Sexuality Today 11th Edition by Kelly – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Developmental and Social Perspectives on Gender

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. A female pseudohermaphrodite possesses
  2. female external genitalia, but male internal structures.
  3. one ovary and one testis.
  4. two ovaries and some male genitals but no testes.
  5. two testes and some female genitals but no ovaries.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 96

 

  1. The terms berdache and hijra refer to
  2. gender roles for a “third sex” recognized in particular societies.
  3. individuals in various societies who have a same-sex sexual orientation.
  4. malformed genitalia in newborn infants.
  5. women who choose to live as males in their respective societies.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 96

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the traditional view of intersexuality in modern Western culture?
  2. Modern Western culture generally has welcomed intersexed individuals and created a special social role for them.
  3. Modern Western culture has generally embraced a one-sex model in which both females and intersexed individuals are considered less developed versions of males.
  4. Modern Western culture has tended to view intersexuality as a biological accident or disease.
  5. Unlike many other cultures, modern Western culture generally has been unconcerned with gender roles and the sexual categorization of individuals and so has not recognized intersexuality.

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 97

 

  1. A person’s genetic sex is determined
  2. at birth.
  3. at conception.
  4. during gestation.
  5. during the fetal period.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 98

 

  1. At birth, people are usually categorized on the basis of
  2. body sex.
  3. brain sex.
  4. genetic sex.
  5. social sex.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 98

 

 

 

  1. Anatomical structures at birth define a person’s
  2. body sex.
  3. gender identity.
  4. gender role.
  5. sexual orientation.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 98

 

  1. Robin feels deep inside herself that she is female. In other words, she has a clear sense of her
  2. brain sex.
  3. gender identity.
  4. gender role.
  5. secondary sex characteristics.

Answer: b

Type: Applied

Page 97

 

  1. Chris wears clothes and acts in ways identified as feminine in her society. Such behavior is one aspect of
  2. brain sex.
  3. gender identity.
  4. gender role.
  5. sexual orientation.

Answer: c

Type: Applied

Page 97

 

  1. The process by which an embryo or fetus develops into a male, female, or intersexual organism is called
  2. gender identity development.
  3. gender role adherence.
  4. ongoing socialization.
  5. sexual differentiation.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page: 99

 

  1. Sexual differentiation is determined
  2. at birth by external genital structures.
  3. at puberty by hormones secreted by the gonads.
  4. before birth by the chromosomes.
  5. by an interaction of biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors.

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 99

 

  1. If an individual has at least one X chromosome, that individual
  2. cannot be a boy.
  3. might be a boy.
  4. must be a boy.
  5. must be a girl.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 99-100

 

  1. The term SRY refers to
  2. factors during infancy and childhood that contribute to sexual differentiation.
  3. one of several chromosomal disorders that affect the gender assignment of the newborn.
  4. the region of the Y chromosome that seems to trigger the development of male sex organs.
  5. the sensitivity of the young child to factors that can influence gender role development.

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 100

 

  1. Preliminary research focused on the DAX-1 gene suggests that
  2. genetic determinants of sex may be overturned during postnatal development.
  3. sexual differentiation begins during the middle fetal stage of development.
  4. the X chromosome may also carry a sex-determining gene.
  5. toxic substances ingested by the mother during fetal development may result in a chromosomal disorder.

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 100

 

  1. Which of the following is characteristically present in individuals with Turner syndrome?
  2. Female external genitalia
  3. Female internal genitalia
  4. The XXX chromosome combination
  5. Traits of a true hermaphrodite

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 101

 

  1. Which of the following genetic combinations has NOT been identified among humans?
  2. XO
  3. XXY
  4. XYY
  5. YO

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 99-100

 

  1. Jane has a miscarriage during the sixth week of pregnancy. Which of the following statements about the genetic sex of the embryo is true?
  2. Because chromosomal disorders are so common, it was probably an intersexual individual.
  3. It was more likely a girl than a boy because more girls are conceived.
  4. It would be impossible to tell the sex of the embryo by visually inspecting the embryo.
  5. The sex of the embryo would not have been determined until the twelfth week of gestation.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 100

 

  1. In fetal development, it is not possible to determine the sex of a human embryo by its appearance until at least
  2. 5 weeks.
  3. 8 weeks.
  4. 12 weeks.
  5. 16 weeks.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 100

 

  1. The embryonic structures that develop into ovaries are called the
  2. genital tubercles.
  3. Müllerian ducts.
  4. ovarian ducts.
  5. Wolffian ducts.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 100

 

  1. The embryonic structures that develop into testes and related reproductive structures are called the
  2. genital tubercles.
  3. H-Y antigens.
  4. Müllerian ducts.
  5. Wolffian ducts.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 100

 

  1. The chemical agent that helps change the fetal gonads into testes is called
  2. DAX-1.
  3. FSH.
  4. H-Y antigen.
  5. testosterone.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 101

 

  1. During fetal development, the SRY gene activates
  2. an increase in the level of DSS.
  3. expression of DAX-1.
  4. production of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH).
  5. the development of the penis.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 101

 

  1. If you were able to closely examine a 12-week-old fetus, you would
  2. be able to determine if DHT-deficiency syndrome is present.
  3. be able to distinguish male or female genitalia.
  4. be able to observe changes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  5. not be able to tell the sex of the fetus.

Answer: b

Type: Applied

Page 100

 

  1. Recent research suggests that
  2. fetal sex hormones only affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system.
  3. fetal sex hormones affect the number and location of nerve synapses in the hypothalamus.
  4. fetal sex hormones have an effect on behavior only after the organism has reached sexual maturity.
  5. the presence of male hormones has an effect on brain development only after birth.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 103

 

 

  1. Recent studies of fetally androgenized females suggest that
  2. corrective surgery can override genetic sex in assigning a person to a particular gender.
  3. fetal androgen exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy is associated with masculine behavior  in early childhood
  4. in the absence of masculinizing hormones, sex and reproductive structures take on a female form.
  5. prenatal sex hormones influence adult sexual orientation.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the core problem in AIS?
  2. A build-up of androgenic hormones in XX females produces masculinized genitals and masculine traits.
  3. Developing cells of XY males fail to respond normally to testosterone, and female genitals and incomplete female internal structures develop.
  4. Prenatal exposure to synthetic testosterone results in greater aggression and individualism in both females and males.
  5. The absence of DHT results in undescended testes and an underdeveloped penis.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 104-105

 

  1. Studies of DHT-deficient individuals in the Dominican Republic and New Guinea demonstrated
  2. how parents can influence the gender identity and sexual preferences of their children.
  3. how socialization and hormonal factors interact in the development of gender identity.
  4. that modern medical interventions can disrupt normal sexual differentiation.
  5. that sex assignment at birth and the resulting gender identity cannot be altered at puberty.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 105

 

  1. Which statement most accurately reflects the concept of the multiplier effect?
  2. Being genetically male can lead to a great many development-related problems.
  3. Biological and socioenvironmental factors increasingly build on each other as a person grows up.
  4. Genetic factors override hormonal factors in determining the shape of the external genitalia.
  5. The presence of sex hormones during prenatal development influences a multitude of organs and functions.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. Using different disciplinary techniques with girls and boys, interacting with boys more roughly than with girls, and selecting different types of toys for boys and girls are all examples of the impact of
  2. differential socialization.
  3. secondary sexual characteristics.
  4. sexual differentiation.
  5. the multiplier effect.

Answer: a

Type: Applied

Page 106

 

  1. The child’s earliest sense of his or her own masculinity or femininity is his or her
  2. core gender identity.
  3. process of sexual differentiation.
  4. socially assigned sex.
  5. ultimate sexual orientation.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 107

 

  1. In boys, puberty typically begins at around age
  2. 9.
  3. 11.
  4. 13.
  5. 15.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 107

 

  1. In girls, puberty typically begins at around age
  2. 9.
  3. 11.
  4. 13.
  5. 15.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 107

 

  1. What is gynecomastia?
  2. Delay in the onset of menstruation in females
  3. Development of an enlarged clitoris in females
  4. Failure of the male larynx to grow and deepen the voice
  5. Slight breast enlargement in males

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 108

 

  1. Harry believes that if he is aggressive, competitive, and brave in dangerous situations, he cannot also be conciliatory, cooperative, and fearful in dangerous situations. What model of masculinity/femininity does he appear to believe in?
  2. Androgynous
  3. Bipolar
  4. Oblique
  5. Orthogonal

Answer: b

Type: Applied

Page 110

 

  1. A person whose behavior encompasses both traditionally feminine and masculine presentations, might be described as
  2. androgynous.
  3. oblique.
  4. orthogonal.
  5. undifferentiated.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 110

 

  1. In the __________ and __________ models, individuals may have varying levels of both masculine and feminine traits.
  2. bipolar; oblique
  3. bipolar; orthogonal
  4. oblique; androgynous
  5. orthogonal; oblique

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 110

 

  1. Even though professional views about the pathology of transgenderism are changing, a person who does not conform with a traditional male or female gender role would traditionally be diagnosed as displaying
  2. androgyny.
  3. gender dysphoria.
  4. hypermasculinity.
  5. same-sex sexual orientation.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 114

 

  1. Although he lives a fairly conventional masculine lifestyle, Louis feels he was born into the wrongly sexed body. He is seeking hormonal treatment and surgery in order to live as a woman. Louis would be considered a
  2. cross-dresser.
  3. homosexual.
  4. transsexual.
  5. transvestite.

Answer: c

Type: Applied

Page 115

 

  1. Gender differences in mechanical aptitude, mathematical reasoning, and writing ability are believed by some researchers to be due to
  2. differences in the degree of cerebral lateralization.
  3. differing unconscious motivations.
  4. sociobiological forces.
  5. the social construction of gender.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 111

 

  1. The theory of gender role development that includes concepts such as penis envy and castration anxieties is
  2. cognitive-developmental theory.
  3. gender schema theory.
  4. psychoanalytic theory.
  5. social learning theory.

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 112

 

  1. Processes such as observation, imitation, and lifelong learning are important concepts in which theory of gender role development?
  2. Cognitive-developmental theory
  3. Gender schema theory
  4. Psychodynamic theory
  5. Social learning theory

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 112

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT an assertion of the cognitive-developmental theory of gender role development?
  2. Boys and girls come to perceive the masculine gender role and male genitals as more powerful and desirable.
  3. Gender role development begins with the child’s self-categorization as a boy or girl.
  4. The child comes to identify with the same-sex parent and becomes more attached to things related to that masculine or feminine model.
  5. The child comes to value things that are associated with his or her self-label as a boy or girl.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 113

 

  1. The complex cognitive network of associations and ideas through which the individual perceives and interprets information about gender is called a
  2. gender schema.
  3. gender stereotype.
  4. sex difference.
  5. sex role.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 113

 

  1. Nina, a 6-year-old, states that she won’t play softball, soldier, or explorer because they are boys’ games. She will only play school, house, or ballet dancer, stating that these are girls’ games. Nina could therefore be described as
  2. androgynous.
  3. gender aschematic.
  4. gender schematic.
  5. independent.

Answer: c

Type: Applied

Page 113

 

  1. Which of the following has NOT been a theme in the socialization of girls in U.S. society?
  2. Acceptance of dependence on others for a sense of self-worth
  3. Acceptance of dependence on others for comfort
  4. Rewards for compliant behavior
  5. Strong criticism for stepping out of the female gender role

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 117

 

  1. Which of the following has NOT been a theme in the socialization of boys in U.S. society?
  2. Devaluing of female roles
  3. Criticism for not adhering to a narrow definition of their gender role
  4. Greater emphasis on obedience than achievement
  5. Pressure to become self-controlling and independent

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 117

 

  1. An important finding of the AAUW survey of boys and girls at different ages was that
  2. although all adolescent girls developed lower self-esteem, this was especially true of African-American girls.
  3. girls expressed anger and all other emotions more frequently as they grew older.
  4. girls were strongly discouraged from pursuing athletic interests.
  5. the self-esteem of girls dropped significantly during adolescence, especially among white and Hispanic girls.

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 117

 

  1. Aspects of the traditional male role that tend to make men uncomfortable include
  2. the male as competent worker and provider.
  3. the male as emotionally controlled stoic.
  4. the male as sexual aggressor and sexual educator of women.
  5. All of these

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Pages 120

 

Fill in the Blank

 

 

  1. Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by the chromosomal combination ______________________.

Answer: XXY

Type: Factual

Page 108

 

  1. Turner syndrome is characterized by the chromosomal combination ______________________.

Answer: XO

Type: Conceptual

Page 108

 

  1. A genetic disorder that masculinizes chromosomal females and seems to lead to a masculinization of behavior is known as ______________________.

Answer: CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)

Type: Factual

Page 113

 

  1. A condition in which cells of genetic males are unable to respond normally to testosterone secreted by the fetal testes is known as ______________________.

Answer: AIS (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome)

Type: Factual

Page 113

 

  1. A condition in which a boy is born with undescended testes and an underdeveloped penis that may be mistaken for a clitoris is known as ______________________.

Answer: DHT-deficiency syndrome

Type: Factual

Page 114

 

  1. ______________________ theory suggests that gender identity results from social and cultural models and influences during the early years of development.

Answer: Social learning

Type: Conceptual

Page 124

 

  1. ______________________ is a term used to describe the presence of high levels of both masculine and feminine traits.

Answer: Androgyny

Type: Factual

Page 120

 

  1. The most extreme form of transgenderism is ______________________.

Answer: transsexualism

Type: Factual

Page 121

 

  1. _______________________ explain gender roles by describing how these roles might help the species reproduce and survive.

Answer: Evolutionary psychologists

Type: Conceptual

Page 122

 

  1. Fertilization of the ovum by a Y-bearing sperm produces an XY combination, resulting in a(n) ______________________ child.

Answer: male

Type: Factual

Page 109

 

True/False

 

  1. There is recent evidence that intersex children frequently develop emotional and psychological problems.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. Hermaphroditism is defined as the presence of high frequencies of both masculine and feminine behaviors and physical traits in the same individual.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 110

 

  1. Pseudohermaphrodites have both testes and ovaries.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. Human beings have an inner sense of themselves as female, male, or a position between the two, known as gender identity.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. Transvestitism is a sociocultural expression of cross-genderism.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 121

 

  1. The gene that appears to trigger the development of male organs is called the DSS gene.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 108

 

  1. In females, the Müllerian ducts develop into the uterus, fallopian tubes, and part of the vagina.

Answer: T

Type: Conceptual

Page 109

 

  1. Research has found gender differences in the number and location of in the hypothalamus.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 110

 

  1. Individuals diagnosed as having AIS are genetic males who have developed normal-appearing female genitals and incomplete internal organs.

Answer: T

Type: Conceptual

Page 113

 

  1. Giving soft, cuddly toys to infant girls and hard, cold toys to infant boys is an example of differential socialization.

Answer: T

Type: Conceptual

Page 115

 

  1. The term androgyny refers to a type of gender neutrality ― that is, displaying neither traditionally feminine personality traits nor traditionally masculine ones.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 120

 

  1. Carol Gilligan’s study in 1990 found that girls enter a repression phase during adolescence.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 127

 

  1. Feminists are women whose primary aim is to improve the status of feminine traits.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 129

 

  1. Because transgendered people cross socially determined barriers relating to gender expression, they may be met with harsh judgment and prejudice.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 120

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Distinguish between the terms gender identity and gender role.

Answer: Gender identity is the inner sense of being male or female or some position between the two.  Gender role is the outward expression of gender identity.

Type: Factual

Pages 104-105

 

  1. Briefly describe how chromosomes combine under normal conditions to begin the process of sexual differentiation.

Answer: Both male and female gametes contain 23 chromosomes, one of which is a sex chromosome. The sperm carries either an X or a Y chromosome.  The egg carries an X chromosome. If an X-bearing chromosome fertilizes an egg, the result is an XX combination, which produces a female. If a Y-bearing chromosome fertilizes an egg, the result is an XY combination, which produces a male.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 107-108

 

  1. What are the functions of SRY and DHT?

Answer: SRY, a region of the Y chromosome, controls the process by which testes are formed in males. DHT — dihydrotestosterone — is a chemical that must be present for the development of the testes, scrotum, and penis in the fetus.

Type: Conceptual

Page 108 and 110

 

  1. What is the difference between true hermaphrodites and pseudohermaphrodites?

Answer: True hermaphrodites have one ovary and one testis. Pseudohermaphrodites have either testes or ovaries but not both, along with some genitals of the other sex.

Type: Conceptual

Page 104

 

  1. What are berdaches and hijras?

Answer: Berdache was a role given to males among the Native American Plains Indians who did not have the skills or interests required by the traditional male role in that culture. Berdaches were said to have special powers and often were shamans. The hijras of India are given elements of both male and female roles and are considered sacred.

Type: Factual

Page 104

 

  1. What is the function of the H-Y antigen?

Answer: This chemical agent helps transform the undifferentiated fetal gonad into testes.

Type: Factual

Page 109

 

  1. What hormones are necessary for the undifferentiated fetal genital tubercle to take on the characteristic shape of the female external genitals?

Answer: It appears that no hormones are necessary for this development and that in the absence of DHT, tubercles take on the female shape.

Type: Factual

Page 110

 

  1. Explain what is meant by differential socialization.

Answer: This is the process of treating boys and girls differently as they grow up.

Type: Factual

Page 115

 

  1. Explain the concept of androgyny and offer at least one example.

Answer: Androgyny refers to the strong presence of both masculine and feminine traits and behaviors in one person. In traditional U.S. culture, a person who is both aggressive and gentle would be considered androgynous, as Bem uses the term.

Type: Conceptual

Page 120

 

  1. Name at least three cognitive or motor functions in which gender differences have been identified and indicate whether, on average, females or males appear to possess superior abilities in performing that function.

Answer: Females, on average, appear to have superiority in verbal fluency, spelling, reading speed, understanding social interactions and emotional information, fine motor skills, and arithmetic calculations. Males on average appear to have superiority in field independence, mathematical reasoning, understanding spatial relations, target-directed motor skills, and mechanical reasoning.

Type: Factual

Page 123 (Table 5.3)

 

  1. How does social learning theory account for gender role development?

Answer: To explain the development of gender roles, social learning theory emphasizes socialization through observation, imitation, and instruction by parents, peers, and others. Modern social learning theorists see this socialization as a dynamic process in which children play an active role.

Type: Conceptual

Page 124

 

  1. What are the characteristics of societies in which men are less likely to affirm themselves through boasting, aggression, and demonstrations of sexual process?

Answer: In such societies, men generally maintain close relationships with children, and women have significant control over property.

Type: Factual

Page 132

 

  1. According to recent cross-cultural studies, what characteristics are seen as most important and desirable in potential mates?

Answer: Across cultures, preferred qualities of a mate are being kind, understanding, and intelligent; having an exciting personality; being healthy; and being religious.

Type: Factual

Page 133

 

  1. Describe the four biological levels of sexual development.

Answer: (a) Genetic sex, which is determined at conception by the combination of the parents’ chromosomes and establishes a map for the development of the other levels of biological sex. (b) Gonadal sex, which involves the development of ovaries or testes which secrete hormones that shape sexual development. (c) Body sex, or anatomical structures, which plays a major role in the sexual assignment of individuals as well as in their development of a gender identity. (d) Brain sex, which refers to differences in the brains of males and females.

Type: Conceptual

Page 106

 

Essay

 

  1. Describe four theories of gender role development.

Answer: The psychodynamic approach explains gender role development in terms of complex unconscious interactions between children and their parents. In contrast, social learning theory describes how children learn gender roles through socialization and modeling. Cognitive-developmental theory adapts social learning theory by emphasizing the role that human thought processes and identification play in children’s adoption of gender roles. Finally, gender schema theory focuses on how people come to define themselves as masculine or feminine and emphasizes the importance of the complex network of associations and ideas that people hold with regard to gender.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 124-125

 

  1. Distinguish between transvestitism and transsexualism.

Answer: Transvestitism refers to cross-dressing — that is, wearing the clothing associated with the other sex. It may occur for a variety of reasons — from playing a joke to establishing an alternative identity. Transsexualism represents an extreme form of cross-genderism. Typically, transsexuals are anatomically normal males or females who report that even at an early age they felt they had been born into the wrong-sexed body. They often pursue hormonal and surgical intervention to “correct” this error.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 121-122

 

  1. A survey of 2,000 adult men finds they have had an average of 8.5 sexual partners. A similar sample of adult women reports an average of 3.5 sexual partners. How would evolutionary psychologists explain these findings?

Answer: To explain these findings, evolutionary psychologists would probably look for a way in which this pattern of sexual activity might give the species an evolutionary advantage and might have a genetic basis. For example, they might hypothesize that when males have many sex partners and females have fewer, the chances increase that the species will produce many children who can be adequately cared for.

Type: Applied

Page 122

 

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