SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 14TH EDITION By NYLA R. BRANSCOMBE – Test Bank

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TB_Baron_Chapter 5

 

 Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

TB_Baron_Chapter 5

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

M/C Question 1
If Billy tells his friend that he intends to vote for a certain candidate, then Billy’s intention reflects a(n) ________.

  1. schema
  2. cognition
  3. heuristic
  4. attitude

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 2
Assume you have a negative stereotype of fraternity/sorority members as “stuck-up.” Given an IAT with photos labeled “fraternity member” or “independent,” and paired with the word “bad” or “good,” your responses to the fraternity member/bad combination would likely be ________ than to independent/bad combinations.

  1. slower
  2. more forced
  3. quicker
  4. more mixed

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=add objective, Topic=Introduction: Attitudes: Evaluating and Responding to the Social World, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 3
If, as Arkes and Tetlock have speculated, Jesse Jackson were to “fail” an IAT that asks about his attitudes toward African Americans, it is because ________.

  1. he endorses negative stereotypes toward African Americans but is nevertheless slower to respond to pairings of “African American” and “good” (than to African American and bad)
  2. although he does not endorse negative stereotypes of African Americans in the culture, he is nevertheless slower to respond to pairings of “African American” and “bad” (than to African American and good)
  3. in attempting to fake his score, he may inadvertently show negative attitudes toward African Americans
  4. although he does not endorse negative stereotypes of African Americans in the culture, he has good knowledge of those stereotypes
  5. stereotype threat may cause his anxiety in taking the test to result in faster responses to positive-word/African American pairings (than to negative-word/African American pairings)

 

ANS: d

Skill=Understand, Objective=add objective, Topic=Introduction: Attitudes: Evaluating and Responding to the Social World, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 4
One study employing the IAT suggests that the gender gap in wages may be linked to implicit attitudes. Which of the following findings support this idea?

  1. Reaction times are faster for associations between women and spending.
  2. Reaction times are faster for associations between women and spending.
  3. Reaction times are slower for associations between men and wealth.
  4. Reaction times are faster for associations between men and wealth.

 

ANS: d

Skill=Understand, Objective=add objective, Topic=Introduction: Attitudes: Evaluating and Responding to the Social World, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 5
Marshall wants to pledge Theta Phi fraternity. He may well ________ publicly, believing active member decision makers will hear of his views. He is, in private, ________ to express those same views.

  1. badmouth other prospective pledges; quite likely
  2. badmouth other fraternities; unlikely
  3. compliment other fraternities; quite likely
  4. compliment other prospective pledges; quite likely

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 6
Students entering college who had social networks with more ________ attitudes toward affirmative action exhibited ________ change over the following 2 months.

  1. diverse; more
  2. similar; more
  3. diverse; no
  4. similar; no

 

ANS: a

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 7
We hold values similar to, and identify with, ________.

  1. members of our reference group(s)
  2. members of our age group
  3. people who dress similar to ourselves
  4. people with similar tastes in homes and cars

 

ANS: a

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 8
Having not met any members of a new social group, you hear a person expressing negative views of that group. Your attitude toward the new group would not be likely influenced by hearing this negative message if ________.

  1. you like the person expressing the view but believe his or her view to be unsubstantiated
  2. you do not expect to be meeting any members of the new social group in the near future
  3. the person expressing the attitude is someone you dislike and see as dissimilar to yourself
  4. you see the person expressing the message as subtly similar to members of the new social group

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 9
Which of the following examples BEST illustrates a situation where there is a gap between our attitudes and behavior?

  1. Greg tells his father that he plans to do his homework, but he fails to do so when the power goes out minutes later.
  2. Roz tells her new boyfriend that she is extremely excited to see the new James Bond movie, even though she truly dreads seeing that film.
  3. Hank wants to move to a new apartment but doesn’t have enough money for the move.
  4. Marilyn tells her son that she will purchase him some chocolate chip cookies, but her son is dissatisfied with her choice.

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 10
LaPiere’s research with the Chinese couple pointed out the ________.

  1. difficulty of studying actual behaviors during travel
  2. concordance between actual attitudes and reported conditions
  3. strong agreement between reported attitudes and actual behavior
  4. difficulty of predicting actual behavior from reported attitudes

 

ANS: d

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 11
Simone feels somewhat ambivalent about premarital sex. However, most of her friends seem to be unambiguously in favor of sexual activity before marriage. As a result, in a recent group discussion in her health class, Simone expressed fairly strong opinions in favor of premarital sex and avoided voicing her real concerns about the topic. Simone’s actions are most likely due to ________.

  1. pluralistic ignorance
  2. attitude discordance
  3. impression motivation
  4. attitude accessibility

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 12
“Whistle-blowers” generally blow the whistle on corporate misbehavior because of what three attributes?

  1. Their attitude is strong and vengeful, and their holder wants to go public with it.
  2. Their attitude is extreme, certain, and derives from personal experience.
  3. Their attitude is extreme and long-held, and combined with a fearless personality.
  4. Their attitude is risk-seeking, dynamic, and ruthless.

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 13
Juan feels unsure about the correctness of his attitude about a new rule at his job. He may feel more correct in his attitude if ________.

  1. he simply lets management do its job
  2. he thinks more generally about the costs and benefits of his job
  3. he finds out that most of his coworkers share his attitude
  4. a manager helps him see the wisdom of the new rule

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 14
Marcus felt clearer about his attitude regarding a school policy after meeting with other students about it. The change came about because ________.

  1. others’ arguments about the policy seemed quite strong
  2. he realized how the students at the meeting were dissimilar to him
  3. during the meeting, the school seemed ambivalent toward its own policy
  4. he was able to repeatedly express his own attitude about the policy

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 15
Wendy, Greta, Tom, and Bill have all made New Year’s resolutions to lose weight. Based on the information below, which of them is MOST likely to lose weight?

  1. Greta, who intends to dramatically reduce her fat intake and tells others that she is greatly committed to her diet
  2. Bill, who feels that it is important to cut back his calorie intake but is unsure of whether he will need to increase his exercise
  3. Wendy, who appreciates the importance of regular exercise but says that it is difficult to find the time to do so
  4. Tom, who wants to lose weight but tells others that he really doesn’t understand why people make such a fuss over diet and exercise

 

 

 

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 16
According to the theory of planned behavior, our behavioral intentions are determined in part by our perceptions of whether others will approve or disapprove of the behavior, our perceptions of our ability to perform the behavior, and ________.

  1. our attitudes toward a particular behavior
  2. others’ perceptions of our motivation for engaging in the particular behavior
  3. others’ perceptions of whether we have the ability to perform the behavior adequately
  4. our perceptions of whether the behavior is considered appropriate for our situation

 

ANS: a

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.3: Explain the two processes through which attitudes guide behavior, Topic=5.3: How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 17
Suppose a breaking news story has occurred involving an incident of terrorism. A certain news station invites a well-respected terrorism scholar to discuss the event. His views will likely be persuasive because he will be seen as ________.

  1. credible
  2. one-sided
  3. pluralistic
  4. physically attractive

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium,

 

M/C Question 18
A CEO of a Midwestern company gave a press briefing and espoused some fairly restrictive regulations aimed at reducing carbon emissions and water pollution. His excellent credibility was probably due to the fact that ________.

  1. many people in the area work for him
  2. he is CEO of a chemical company
  3. TV is an excellent means by which to express one’s attitude
  4. he is highly certain of his views

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 19
In what health context might positive messages be much better than fear-inducing messages for effecting behavior change?

  1. When health officials want to get children to see the school nurse
  2. When males are worried about painful examinations or tests
  3. When the message’s health concern is not serious and does not involve a prescription
  4. When the message’s health concern is very serious or fatal

 

ANS: d

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 20
An advertising company has been hired by the Centers for Disease Control to produce TV commercials to increase awareness of breast cancer in males. Advertising executives are considering three different commercials. The first features actual patients who describe the pain they experienced from the disease. The second focuses on medical doctors discussing early detection strategies and treatment options. The third shows grieving family members surrounding a grave. Which is likely to be more effective at changing men’s behavior?

  1. The first, focusing on actual patients and their negative outcomes
  2. The second, focusing on specific information that will reduce fear
  3. The third, focusing on the ultimate outcome of ignoring the potential problem
  4. All of these will be equally effective

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 21
According to the elaboration-likelihood and the heuristic-systematic models of persuasion, the two key factors that will determine whether we engage in effortful or effortless processing of information are one’s ________.

  1. capacity to process information and level of motivation
  2. desire to arrive at the best decision and personality characteristics
  3. level of motivation and concern for pleasing others
  4. general belief in oneself and concern for pleasing others

 

ANS: a

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium,

 

 

 

M/C Question 22
A campaign manager has advised the candidate he represents to make sure there is a “spontaneous” demonstration of support for him during the candidate’s next major speech. Given that the candidate relies on his audience’s peripheral processing of his emotion-laden persuasive messages, the demonstration is useful because ________.

  1. the distraction will allow the candidate to pose for the cameras while pausing in the speech
  2. the demonstration might create a bandwagon effect
  3. distractions can increase the persuasiveness of a speech
  4. such demonstrations are an expected part of the political process

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 23
Jason has been listening to a talk show concerning animal rights. This is an issue that he cares deeply about and he is very knowledgeable about the topic. Jason is most likely to be persuaded by ________.

  1. strong, convincing arguments
  2. any message delivered by an attractive and competent speaker
  3. irrational arguments delivered by an attractive and competent speaker
  4. any message that challenges his knowledge

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium,

 

M/C Question 24
Emma is trying to convince her professor that he gave her an unfair grade. She continues to pester him for several days, as her arguments become ever more extreme. Ultimately, the professor tells Emma, II will not change your grade; moreover, you should be thankful for the grade you received!” Emma’s professor likely resisted changing her grade because he ________.

  1. perceived her as attempting to gain an unfair advantage relative to her classmates
  2. saw her as being atypically confrontational and irritating relative to her classmates
  3. became convinced she cared nothing for the class but only cared about her image
  4. felt strongly that he was being pushed to do something he didn’t want to do, rather than being asked

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 25
Bethany has been listening to a political speaker who is encouraging people to support a law that would require all people to recycle aluminum cans and severely penalize those who do not recycle. The speaker is giving strong arguments in favor of this proposed law and is couching his appeal in moral and ethical language. As a result, Bethany is becoming increasingly annoyed and resentful of the speaker and his arguments. She may be experiencing ________.

  1. biased assimilation
  2. acceptance
  3. cognitive dissonance
  4. reactance

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 26
Tony disagrees with a certain political commercial. When the commercial comes on, he immediately switches the television channel. This is an example of ________.

  1. formulating counterarguments
  2. attitude polarization
  3. selective avoidance
  4. selective attention

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

 M/C Question 27
Tina, who favors the death penalty, hears two different, though persuasive, messages: one favoring the death penalty and one against it. Tina will likely report ________ oppositional (than supportive) thoughts about the counterattitudinal message (the message arguing against her attitude), and ________ supportive (than oppositional) thoughts about the proattitudinal message (the message in line with her attitude). Because of this experience, she will be ________ able to resist counterattitudinal persuasion in the future on this topic.

  1. more; more; better
  2. fewer; fewer; better
  3. more; fewer; not as
  4. fewer; more; better

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

 

M/C Question 28
Cognitive dissonance arises when we notice a discrepancy between our attitudes and our behaviors. One way we can reduce the dissonance is by ________.

  1. modifying either the attitude or the behavior to be more extremely inconsistent with each other
  2. focusing more of our attention on the discrepancy to determine whether the attitude or the behavior is more important to us
  3. describing the dissonant attitude and behavior to a significant other person to seek support
  4. using self-affirmation, whereby we restore positive self-evaluations by focusing our attention on positive self-attributes

 

ANS: d

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 29
Arlene was always averse to physical contact with pigs because she thought pigs were essentially dirty animals. Despite her concerns, she was induced to kiss a clean-looking pig on the snout for $2.00 while appearing on a television game show. As a result, Arlene has become a staunch advocate of pigs, and she soon plans to have one as a pet. The most probable explanation for this change in attitude is the ________.

  1. more-leads-to-more effect
  2. third-person trivialization effect
  3. less-leads-to-more effect
  4. attitude-to-behavior process effect

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 30
Cognitive dissonance arises when we notice a discrepancy between our attitudes and our behaviors. One way we can reduce the dissonance is by ________.

  1. modifying the attitude and the behavior to be more extremely inconsistent with each other
  2. strengthening the attitude and the behavior and ignoring the discrepancy
  3. modifying either the attitude or the behavior to be more consistent with each other
  4. describing the dissonant attitude and behavior to a significant other person to seek their support

 

 

 

 

 

ANS: c

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 31
Upon learning that soda sales are in decline, a soda manufacturer, ABC Fizz, decides upon a new advertising tactic. Using demographic data, ABC Fizz discovers that 30–34-year-olds show a strong affiliation with Apple products. In the new advertising campaign, the company repeatedly pairs images of its soda with 30–34-year-olds using Apple products. Before long, they find that sales of their soda increase within this demographic. This is an example of ________ conditioning.

  1. instrumental
  2. classical
  3. positive
  4. neutral

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 32
A film studio pairs with a brewery and exclusively includes scenes of people drinking this beer or the beer standing in the background of scenes throughout many of its summer blockbusters. Sales of the brewery’s line of beers skyrocket. The increased sales were likely due to ________ conditioning.

  1. neutral
  2. classical
  3. subliminal
  4. direct

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 33
Which form of conditioning causes many children and young teens to hold political, religious, and social views that are very similar to those of their parents?

  1. Classical conditioning
  2. Instrumental conditioning
  3. Modern conditioning
  4. Ethnic conditioning

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Easy,

 

M/C Question 34
Paul considers himself to be a liberal. At a recent party, he got into a discussion with two women he had never met before. The discussion turned to raising the minimum wage, a topic that Paul didn’t know much about. One of the women, a progressive named Clara, claimed that an increased minimum wage would benefit individuals and the economy. The other woman, a conservative named Joan, claimed that an increased minimum wage was a free handout to people who could try to get better jobs. Paul will likely adopt the attitude position of ________ due to the process of ________.

  1. Clara; social comparison
  2. Joan; exposure conditioning
  3. Clara; classical conditioning
  4. Joan; instrumental conditioning

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 35
Erin works at a think tank in Washington, DC. She is a progressive liberal and, as most of her colleagues are around her age and come from similar backgrounds, she makes the assumption that her colleagues are too, even though a large percentage of them do not identify as such. Erin has fallen susceptible to ________.

  1. social network conditioning
  2. social comparison
  3. implicit attitudes
  4. pluralistic ignorance

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 36
Which attitudinal factor describes the extent of how strongly an individual feels about an issue?

  1. Certainty
  2. Extremity
  3. Personal experience
  4. Accessibility

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Easy

 

 

M/C Question 37
Theresa owns and operates a craft beer brewery in her hometown in upstate New York. Recently, there has been a legislative proposal to increase the drinking age in New York from 21 to 23. Theresa is fervently opposed to this proposal. The strength of Theresa’s opposition likely stems from ________.

  1. instrumental conditioning
  2. vested interest
  3. pluralistic ignorance
  4. social comparison

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium,

 

M/C Question 38
According to the theory of planned behavior, what type of process precedes the decision to engage in a particular behavior?

  1. An irrational process
  2. A rational process
  3. An unconscious process
  4. A subliminal process

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.3: Explain the two processes through which attitudes guide behavior, Topic=5.3: How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?, Difficulty=Easy,

 

M/C Question 39
Ursula has decided that she will quit smoking by January 1 of next year. She creates a weekly calendar. On each week of the calendar, she notes down how many cigarettes she can smoke, gradually reducing the amount over the course of the year, so that by January 1 she will be able to give up the habit for good. Ursula has created a(n) ________.

  1. implementation plan
  2. illusion of truth
  3. attitudinal clarification
  4. implicit attitude

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.3: Explain the two processes through which attitudes guide behavior, Topic=5.3: How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

 

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 40
Next week, there will be a debate on campus. The topic of the debate will be, “Is Climate Change a Threat?” The debate will have three participants: Jim, a scientist from Harvard University; Caroline, a science writer from the Huffington Post; Ed, a conservative representative on the House Science Committee; and Janet, a science historian. Who will likely be more persuasive during the debate and why?

  1. Ed, because he has experience leading committees dealing with legislation related to climate change.
  2. Caroline, because she works at a news organization that covers the topic frequently.
  3. Jim, because his educational and professional background lend him credibility.
  4. Janet, because she is knowledgeable on how this topic has changed over time.

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 41
Which of the following is usually true of a persuasive communicator?

  1. A communicator lacking expertise is as persuasive as a communicator with expertise.
  2. An attractive communicator is more persuasive than an unattractive communicator.
  3. A communicator with a vested interest is as persuasive as a communicator without one.
  4. A communicator who arouses fear is more persuasive than a communicator who doesn’t.

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 42
Sherif attends a conference focused on evolutionary psychology. At the conference, he listens to a lecture about how inherent impulses underlie many of our day-to-day behaviors. Which of the following is an example of heuristic processing that Sherif might experience during this lecture?

  1. Sherif decides to trust the speaker because the speaker is an expert.
  2. Sherif compares the speaker’s arguments to those he has read in other books on the topic.
  3. Sherif analyzes the speaker’s claims by using his own education in biology.
  4. Sherif considers the speaker’s claims in comparison to those of other conference presenters.

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

M/C Question 43
Arnold is a politician who is campaigning to be the next president of the United States. He knows that most of the people listening to his speeches do not have much knowledge of the intricacies of defense budgets, economic surpluses and deficits, and tax allocation for nationalized health care spending. Therefore, to change the populace’s attitudes on such topics, he attempts to get potential voters to use which type of processing?

  1. Central route
  2. Heuristic
  3. Systematic
  4. Elaboration

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 44
At Thanksgiving dinner, Rachel, a Ph.D. student in economics, gets into a conversation with her father about the current state of the economy and income inequality. He claims that the top-down policies under Reagan in the 1980s, known as “trickle down” economics, are what this country needs. Rachel stresses that current research shows that this type of economic distribution hurts those that are not in the top one percent of earners. Afterward, she sends her father links to academic studies, popular essays, and YouTube videos that explore this topic. The next week, her father is even more resolute in his conviction than ever. The father’s behavior is a form of ________.

  1. systematic processing
  2. selective avoidance
  3. reactance
  4. fear avoidance

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 45
Marlon is a liberal. When he wants to watch the news on television, he only watches MSNBC. On the Internet, he only views popular liberal sites such as The Nation, Salon, and Slate. When he’s using Facebook, if any of his friends posts links with conservative viewpoints, he hides these from his feed. Marlon is resisting persuasion through the use of ________.

  1. fear appraisal
  2. systematic processing
  3. reactance
  4. selective avoidance

 

ANS: d

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 46
Which of the following can contribute to a person showing attitudinal change when confronted with a counterattitudinal message?

  1. Reactance
  2. Selective avoidance
  3. Ego-depletion
  4. Selective exposure

 

ANS: c

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.5 Examine the methods that help people resist skilled attempts to persuade us, Topic=5.5 Resisting Persuasion Attempts, Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 47
Quentin is a devout religious follower. The holy books of the religion Quentin subscribes to strongly advocate helping the poor. However, Quentin believes that the poor simply need to work harder, and he refuses to offer them any assistance. Quentin’s reaction to the poor is a form of ________.

  1. reactance
  2. cognitive dissonance
  3. selective exposure
  4. vested interest

 

ANS: b

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 48
Smaller rewards lead to greater attitudinal change due to the ________ effect.

  1. selective exposure
  2. less-leads-to-more
  3. attitude-to-behavior
  4. classical conditioning

 

ANS: b

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Easy

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 49
Irene considers herself to be an environmentalist, and she wants to reduce her carbon footprint. One day, her husband comes home and says that he sold their electric lawn mower and used the money, plus some savings, to by a new, powerful gasoline-powered mower. Irene is shocked, but when she uses the mower, she decides that she really likes it. This makes her feel uneasy, so she reminds herself of all the good environmental work she has done in the past. Irene is engaging in ________.

  1. self-affirmation
  2. trivialization
  3. insufficient justification
  4. reactance

 

ANS: a

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 50
Patty is a politician running for public office. At a town hall meeting, she claims that she has always fought for and will continue to fight for the LGBT community. At this, a person who does not support Patty stands up and claims that Patty only began to support marriage equality after the majority of U.S. states had legalized same-sex marriage. This person is trying to generate feelings of ________.

  1. trivialization
  2. insufficient justification
  3. hypocrisy
  4. ego-depletion

 

ANS: c

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay

 

Essay Question 51
Some universities have run public service ads in which they give the results of a careful survey of their students with what students say is the average number of beers or drinks they are likely to consume in a given evening. Apart from establishing a drinking social norm, why be so explicit about the actual number of drinks? That is, what psychological tendency might the ads be attempting to thwart?

 

ANS: It turns out that people tend to believe that many people drink more than they do; in other words, they tend to engage in pluralistic ignorance. The ads state the average reported consumption quite explicitly so that people will quit imagining that they themselves are some sort of weirdo if they don’t consume large amounts of alcohol.

 

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 52
In your search for a car to buy, you encounter a possible car of Brand X. A friend, at one point, had confided that she had had a bad experience with Brand X—it was a lemon. You remember what she said, but you do not focus on it much, and soon you are evaluating the car without thinking of it. What circumstance would likely increase your feelings of suspicion about the car you are considering?

 

ANS: While a friend telling me to be careful about a particular brand because of her personal experience with it is nice, I am much more likely to be suspicious of any Brand X car if I myself have had a bad experience with that brand of car.

 

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.2: Examine the link between attitudes and behavior and the factors that affect their relationship, Topic=5.2: When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 53
Forewarning generally improves resistance to persuasion—but not always. Describe briefly how forewarning may produce attitude change in the direction of the message. What motivation might drive such a result? What role might source credibility play?

 

ANS: When people receive information about a persuasive message to be delivered by an “expert,” they make arrangements to be pre-convinced, so as to make themselves appear resistant to having their attitude easily changed. In other words, “I’m not gullible.” The expert, of course, is highly credible.

 

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Hard

 

Essay Question 54
One way to reduce cognitive dissonance is to engage in self-affirmation. In what case of cognitive dissonance might we be more likely to use this indirect method for dissonance reduction? If you did something that induced some dissonance, and you used self-affirmation to reduce your dissonance, how would you personally go about it?

 

ANS: People are more likely to use the indirect method in cases where it is more difficult to trivialize (i.e., when the dissonance involves serious attitude/behavior conflicts). (Obviously, what follows is idiosyncratic.) Were I to be impatient with someone, I’m most likely to remind myself that I am generally not an impatient person, and I know I get that way when I’m under stress. I resolve to address directly the things that are causing me stress, that I’m not naturally a stressed-out hurried person—this resolution helps a lot to reduce the dissonance.

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium

 

 Essay Question 55
Participants were asked to make a video advocating the use of condoms. Half were then asked to think about reasons they had not used condoms, while the other half thought about reasons why other students had not. Later on, each group was asked to choose between purchasing condoms or making a donation to a worthy cause. Please briefly discuss what psychological outcomes were the result of the initial manipulation, and then explain why one group was more likely to select the purchasing condoms option than the other.

 

ANS: Advocating of condom use in a public way was a behavior that set up participants so that dissonance could be easily induced. Participants were asked to think either about why they, or why others, had not used condoms in the past. Those in the “they” condition felt more hypocritical (more cognitive dissonance) than those in the “others” condition. Thus, those in the high dissonance condition were more likely to purchase condoms (a direct method for dissonance reduction), while those in the “less-hypocritical” group were more likely to select the charitable behavior.

 

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium,

 

 Essay Question 56
Compare and contrast subliminal conditioning and mere exposure. Describe each and explain how they are similar and different.

 

ANS: Subliminal conditioning is classical conditioning that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness of the stimuli involved. Mere exposure involves having seen an object before but too rapidly to remember having seen it. They are similar in the fact that both can influence attitude formation. They are different because subliminal conditioning involves a subject being exposed to stimuli without being aware of it, whereas mere exposure involves a subject experiencing stimuli but not remembering it.

 

Skill=Analyze, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 57
What are reference groups and how can they influence attitude formation?

 

ANS: Reference groups are other entities—individual people, communities, organizations, and so forth—that a person identifies with. People often adjust their attitudes so as to hold views closer to the reference groups they value and identify with. As a result of observing the attitudes held by others who we identify with, new attitudes can be formed.

 

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.1: Identify the learning processes through which our attitudes are formed, Topic=5.1: Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 58
What is the relationship between credibility and persuasive communication? What is a way that credibility can be undermined? How does this relate to a communicator’s self-interest?

 

ANS: Communicators who are credible—who seem to know what they are talking about or who are expert with respect to the topics or issues they are presenting—are more persuasive than those who are seen as lacking expertise. Communicators can, though, lose their credibility and therefore their ability to persuade. One means by which credibility can be undermined is if you learn that a communicator has a personal stake (financial or otherwise) in persuading you
to adopt a particular position. Because of this, communicators are seen as most credible and persuasive when they are perceived as arguing against their self-interests.

 

Skill=Understand, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 59
Ronald browses a website that advocates strengthening gun control in the United States. The website is full of statistics, graphs showing homicide trends, and charts breaking down the demographics of gun owners. The website is produced by a reputable think tank that Ronald has followed for many years. How will systematic and heuristic processing figure into Ronald’s experience when browsing the website.

 

ANS: Ronald will use systematic processing when he experiences most of the content on the site—the site’s central message, the ideas it contains, and any facts and figures—as systematic processing involves careful consideration of information. Ronald will use heuristic processing, or a mental shortcut, when he immediately trusts the accuracy of the content based on the fact that it is delivered via a source that he considers to be expert.

 

Skill=Application, Objective=5.4: Indicate the factors that determine whether persuasion attempts to alter our attitudes will be effective, Topic=5.4: The Science of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed, Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 60
What is self-affirmation? Describe this phenomenon and provide an example of it in practice.

ANS: Self-affirmation is a strategy people use to restore positive self-evaluations that are threatened by cognitive dissonance. It is a method for reducing the discomfort that comes with dissonance. For example, if a person takes a stand against the breeding and selling of puppies due to the current amount of dogs that need to be adopted but then succumbs to the cuteness of a purebred basset hound and purchases it from a breeder, this person may say, “well, someone would have bought it, and at least I will give it a good home.” This rationalization of behavior in order to reduce the threat of dissonance is an example of self-affirmation.

 

Skill=Apply, Objective=5.6: Evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance on attitude change, Topic=5.6: Cognitive Dissonance: What Is It and How Do We Manage It?, Difficulty=Medium,

 

 

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