Psychology of Criminal Behaviour A Canadian Perspective 2nd Edition by Shelley Brown – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5: Adolescent Offenders

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The Young Offenders Act (YOA) was replaced in 2003 by the:
    1. Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA)
    2. Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA)
    3. Canadian Justice Act (CJA)
    4. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom (CCRF)

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  135                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. As a first step when coming into contact with antisocial youth, police are to consider:
    1. bringing the offender directly to youth court
    2. community options and less serious alternatives
    3. charging the individual in order to get them into adult court
    4. pursuing light sentences even if they have committed seriously violent crimes

 

Answer:  b       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  135                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. According to data collected by Statistic Canada for 2011-2012, youth crime rates:
    1. are the highest since these data were first collected in 1991-1992
    2. are the lowest since these data were first collected in 1991-1992
    3. have not changed since data were first collected in 1991-1992
    4. have increased since 1991-1992, but only for violent crimes

 

Answer:  b       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 136-137             Skill:  Recall

 

  1. According to Statistics Canada, the most common sentence imposed on adolescent offenders in 2011-2012 was:
    1. probation
    2. fines
    3. jail time
    4. community service

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 138                    Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Following the YCJA, in 2011 to 2012, approximately what percentage of guilty offenders received custodial sentences, in contrast to 29% in the early 2000s?
    1. 45%
    2. 28%
    3. 15%
    4. 72%

 

Answer:  c       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  139                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. When examining the trajectory to adult offending, a clear pattern found is that:
    1. early onset of antisocial behaviour is linked to more serious and persistent antisocial behaviour later in life
    2. early onset of antisocial behaviour is not linked to more serious and persistent antisocial behaviour later in life
    3. early onset of antisocial behaviour is a far more common occurrence than late onset antisocial behaviour
    4. most young children with behavioural difficulties go on to become adult offenders

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 140                    Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Genetic studies have found that fathers who engage in antisocial behaviour:
    1. are equally likely to have children who also engage in antisocial behaviour as fathers who are not anti-social
    2. are likely to have children who also engage in antisocial behaviour, if they live with their father
    3. tend to have children who are not antisocial
    4. are more likely to have children who also engage in antisocial behaviour, with a stronger link for sons than daughters

 

Answer:  d      Difficulty:  Challenging          Page: 141                    Skill:  Applied

 

  1. The main finding within the cognitive perspective on conduct disordered behaviour is that conduct-disordered youth demonstrate:
    1. relatively good problem solving skills
    2. relatively few cognitive distortions but mistakenly attribute hostile intent to ambiguous situations
    3. cognitive deficits and distortions, attending to fewer cues and mistakenly attributing hostile intent to ambiguous situations
    4. a tendency to focus on emotional cues in the environment with no cognitive distortions

 

Answer:  c       Difficulty:  Challenging          Page:  142                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Reactive aggression is defined as:
    1. emotionally aggressive response to a perceived threat or frustration
    2. aggression directed at achieving a goal or receiving positive reinforcers
    3. planned aggression
    4. distorted aggression

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  142                   Skill:  Recall

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Patterson’s (1982) coercive family process model, where aggressive behaviour is imitated, is consistent with which theory of adolescent offending?
    1. coercion theory
    2. cognitive theory
    3. biological theory
    4. social learning theory

 

Answer:  d      Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 142                    Skill:  Applied

 

  1. When considering antisocial behaviour and criminological risk factors the general finding is that:
    1. one risk factor alone can be sufficient to lead to offending
    2. the presence of several criminological risk factors increases a youth’s likelihood of offending
    3. the presence of numerous risk factors guarantee a youth will become a adolescent offender
    4. risk factors rarely have interactive effects

 

Answer:  b       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 143                    Skill:  Applied

 

  1. The strongest individual predictor of adolescent offending is the presence of:
    1. hyperactivity as a child
    2. low verbal intelligence
    3. delayed language development
    4. aggressive behaviour before the age of 13.

 

Answer:  d      Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  144                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Two of the five main correlates of delinquency for male and female youth are:
    1. permissive parenting and poor school attendance
    2. negative school attachment and divorced parents
    3. inconsistent or inadequate parenting and antisocial peer involvement
    4. aggression and personality disorders

 

Answer:  c       Difficulty:  Challenging          Page:  144-145            Skill:   Recall

 

  1. A child who has multiple risk factors but who can overcome them and prevail has been termed:
    1. resilient
    2. hardy
    3. adversarial
    4. impact resistant

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  147                   Skill:  Recall

 

 

 

  1. Protective factors are variables that decrease the likelihood of a negative outcome such as antisocial behaviour and are effective because they:
    1. maintain the same level of exposure to risk factors over time
    2. protect the child from risk factors by isolating the child
    3. reduce negative outcomes by helping to develop and maintain self-esteem and self-efficacy
    4. limit the child’s problem-solving capacity

 

Answer:  c       Difficulty:  Challenging          Page: 147                    Skill:  Applied

 

  1. In terms of the protective factor of peers, the research suggests the following:
    1. peer groups have relatively little impact either way on antisocial behaviour
    2. associating with peers who disapprove of antisocial behaviour is not considered protective
    3. associating with pro-social children does not provide any protection against antisocial behaviour
    4. associating with peers who disapprove of antisocial behaviour is a protective factor against antisocial behaviour

 

Answer:  d    Difficulty:  Moderate                Page: 149                    Skill:  Applied

 

  1. A child who presents a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour would likely receive a diagnosis of:
  2. Child psychopathy
  3. Oppositional defiant disorder
  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  5. Conduct disorder

 

Answer:  b       Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  152                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. All of the following are examples of risk assessment tools used with adolescent offenders in Canada except the:
  2. Static-99
  3. Adolescent Chemical Dependency Inventory
  4. Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth
  5. Pride in Delinquency Scale

 

Answer:  a       Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  155                   Skill:  Recall

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. When dealing with antisocial youth, police are to use “extrajudicial measures”, including warnings or referrals for treatment.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 135                    Skill:   Recall

 

  1. Part of the intent of the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) is to treat antisocial youth as any adult offender would be treated.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 135                    Skill:   Recall

 

  1. When examining the prediction of future adult offending, age of onset is a critical factor.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  140                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Childhood-onset trajectory is a very common occurrence, affecting about 40% of the general population.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Easy                     Page: 140                    Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Researchers have investigated the brain region responsible for planning and inhibiting behaviour to explain why some youth engage in antisocial acts.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Easy                     Page:  141                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Research has found that antisocial adolescents have more frontal lobe inhibition than adolescents who do not engage in antisocial behaviour.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Challenging          Page:  141                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Proactive aggression is aggression in response to a perceived threat or frustration.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty: Easy                      Page:  142                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Proactive aggressive youth are likely to have deficiencies in generating alternate responses and often choose an aggressive response.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Easy                     Page: 142                    Skill: Recall

 

  1. In keeping with the coercive family process model, a female who witnessed her mothers’ aggressive behaviour toward partners was significantly less aggressive toward friends than average.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  143                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Offenders are more likely to have had delivery/birth complications compared to non-offenders.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Easy                     Page: 143-144             Skill:  Recall

 

  1. In Canada, the largest proportion of youth gangs is Caucasian.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  146                   Skill:  Recall

  1. Living in a low-income neighborhood is a risk factor for antisocial behaviour.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Easy                     Page: 146                    Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children indicates that approximately 40% of youth admit to engaging in at least one antisocial act in the last year.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 146                    Skill:  Recall

 

  1. If a child is described as being resilient, it refers to the fact that he/she has few risk factors.

 

Answer:  False                        Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  147                   Skill:  Recall

 

  1. Intelligence, commitment to school, and academic achievement are all considered protective factors for adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour.

 

Answer:  True             Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 147-148             Skill:  Recall

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. How are youthful offenders (both under 12 years and 12-18 years old) charged and prosecuted in the Canadian Criminal Code?

 

Answer:  In the Canadian Criminal Code, children under the age of 12 cannot charged, even when they commit violent acts such as murder.  Professionals such as social workers, psychologists, and even police officers may intervene but the goal is to provide appropriate intervention or treatment so that these acts do not continue.  In order to be processed through Canada’s criminal justice system, an offender must be a minimum of 12.  Prior to this age, a child’s behaviour is governed by the Child and Family Services Act.  Once a child is 12, they are assumed to be in sufficient control of their behaviour such that acts committed against the Canadian Criminal Code will be pursued by the justice system.  However, Canada does recognize that youth between the ages of 12 and 18 are developmentally different than adults (over 18) and outlines provisions for younger aged “offenders” in the Youth Criminal Justice Act, which provides direction on how youth committing Criminal Code offences should be “processed.”

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  133-134            Skill:  Applied

 

 

  1. Explain the two trajectories to adult offending that are observed in adolescent offenders, as well as which is linked to more serious offending later on in life.

 

Answer:  Two trajectories can be seen with adolescent offenders: child-onset versus adolescent onset (Moffitt 1993).   For child-onset offenders, behavioural problems start very early in childhood.  These adolescents often have histories that include behavioural problems dating back to daycare and preschool.  As babies, they were difficult to soothe with problematic temperaments and were aggressive with other children, physically hitting them and throwing temper tantrums.  In contrast, adolescent-onset offenders begin to show behavioural problems in their teen years.  These adolescents may engage in antisocial acts such as truancy, theft, and vandalism.  When examining the trajectory to adult offending, age of onset is a critical factor.  A clear pattern has been found linking early onset of antisocial behaviour to more serious and persistent antisocial behaviour later in life (e.g., Fergusson and Woodward 2000; Loeber and Farrington 2000).

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  139-140            Skill:  Recall

 

 

  1. What community influences are factors in adolescent offending?

 

Answer:  Where a child is raised can be a risk factor for adolescent offending.  Just as parental income (i.e., lower socio-economic status) is a familial risk factor, so is living in a low-income neighbourhood (e.g., Farrington 1989; Henry, Avshalom, Moffitt, and Silva 1996).  Assault when committing a felony or robbery is twice as common among adolescents raised in low-income/subsidized neighbourhoods than adolescents raised in middle-class areas (Hawkins et al. 2000).  Lower-income neighbourhoods also give rise to the opportunity to witness violence.  Farrell and Bruce (1997) found that exposure to community violence is related to adolescent offending.  Thus, disadvantaged neighbourhoods provide an opportunity to learn delinquent behaviour, associate with delinquent peers, and possibly have delinquent behaviour reinforced.

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  146                   Skill:  Applied

 

 

  1. Explain the term “resiliency” as it relates to adolescent offending.

 

Answer:   Resilience is described as the ability to overcome stress and adversity (Winfield 1994).  It has been suggested that resilient children may have “protective” factors that allow them to persevere in the face of adversity.  We define protective factors as variables or factors that, if present, decrease the likelihood of a negative outcome (such as antisocial behaviour and adolescent offending) or increase the likelihood of a positive outcome (DeMatteo and Marczyk 2005). Rutter (1990) identifies four ways that protective factors are effective:

  1. They reduce negative outcomes by changing the level of the child’s exposure to a risk

factor.

  1. They change the negative chain reaction following exposure to risk.
  2. They help develop and maintain self-esteem and self-efficacy.
  3. They avail opportunities to children they would not otherwise have.

As with risk factors, protective factors occur across various domains: individual,

familial, school, peer, and community.

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  147                   Skill:  Applied

 

  1. Describe the nature of internalizing and externalizing problems that children may present before age 12. Identify which is more predictive of criminal offending later on in life and why.

 

Answer:  Broadly, children’s emotional and behavioural difficulties can be categorized as internalizing or externalizing problems (Rutter 1990).  Internalizing problems are emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and obsessions.  Externalizing problems are behavioural difficulties such as delinquency, fighting, bullying, lying and destructive behaviour.  It is the externalizing problems that can develop into more persistent and serious antisocial acts and receive the attention of parents, teachers, and the criminal justice system.  Externalizing problems have been considered more difficult to treat and more likely to have long term persistence (Ebata, Peterson, and Conger 1990; Robbins, 1986).  Externalizing disorders have been known to be quite stable, though symptoms often peak in teenage years and decrease in the late 20s (Rutter 1995).  Males are more likely to have externalizing difficulties than females (Barkley 1997, Rutter 1990).

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  152                               Skill:  Applied

 

 

SHORT ESSAY

 

  1. Identify and explain the three main objectives of the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

 

Answer:  Part of the intent of the YCJA is to keep adolescent offenders out of court and out of custody.  The three main objectives of the YCJA are:

  1. To prevent youth crime
  2. To provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behaviour
  3. To improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth into the community

As a first step when coming into contact with antisocial youth, police are to consider community options and less serious alternatives before bringing adolescents to the attention of youth court (Youth Criminal Justice Act 2002: s. 7).  These alternatives are called extrajudicial measures and include giving a warning or making a referral for treatment (with the consent of the adolescent) (Youth Criminal Justice Act 2002: s. 10).  Once an adolescent is charged, however, they can no longer be transferred to adult court under the YCJA.  Rather, if an adolescent defendant is found guilty the judge can impose an adult sentence as long as the defendant is at least 14 years old (may be set at 15 or 16 depending on jurisdiction).  A key issue in determining sentencing is that the sentence must be proportionate to the seriousness of the offence.  Expanded sentencing options are also provided for under the YCJA.  Judges can give a reprimand (i.e., lecture or warning to the adolescent), an intensive support and supervision order, an attendance order (i.e., adolescent must attend a specific program), a deferred custody and supervision order (i.e., adolescent can serve sentence in community as long as imposed conditions are met), and an intensive rehabilitative custody and supervision order (i.e., adolescent in custody receive intensive services and supervision) (Youth Criminal Justice Act 2002: s. 42).  The YCJA also considers the victims of adolescent offenders.  Victims are to be informed of court proceedings and given an opportunity to participate.  They also have the right to access youth court records and participate in community-based dispositions (Youth Criminal Justice Act 2002: s. 3).

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  135-136                        Skill:  Applied

 

 

  1. Briefly compare and contrast the three broad theories that explain the development of adolescent offenders.

 

Answer:

1.Biological Theories: A number of genetic and physiological differences exist between youth who engage in antisocial behaviour and those who do not.  Genetic studies have found that fathers who engage in antisocial behaviour are more likely to have children (a stronger link for sons than daughters) who also engage in antisocial behaviour

(Frick et al. 1992).  Twin and adoption studies further support this conclusion.  Specifically, children who have an antisocial biological father are more likely to engage in antisocial behaviour, even when raised apart from the father, suggesting that environment is not the only influence (Cadoret and Cain 1980; Jarey and Stewart 1985). In addition, neurological researchers have found that antisocial adolescents have less frontal lobe inhibition than adolescents who do not engage in the antisocial behaviour (Moffitt and Henry 1989).

2.Cognitive Theories: Kenneth Dodge and his colleagues proposed a model of conduct disordered behaviour that focuses on the thought processes that occur in social interactions (Crick and Dodge 1994; Dodge 2000).  Issues include cognitive deficits and distortions (Fontaine, Burks, and Dodge 2002) and limited problem solving.  Cognitive deficits are likely to be present in early childhood and may contribute to child-onset conduct disorder (Coy et al. 2001).

3.Social Theories: Bandura’s (1965) social learning theory suggests that children learn their behaviour from observing others.  Children are more likely to imitate behaviour that receives positive reinforcement than behaviour that receives negative reinforcement or punishment.  Studies have found that children who are highly aggressive and engage in antisocial behaviour have often witnessed parents, siblings, or grandparents engage in similar behaviour (Farrington 1995; Waschbusch 2002). Consistent with this view is Patterson’s (1982) coercive family process model, where aggressive behaviour among youth develops from imitation of parents and reinforcement.  Other aspects of Patterson’s model include the role of inadequate parental supervision and inconsistent disciplining of children.  The combination of these factors increases the likelihood of youth behaving in antisocial ways.  Adolescents who witness inter-parental violence are at risk for aggression (Moretti, Obsuth, Odgers, and Reebye 2006).

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  141-143                        Skill: Applied

 

 

  1. Outline the five criminological risk factors that increases a youth’s likelihood of offending.

 

Answer:   Risk factors occur across various domains: individual, familial, school, peer, and community.

Individual: A number of prenatal complications can predispose a fetus to behavioural problems in childhood and potential adolescent offending.  Mednick and Kandel (1988) suggest that offenders are more likely to have had delivery/birth complications compared to non-offenders.  However, even before delivery, a mother’s use of drugs, alcohol, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the fetus’s risk for later behavioural difficulties (Cohen et al. 2002).  Once a child is born, their own temperament can present a risk factor for later behavioural difficulties.  Hyperactivity, attention problems, impulsivity, and risk-taking have been associated with later adolescent offending (Hawkins et al. 1998).  Substance abuse, especially starting at a young age (before the teen years), has received substantial support as a risk factor for adolescent offending (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985).  Low verbal intelligence and delayed language development also have been associated with behavioural problems (Seguin, Pihl, Harden, Tremblay, and Boulrice 1995).  Perhaps the strongest predictor of adolescent offending is the presence of aggressive behaviour before the age of 13.

Familial:  Researchers have found that poor parental supervision, low parental involvement, parental conflict, and parental aggression are related to later antisocial behaviour.  Child abuse, neglect, and maltreatment are also risk factors for behavioural difficulties.  Abuse factors may pose a greater risk to boys, who may respond by acting aggressively and later engaging in spousal abuse.  Lack of secure attachment to parents, parental loss, and divorce are risk factors for later behavioural problems. Other risk factors for delinquency include low socioeconomic status, large family size, and parental mental health problems.  Parents who are heavy drinkers increase the likelihood that their children will act in antisocial ways, possibly because when parents drink, they are unable to provide adequate parenting and supervision.

School:  A number of school-related risk factors, such as poor academic performance, particularly in elementary school; low commitment to school; and low educational aspirations have been found to be associated with delinquent behaviour (Blum, Ireland, and Blum 2003; Hinshaw 1992).  Truancy or not attending school is also a risk factor.

For example, Farrington (1989) found that high truancy rates between the ages of 12 and

14 are related to adolescent offending that extends into adulthood.

Peer: Risk factors related to peers are perhaps the most important during adolescence, when the peer group reigns paramount over family influences.  This association is true even at a very young age.  Young children who play with aggressive peers at an early age are at risk for behavioural problems (Fergusson and Horwood 1998; Laird et al. 2001).

Taking this risk factor one step further, gang membership is more predictive of antisocial behaviour than associating with delinquent peers (Hill et al. 1999). Social disapproval and being rejected are likely to occur with aggressive children and adolescents (Coie, Belding, and Underwood 1988; Ebata et al. 1990; Rutter 1990), and rejected, aggressive children are at risk for behavioural problems (Parker and Asher 1987; Rudolph and Asher 2000).  Adolescents who are socially isolated or withdrawn (e.g., low involvement in traditional, structured social activities) are at an increased risk for engaging in antisocial behaviour.

Community: Where one is raised can be a risk factor for adolescent offending.  Just as parental income (i.e., lower socio-economic status) is a familial risk factor, so is living in a low-income neighbourhood.  Lower-income neighbourhoods also give rise to the opportunity to witness violence. Thus disadvantaged neighbourhoods provide an opportunity to learn delinquent behaviour, associate with delinquent peers, and possibly have delinquent behaviour reinforced.  Access to weapons also increases the risk for violence.

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page:  143-146                        Skill:  Applied

 

 

  1. Explain why the strongest predictor of adolescent offending is the presence of aggressive behaviour before the age of 13.

 

Answer:  See Individual and especially peer influences in short essay answer #3.

 

Difficulty:   Challenging         Page:   144-145                       Skill:  Applied

 

 

  1. Define and describe primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions aimed at decreasing adolescent offending. Outline one real-world example of each.

 

Answer:

1.Primary interventions: These strategies are implemented prior to any violence occurring with the goal of decreasing the likelihood that violence will occur later on (i.e., prevention).  Their goal is to identify groups (of children) that have numerous risk factors for engaging in antisocial behaviour later on.  The belief is that if the needs of these children are addressed early, before violence has occurred, then the likelihood that they will go on to become adolescent offenders is reduced.  Primary intervention approaches include family-oriented strategies, school-oriented strategies, and community-wide strategies.

Some examples:

Family-oriented: An example of a family oriented strategy is a popular parent-education program known as The Incredible Years Parenting Program, a 12-week training program that starts with building a strong emotional bond between parent(s) and child, and then teaches parents how to set behavioural expectations for their children, monitor children’s behaviour, reinforce positive behaviour, provide consequences for inappropriate behaviour, and develop and use effective communication skills (Webster-Stratton 1992).

School-oriented: Project Head Start is designed for children from low socio-economic status backgrounds.  A number of social services are provided to these children and families (e.g., nutrition, structured activities, academic tutoring, and medical services) to reduce disadvantages that may interfere with learning.  A different in-school program from the more “traditional” school programs is known as Scared Straight.  The program was developed in the United States in during the 1970s to “scare” at-risk children from choosing a life of crime.  Discussions of sexual assault are included, as is a visit to a prison (Finckenauer 1982).  Finally, Fast Track, the largest and longest-lasting funded program in the US for primary intervention, addresses social-cognitive processes via social-skills training, parent training, school programming, peer mentoring, and tutoring.

Community-Wide:  One program developed in Canada in 1985 is known as the SNAP Under 12 Outreach Project (SNAP ORP). The SNAP ORP is a standardized 12-week outpatient program with five key components: the SNAP Children’s Club, a concurrent parents’ group, one-on-one family counselling, individual befriending for children, and academic tutoring.

  1. Secondary interventions: These strategies attempt to reduce the frequency of violence (i.e., intervention). These are directed at adolescents who have either had contact with the police or criminal justice system or have demonstrated behavioural problems at school. The goal of these strategies is to provide social and clinical services so that adolescents do not go on to commit serious violence.  Many of the same approaches using the primary interventions are used here.  One of the main differences is the “target” (i.e., which children are involved in the program) rather than the content of the intervention.

Examples: Common strategies include diversion programs, alternative and vocational education, family therapy, and skills training (Mulvey et al., 1993). One particular type is Multisystemic therapy (MST) examines a child across the contexts or “systems” in which they live – family, peers, school, neighbourhood, and community.  Families have access to a case manager 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.  Areas that may be targeted in MST treatment include family communication, parent management, and cognitive-behavioural issues.

  1. Tertiary interventions: These strategies attempt to prevent violence from reoccurring (i.e., treatment). They are aimed at adolescents who have engaged in criminal acts and who may have already been processed through formal court proceedings (Flannery and Williams 1999). Recipients are often chronic and serious adolescent offenders.  The goal of tertiary intervention strategies is to minimize the impact of existing risk factors and foster the development of protective factors, which may reduce the likelihood that the at-risk adolescent will engage in future offending.

Examples: Strategies include inpatient treatment (i.e., institutional, residential) and community-based treatment (Mulvey et al., 1993). The approach can be one of retribution (served in an institutional setting) or rehabilitation (served in a community setting).

 

Difficulty:  Moderate              Page: 156-161                         Skill:  Applied

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