Race and Ethnicity in the United States 8th Edition By Schaefer -Test Bank

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Chapter 5 – Ethnicity and Religion

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. In the context of ethnicity and religion, being White, as opposed to being Black or Asian is characterized by ________.
  2. differing in language and religious worship
  3. being more conscious of a racial identity
  4. being a member of the dominant group
  5. refuting the color-blind approach

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_01_Studying Whiteness_Understand_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Race is considered to be ________.
  2. a biological phenomenon
  3. socially constructed
  4. a concept of the functional perspective
  5. based on creationism

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_02_Studying Whiteness_Remember_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. The ________ immigrants established themselves as the political founders of the United States, and also defined what it meant to be White.
  2. English
  3. German
  4. Latin American
  5. Italian

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_03_Studying Whiteness_Remember_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. According to historian Noel Ignatiev’s observation, the study of Whiteness is a necessary stage to ________.
  2. the reinforcement of White racial superiority
  3. the abolition of Whiteness
  4. an understanding of Whiteness as a subordinate status
  5. an understanding of a color-blind society

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_04_Studying Whiteness_Understand_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Pierre, a Catholic, is a citizen of the United States. However, he was born in a different country and considers himself to be part of the cultures of both the countries. Which of the following features of ethnicity is shown in this scenario?
  2. Hansen’s principle
  3. the third-generation principle
  4. White privilege
  5. a blended identity

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_05_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Apply_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is true of ethnicity?
  2. Maintaining ethnicity ensures that the level of assimilation into the dominant culture is limited.
  3. Ethnicity gives continuity with the past in the form of an effective or emotional tie.
  4. Members of ethnic groups do not maintain in-group solidarity after leaving ethnic communities.
  5. Fraternal organizations fail to preserve associations between ethnics who are separated geographically.

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_06_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Understand_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. _______ is associated with rediscovering ethnicity.
  2. Intelligent design
  3. The third-generation principle
  4. Color-blind racism
  5. The principle of creationism

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_07_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Remember_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Research on ________ indicates that many grandchildren of immigrants want to study their ancestors’ language and learn about their ethnic group’s history.
  2. the principle of third-generation interest
  3. White privilege
  4. the deficit model of ethnic identity
  5. symbolic ethnicity

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_08_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Understand_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Eating ethnic food and acknowledging ceremonial holidays such as St. Patrick’s Day are examples of ________.
  2. the principle of third-generation interest
  3. the deficit model of ethnic identity
  4. ethnic paradox
  5. symbolic ethnicity

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_09_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Understand_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. A person exhibiting symbolic ethnicity is more likely to ________.
  2. support the literal interpretation of the bible
  3. acknowledge ceremonial holidays
  4. follow only those practices that are part of the dominant culture
  5. reject assimilation

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_10_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Analyze_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. James, an American citizen, moves to a foreign country. He adjusts to the new culture and also retains some elements of American culture. This assists his assimilation into the new culture. This is an example of ________.
  2. civil religion
  3. intelligent design
  4. secessionism
  5. ethnic paradox

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_11_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Apply_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Priya is a foreign national residing in the United States. She likes to stay in touch with her roots and dresses traditionally on special occasions. Given this information, Priya is exhibiting ________.
  2. symbolic ethnicity
  3. ethnic paradox
  4. denomination
  5. intelligent design

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_12_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Apply_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Derek relocates to a foreign country because of his job. His family members feel that Derek has blended completely into the foreign country’s culture and maintains very few ethnic characteristics. Which of the following features of ethnicity is shown in the given scenario?
  2. symbolic ethnicity
  3. the principle of third-generation interest
  4. racial privilege
  5. the deficit model of ethnic identity

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_13_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Apply_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following examples illustrates the principle of third-generation interest?
  2. Marge, the CEO of a newly established company, enforces equal-opportunity practices for employment in her company and does not discriminate based on age, gender, race, or nationality.
  3. Vincent, a French national, studies in England and celebrates the festivals of both France and England.
  4. Tim, while giving a speech in his school, quotes some text from the Bible.
  5. Jenny, an American citizen with Polish grandparents, feels at home with the American culture, but insists on staying in touch with her ethnicity by learning Polish.

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_14_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Apply_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. The cultural influence of the ________ immigrants was so apparent in the history of America that publications of the proceedings of the Continental Congress were published in their native language in addition to being published in English.
  2. German
  3. Italian
  4. Polish
  5. Irish

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_15_The German Americans_Remember_LO 5.3

Learning Objective: 5.3: Recall the German American experience.

Topic: The German Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. ________ is the largest single source of ancestry of people in the United States today.
  2. Ireland
  3. Africa
  4. Germany
  5. Austria

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_16_The German Americans_Remember_LO 5.3

Learning Objective: 5.3: Recall the German American experience.

Topic: The German Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Which of the following events was a major factor that resulted in an increase in the number of Irish immigrants to the United States?
  2. the potato famine
  3. the yellow peril
  4. World War I
  5. political unrest

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_17_The Irish Americans_Remember_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Early Irish immigrants favored Protestantism and were united in their hatred of Catholicism. Which of the following statements describes the attitude of the early Irish immigrants?
  2. They were against religious pluralism.
  3. They opposed the concept of intelligent design.
  4. They believed in the idea of creationism.
  5. They advocated the maintenance of an ethnic paradox.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_18_The Irish Americans_Analyze_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. The Irish immigrants to the United States were characterized by their ________.
  2. inability to assume high positions in church
  3. withdrawal from the lower classes and slaves
  4. reluctance to accept formal schooling as essential to success
  5. tendency to settle in coastal cities and work in mines

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_19_The Irish Americans_Remember_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. The lower-class Irish immigrants left behind by other Irish immigrants and their children who moved into more affluent urban areas in the United States were referred to as the ________.
  2. lace-curtain Irish
  3. Irish Protestants
  4. Irish nativists
  5. shanty Irish

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_20_The Irish Americans_Remember_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Irish Americans?
  2. There are more American citizens identifying themselves as having Irish ancestry than there are people living in Ireland.
  3. The Irish are the largest ethnic group in the United States.
  4. Research indicates that there are significantly higher rates of alcoholism among descendants of Irish immigrants compared to other European immigrants
  5. The Irish immigrants were not initially victimized like other immigrant groups in the United States.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_21_The Irish Americans_Understand_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Most Italian immigrants received jobs through a padrone. The padrone was a(n) ________.
  2. locally elected official
  3. second-generation United States citizen
  4. mass-immigration movement
  5. ethnic labor contractor

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_22_The Italian Americans_Remember_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Unlike other immigrants, the Italians ________.
  2. immigrated even during the colonial period, coming from a highly differentiated land
  3. came from a unified nation that escaped foreign domination until 1848
  4. played an insignificant role during the American Revolution
  5. failed to recognize multiple geographic divisions reflecting sharp cultural distinctions

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_23_The Italian Americans_Analyze_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. The first few generations of Italian Americans differed from other immigrants in that they ________.
  2. settled in cities further inland and worked in mines as low-skilled laborers
  3. played a less prominent role in the American revolution
  4. focused on acquiring advanced degrees and entering professions
  5. rose through the social classes by acquiring skills in low-skilled occupations

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_24_The Italian Americans_Analyze_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. The continued portrayal of Italian Americans as gangsters is an example of ________.
  2. ethnocentrism
  3. respectable bigotry
  4. nativism
  5. social mobility

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_25_The Italian Americans_Understand_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Italian Americans differed from Irish immigrants in that Italian Americans ________.
  2. focused on acquiring advanced degrees and entering professions
  3. did not migrate during the colonial period
  4. were slow to accept formal schooling as essential to success
  5. viewed themselves in terms of their village or province

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_26_The Italian Americans_Analyze_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. The most obvious distinguishing factor among Polish Americans is ________.
  2. their blue-collar and white-collar distinction
  3. the presence of Polish-speaking and German-speaking Polish Americans
  4. their Jewish–Catholic distinction
  5. the presence of rural and urban Polish Americans

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_27_The Polish Americans_Understand_LO 5.6

Learning Objective: 5.6: Restate the Polish American immigration story.

Topic: The Polish Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. A person who supports civil religion is likely to ________.
  2. advocate religious teachings of larger denominations
  3. judge people on the basis of their religious preferences
  4. affiliate himself or herself to a specific religious denomination
  5. coexist in peace with people of different faiths

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_28_Religious Pluralism_Analyze_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. A large, organized religion that is not officially linked with a state or government is represented by the term ________.
  2. secession
  3. denomination
  4. typology
  5. sect

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_29_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. The largest denomination in the United States is ________.
  2. Judaism
  3. Islam
  4. Protestantism
  5. Catholicism

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_05_30_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Civil religion embodies ________.
  2. the ethnic interest and awareness among the grandchildren of immigrants
  3. a belief system that incorporates all religions but is not associated specifically with any one
  4. a court order that restricts religious freedom
  5. the idea that life is so complex that it could only have been created by a higher intelligence

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_31_Religious Pluralism_Understand_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. According to the functionalist perspective, civil religion in the United States ________.
  2. rejects assimilation and coexistence in some form of cultural pluralism
  3. reinforces Central American values that may be more expressly patriotic than sacred in nature
  4. promotes the literal interpretation of the Bible
  5. discounts the idea that life is complex and could only have been created by a higher intelligence­

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_32_Religious Pluralism_Understand_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. In a university that consists of students from different nationalities, the management insists on remaining neutral toward people of different faiths while allowing them to follow their own faith. In this case, the management is supporting the principle of ________.
  2. ethnic paradox
  3. intelligent design
  4. civil religion
  5. creationism

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_33_Religious Pluralism_Apply_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Creationists advocate ________ as a more accurate account of evolution than Darwinism.
  2. intelligent design
  3. civil religion
  4. symbolic ethnicity
  5. religious pluralism

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_34_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Jane strongly believes that the creation of life could not have been possible without the presence of a superior power. This attitude indicates her belief in ________.
  2. ethnic paradox
  3. civil religion
  4. intelligent design
  5. blended identity

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_05_35_Religious Pluralism_Apply_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Zuaria is a country with several religious and ethnic groups. The government has a policy of not favoring one religion over others thereby remaining neutral. Therefore, the government of Zuaria advocates ________.
  2. creationism
  3. pluralism
  4. secession
  5. assimilation

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_05_36_Religious Pluralism_Apply_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. An individual belonging to a secessionist minority group is most likely to ________.
  2. come into conflict with outside society because of his or her way of life
  3. embrace the religious dimension that merges public life with sacred beliefs
  4. believe in a divine hand in the creation of life
  5. support the literal interpretation of the Bible

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_37_Religious Pluralism_Analyze_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act passed by the Congress in 1993?
  2. It gives religious groups more flexibility in practicing their faiths.
  3. It permits schools to teach creationism alongside evolution.
  4. It prohibits states from accommodating prisoners’ requests for questionable religious activities.
  5. It directs schools to make Bible reading mandatory.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_38_Religious Pluralism_Understand_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. The idea of the presence of a divine hand in the creation of life as an explanation of life’s complexity is called ________.
  2. intelligent design
  3. creationism
  4. denomination
  5. ethnic paradox

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_39_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. ________ owes its existence in the United States to the First Amendment declaration that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”
  2. Religious pluralism
  3. Creationism
  4. Assimilation
  5. Civil religion

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_05_40_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Discuss the contemporary perception of Whiteness in the United States.

 

Answer: Whiteness, although it may often be invisible, is aggressively embraced and defended. However, White people do not think of themselves as a race or have a conscious racial identity. A White racial identity emerges only when filling out a form asking for self-designation of race or when Whites are culturally or socially surrounded by people who are not White. Therefore, contemporary White Americans give little thought to “being White.” Consequently, there is little interest in studying “Whiteness” or considering “being White” except that it is “not being Black.” Unlike non-Whites, who are much more likely to interact with Whites, take orders from Whites, and see Whites as leading figures in the mass media, Whites enjoy not being reminded of their Whiteness. Unlike racial minorities, Whites downplay the importance of their racial identity, although they are willing to receive the advantages that come from being White. This means that advocating a “color-blind” or “race-neutral” outlook permits the privilege of Whiteness to prevail.

 

New scholarly interest seeks to view Whiteness but not from the vantage point of a White supremacist. Rather, focusing on White people as a race or on what it means today to be White goes beyond any definition that implies superiority over non-Whites.

 

Question Title: TB_05_41_Studying Whiteness_Understand_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Discuss the Whites’ perception of race as a zero-sum game as identified by behavioral economists Michael Norton and Samuel Sommers.

 

Answer: Behavioral economists Michael Norton and Samuel Sommers found that Whites view race as a zero-sum game—that is, decreases in bias against African Americans over the last 60 years are associated with increases in what they perceive as bias against Whites. While still seeing anti-Black bias as greater today than anti-White feeling in society, their analysis shows that, in the minds of the White respondents, the two biases are coming closer together. Black respondents also saw a marked decline in anti-Black bias during the same period but perceived only a modest increase in anti-White feelings. While Norton and Sommers’s research deals only with perception of reality, it does suggest that race, and not just that of non-Whites, influences one’s perception of society.

 

Question Title: TB_05_42_Studying Whiteness_Understand_LO 5.1

Learning Objective: 5.1: Understand what is meant by “Whiteness.”

Topic: Studying Whiteness

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. Discuss the deficit model of ethnic identity with an example.

 

Answer: The deficit model of ethnic identity, as developed by sociologist Gary David, states that others view one’s identity as a factor of subtracting away characteristics corresponding to some ideal ethnic type. Each factor encompassing a perfect ethnic identity missing from a person’s background or identity leads the person to be viewed by others as more assimilated and less ethnic. In the case of Arab Americans, if they are unable to speak Arabic, then they are less Arab to some people; if they are married to non-Arabs, then they are less ethnic; if they have never been to the home country, then they are less ethnic. Depending on one’s perspective, an Arab American can come to regard another Arab American as either “too American” or “too Arab.” Arab American organizations, magazines, and associations may seek to cater to the entire Arab American community, but, more likely, cater to certain segments based on nationality, religion, and degree of assimilation.

 

Question Title: TB_05_43_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Understand_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. What is ethnic paradox?

 

Answer: Ethnic paradox refers to the maintenance of one’s ethnic ties in a manner that can assist with assimilation with larger society. Immigrant youth as well as adults who maintain their ethnicity tend to have more success as indicated by health measures, educational attainment, and lower incidence of behavioral problems such as delinquency and truancy.

 

Question Title: TB_05_44_Rediscovering Ethnicity_Remember_LO 5.2

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how people rediscover ethnicity.

Topic: Rediscovering Ethnicity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Discuss the life of German immigrants in the United States before World War I and the Nazi era.

 

Answer: Beginning in the 1830s through 1890, Germans represented at least one-quarter of the immigrants, ensuring their destiny in the settlement of the United States. Their major urban presence was in Milwaukee, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Cincinnati.

Early in the history of America, German immigrant cultural influence was apparent. Although the new United States never voted on making German the national language, publications of the proceedings of the Continental Congress were published in German and English. Yet even in those early years, the fear of foreigners—that is, non-Anglos—prevented German, even temporarily, from ever getting equal footing with English.

German Americans, then perhaps representing 10 percent of the population, established bilingual programs in many public schools, but the rise of Germany as a military foe in the twentieth century ended that movement.

 

In 1901, the German-American National Alliance (Deutsche-Amerikanischer National-Bund) was founded to speak for all Germans in the United States, especially urban Protestant middle-class German Americans. As time passed, it sought to commemorate the contributions to the nation’s development but also sought to block prohibition. With the rise of German military power, many German Americans sought to argue for U.S. neutrality. But these efforts ended quickly, and the organization actually disbanded after the United States declared war on Germany in 1917.

 

Question Title: TB_05_45_The German Americans_Understand_LO 5.3

Learning Objective: 5.3: Recall the German American experience.

Topic: The German Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

 

  1. What are the social class distinctions that existed within Irish America?

 

Answer: With mobility came social class distinctions within Irish America. The immigrants and their children who began to move into the more affluent urban areas were derogatorily referred to as the “lace-curtain Irish.” The lower-class Irish immigrants they left behind, meanwhile, were referred to as the “shanty Irish.”

 

Question Title: TB_05_46_The Irish Americans_Remember_LO 5.4

Learning Objective: 5.4: Identify the major periods of the Irish American immigration.

Topic: The Irish Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. How did Italian Americans construct a social identity?

 

Answer: As assimilation proceeded, Italian Americans began to construct a social identity as a nationality group rather than viewing themselves in terms of their village or province. Over time, Italian Americans shed old identities for new ones. As immigration from Italy declined, the descendants’ ties became more nationalistic.

 

Question Title: TB_05_47_ The Italian Americans_Remember_LO 5.5

Learning Objective: 5.5: Put into your own words the Italian American experience.

Topic: The Italian Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. Who are secessionist minorities? Give an example of a secessionist minority.

 

Answer: Secessionist minorities are religious groups that reject both assimilation and coexistence in some form of cultural pluralism. The Amish are one example of such groups that comes into conflict with outside society because of its beliefs and way of life. The Old Order Amish shun most modern conveniences and maintain a lifestyle dramatically different from that of larger society.

 

Question Title: TB_05_48_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. What does the concept of intelligent design (ID) suggest?

 

Answer: Intelligent design (ID) refers to the idea that life is so complex it could only have been created by a higher intelligence. Beginning in the 1980s, those who believe in a divine hand in the creation of life have advanced ID. Generally, creationists feel comfortable with ID and advocate that it is a more accurate account than Darwinism or, at the very least, that it be taught as an alternative alongside the theory of evolution.

 

Question Title: TB_05_49_Religious Pluralism_Remember_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: 1 – Easy

 

  1. How is the study of ethnicity and religion in the United States relevant in today’s context?

 

Answer: Ethnicity and religion are a basic part of today’s social reality and of each individual’s identity. Any study of life in the United States, especially one that focuses on dominant and subordinate groups, cannot ignore religion and ethnicity. The two are closely related, as certain religious faiths predominate in certain nationalities. Both religious activity and interest by White ethnics in their heritage continue to be prominent features of the contemporary scene. People have been and continue to be ridiculed or deprived of opportunities solely because of their ethnic or religious affiliation. To get a true picture of people’s place in society, we need to consider both ethnicity and social class in association with their religious identification.

 

Religion is changing in the United States. As a commercial recognition of this fact, Hallmark created its first greeting card in 2003 for the Muslim holiday Eid-al-fitr, which marks the end of the month long fast of Ramadan. The issue of the persistence of ethnicity is an intriguing one. Some people may only casually exhibit their ethnicity and practice what has been called symbolic ethnicity. Despite the intolerance toward various ethnic cultures, ethnicity remains a viable source of identity for many citizens today. There is also the ethnic paradox, which finds that practicing one’s ethnic heritage often strengthens people and allows them to move successfully into the larger society.

 

Question Title: TB_05_50_Religious Pluralism_Understand_LO 5.7

Learning Objective: 5.7: State what is meant by religious pluralism.

Topic: Religious Pluralism

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

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