people from changing their attitudes.
  4. D) Inconsistency between attitudes and behavior leads to unpleasant arousal, which makes people change their attitudes.

Answer: D

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 169

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

89) It is not just general arousal that is crucial to attitude change via cognitive dissonance, but specifically arousal that

  1. A) is sexual.
  2. B) comes from strenuous exercise.
  3. C) is relatively extreme.
  4. D) is unpleasant.

Answer: D

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 170

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

90) Cognitive dissonance effects are LESS likely to occur for people who

  1. A) are easily aroused.
  2. B) score low on a preference for consistency scale.
  3. C) score high on the need for cognition scale.
  4. D) are overly sensitive to the feelings of others.

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 170

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

91) Below are some phrases that car dealers frequently use. The persuasiveness of which one can best be explained by the consistency principle?

  1. A) “We are selling you this car below our invoice cost.”
  2. B) “You aren’t going to find this car cheaper anywhere else.”
  3. C) “You said that this is the car that you want.”
  4. D) “If you walk out now, we won’t be able to offer you the same promotion later.”

Answer: C

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 170

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

92) According to your text, advertisements that appeal to ________ work well for Western cultures, whereas advertisements that appeal to ________ work well for non-Western cultures.

  1. A) short-term success; long-term success
  2. B) personal self-enhancement; group enhancement
  3. C) extroverted personalities; introverted personalities
  4. D) status; wisdom

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 171–172

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.12 Discuss how Western and Eastern cultures differ in their preference for consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

93) According to cognitive dissonance research, which of the following advertising appeals would be most persuasive in a collectivistic culture?

  1. A) “You’re worth it.”
  2. B) “The best relationships are lasting ones.”
  3. C) “I love what it does for me.”
  4. D) “This is the image I want to project.”

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 171–172

Topic: Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.12 Discuss how Western and Eastern cultures differ in their preference for consistency.

Skill: Apply What You Know

94) The motivation to achieve approval is

  1. A) impression motivation.
  2. B) attraction motivation.
  3. C) accuracy motivation.
  4. D) consistency motivation.

Answer: A

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 173

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

95) Yuta is a high self-monitor. Consequently, at parties, Yuta

  1. A) shifts his attitudes to match those of whomever he’s talking to.
  2. B) takes a stand about an issue in a conversation and argues his case.
  3. C) drinks heavily in order to become more relaxed.
  4. D) avoids talking to strangers, preferring to talk only with close friends.

Answer: A

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 173–174

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Apply What You Know

96) According to the text, high self-monitors are more persuaded by ads that promote socially appealing images, because they have a stronger desire for

  1. A) consistency.
  2. B) achievement.
  3. C) accuracy.
  4. D) social approval.

Answer: D

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 173–174

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Remember the Facts

97) Low self-monitors rely on ________ to determine their attitudes, whereas high self-monitors rely on ________ to determine their attitudes.

  1. A) logic and rationality; emotion and intuition
  2. B) their own internal standards; the social situation
  3. C) emotion and intuition; logic and rationality
  4. D) the social situation; their own internal standards

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 173–175

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

98) Jack and Jill go to a party, and they both meet Muhammed, who has political views that oppose their own. After they hear Muhammed give his perspective of current politics, Jack is likely to respond, “________,” whereas Jill is more likely to respond, “________.”

  1. A) That’s interesting; I disagree
  2. B) I disagree; That’s interesting
  3. C) Let’s discuss this a little bit further; I disagree
  4. D) I disagree; I strongly disagree

Answer: B

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 174–175

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Apply What You Know

99) Which of the following statements about gender differences and persuasion is FALSE?

  1. A) Women’s statements are influenced by the fact that they typically are more concerned than men with cultivating positive relationships and maintaining social harmony.
  2. B) Men are less persuaded than women under public circumstances.
  3. C) Women are more persuaded than men under private circumstances.
  4. D) The presence of others influences the willingness of women to agree with a statement.

Answer: C

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 174–175

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Apply What You Know

100) Chen, Schechter, and Chaiken (1996) discovered that the expectation of discussion

  1. A) caused high need for cognition individuals to experience greater attitude change.
  2. B) caused low self-monitors to become more extreme in their positions.
  3. C) caused high self-monitors to become more moderate in their positions.
  4. D) caused highly aroused individuals to experience more dissonance and therefore more attitude change.

Answer: C

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 175

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

True/False Questions

101) There is a genetic component to many attitudes.

Answer: TRUE

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 144

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Remember the Facts

102) Cognitive response theory is based on the principles of operant conditioning.

Answer: FALSE

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 150

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Remember the Facts

103) According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, in order to process a message centrally, one needs both the motivation and the ability to process the message.

Answer: TRUE

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 153

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

104) If you need to present a complex message, it’s best to do so in a TV or radio advertisement rather than a print advertisement.

Answer: FALSE

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153–154

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Apply What You Know

105) When people encounter information that fits their attitudes, they typically evaluate it to search for weaknesses, in order to further strengthen their attitude.

Answer: FALSE

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 160

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

106) An advertisement with a fear appeal is most effective when accompanied by information about how to reduce the danger.

Answer: TRUE

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 160–161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

107) An expert is most effective if he/she explains his answers in plain, simple language.

Answer: FALSE

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 160–161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Remember the Facts

108) If you can justify a decision on the grounds that you were rewarded handsomely for it, then you are less likely to feel cognitive dissonance.

Answer: TRUE

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 169

Topic: Being Consistent In One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

109) One does not need to be aroused to experience cognitive dissonance.

Answer: FALSE

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent In One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Remember the Facts

110) Emphasizing the group benefits of a product should be more appealing to collectivists than to individualists.

Answer: TRUE

Level: 1-Easy Page Ref: 171–172

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.12 Discuss how Western and Eastern cultures differ in their preference for consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

Short Answer Questions

111) Name and define the two reasons that strong attitudes resist change.

Answer: Commitment: the extent to which the person believes his/her attitude is correct. Embeddedness: the degree to which an attitude is connected with the person’s self-concept, values, and social identity.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 144–145

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.2 Identify the two components of a strong attitude that make it resistant to change.

Skill: Remember the Facts

112) Describe the relationship between personal relevance and attitude-behavior consistency, and provide an example.

Answer: The greater the personal relevance, the stronger the correlation between attitude and behavior.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 146–147

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.3 Summarize the factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

113) From a persuasion perspective, what were the effects of the continuous interrogation and prevention of sleeping and eating on Peter Reilly?

Answer: The continuous interrogation prevented Reilly from having the time to develop counterarguments to the police’s claims, and lack of sleep and food probably left him too exhausted, mentally and physically, to be able to develop counterarguments.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 150–151

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Apply What You Know

114) Describe the roles of self-talk and counterarguments in persuasion, according to the cognitive response model.

Answer: The cognitive response model postulates that the type and amount of self-talk determine the extent to which persuasion occurs. More positive self-talk produces more persuasion, whereas more negative self-talk (including counterarguments that challenge and oppose the persuasive message) should decrease persuasion.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 150–151

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.5 Explain the cognitive response model and the significance of self-talk.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

115) Describe the need for cognition and how it can impact the depth of message processing.

Answer: Need for cognition: the tendency to enjoy and engage in deliberative thought. Persons high on this factor are more likely to centrally process messages, whereas persons who are low are more likely to peripherally process messages.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 155

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Remember the Facts

116) Name and describe the two components that together determine the credibility of a communicator.

Answer: Expertise: Does the person have extensive and/or specialized knowledge about the topic of the message?

Trustworthiness: Is the communicator honest and free of bias?

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 158–159

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.8 Understand the circumstances under which people are most motivated to hold accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

117) Imagine you are a mayor and are trying to convince the city council to agree with your proposal for a new water treatment plant. You decide to hire someone to testify in front of the city council. Name and describe the two characteristics you would look for when recruiting a credible communicator.

Answer: Expertise: Is the communicator an acknowledged expert on the relevant issues pertaining to water treatment?

Trustworthiness: Will the city council perceive the communicator to be honest and unbiased?

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 158–159

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.8 Understand the circumstances under which people are most motivated to hold accurate views.

Skill: Apply What You Know

118) Name and describe the two personal factors that can impact the desire for accuracy.

Answer: Issue involvement: If higher (if issue is personally relevant), then accuracy motivation is higher. Mood: Sad moods tend to increase the desire to acquire accurate attitudes and beliefs.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 162–163

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.8 Understand the circumstances under which people are most motivated to hold accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

119) What is meant by unwelcome information in a persuasion context? Describe the impact of unwelcome information on the desire for accuracy.

Answer: When people encounter unwelcome information—information that does not fit with their current beliefs or attitudes—they are more likely to seek accuracy and process the information carefully and critically.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 163

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.8 Understand the circumstances under which people are most motivated to hold accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

120) Name and describe one of the factors that can increase the amount of dissonance produced by an action. Provide an example of how that factor increases dissonance.

Answer: Factors include: the action was freely chosen; it cannot be justified by the presence of an external reward; the action is irreversible; and negative consequences of the action were foreseeable.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 169–170

Topic: Being Consistent In One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.11 Summarize the factors that affect our desire for cognitive consistency.

Skill: Remember the Facts

Essay Questions

121) Name and describe three of the sources of attitudes discussed in the book.

Answer: Four possible sources: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, and heredity.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 144–145

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.1 Describe the four sources of attitude formation.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

122) Describe all of the components of the theory of planned behavior and their connections to each other. Using the model’s terminology, provide one example and an explanation of when a person’s behavior is inconsistent with his or her attitude.

Answer: Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all determine behavioral intention, which in turn determines behavior. One way in which attitude-behavior inconsistency can arise is when a person has a favorable attitude toward a behavior (like stopping smoking) but does not believe that he/she can control this (due to the physical addiction). Thus, the favorable attitude does not translate into consistent action.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 148–149

Topic: The Nature of Attitudes

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

123) Name and define the two factors that, according to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, impact the route through which persuasion can occur.

Answer: Motivation: the desire to process message arguments. High motivation is associated with central processing, and low motivation with peripheral processing. Ability: If the person has the time, the knowledge, and the cognitive resources available to process message arguments carefully, the central route will be taken. Otherwise, the peripheral will be followed.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 153–154

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

124) Describe the two routes through which people change their attitudes, according to the ELM. When would people be likely to change their attitudes through each of the two routes?

Answer: Central route: involves careful scrutiny of the message arguments to determine message agreement, and is more likely when individuals have the motivation and ability to process carefully.

Peripheral route: absence of careful processing, and instead, there is reliance on cues such as source attractiveness to determine message agreement, and is more common when individuals lack either the motivation or the ability to process carefully.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 153–154

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.6 Compare the two basic kinds of attitude change processes within the dual process models of persuasion.

Skill: Understand the Concepts

125) Describe the three goals of persuasion discussed in the textbook. For each, name and describe at least one factor that can impact the achievement of that goal, and give an example for each of the three factors.

Answer: Goals: hold a more accurate view of the world; be consistent within themselves; gain social approval and acceptance.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 157

Topic: What Is Persuasion?

LO 5.4 Define persuasion and understand how attitude change is measured.

Skill: Apply What You Know

126) When do people use shortcut evidence in order to make their judgments? Describe what shortcut evidence people use, and give an example of how it might lead a person to change an important attitude, belief, or behavior.

Answer: People use them when they want to be accurate but lack the time and/or ability to process messages carefully. Good shortcuts include credible communicators (both expert and trustworthy), others’ responses, and ready ideas.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 158–161

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.7 Identify and explain the three sources of shortcut evidence that people often use when trying to hold accurate attitudes.

Skill: Apply What You Know

127) Name and describe three person factors discussed in the text that can impact the persuasive process.

Answer: Person factors include: mood, arousal, preference for consistency, self-monitoring, gender.

Level: 2-Medium Page Ref: 162–165

Topic: Having an Accurate View of the World

LO 5.9 Describe the factors that push people to hold less accurate views.

Skill: Remember the Facts

128) How can the desire to be consistent affect persuasion? Describe one of the two major consistency theories about persuasion discussed in the text. Using the theory you describe, give one example of how the desire to be consistent might lead a person to change an important attitude, belief, or behavior.

Answer: Students should describe either Balance Theory or Cognitive Dissonance Theory and provide a corresponding example.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 165–167

Topic: Being Consistent In One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Apply What You Know

129) Describe the Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) study. Be sure to discuss which individuals were more likely to experience dissonance and change their attitudes. What was the more general lesson learned about counterattitudinal behavior?

Answer: A complete answer would mention the boring task; payment of $1 or $20 to the two groups; the request to lie to a waiting “participant”; that persons in both groups lied; that the $1 group experienced dissonance because they had insufficient justification to lie, and this was inconsistent with their view of themselves as honest people; that the $20 group did not experience dissonance because of the external justification and did not adjust their attitudes. The more general principle is that counterattitudinal behavior will produce significant dissonance only if there is insufficient justification for engaging in the behavior.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 167

Topic: Being Consistent In One’s Attitudes and Actions

LO 5.10 Explain balance theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Skill: Apply What You Know

130) Describe three factors that affect the desire for social approval. Give an example of how these factors might lead a person to change an important attitude, belief, or behavior.

Answer: Factors are: Self-monitoring: the tendency to be chronically concerned with one’s public image and to adjust one’s actions to fit the needs of the current situation (from Chapter 4). People high on this dimension have greater need for social approval.

Gender: Women tend to be more concerned with social approval than men, especially in public situations.

Expectation of discussion: Oftentimes, individuals will moderate their positions if they expect to discuss the topic with other individuals.

Level: 3-Difficult Page Ref: 173–175

Topic: Gaining Social Approval

LO 5.13 Compare high self-monitors to low self-monitors.

Skill: Apply What You Know

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