Psychology Core Concepts 8th Edition By Zimbardo – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

Zimbardo TB CH05

 

 Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Zimbardo TB CH05

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

M/C Question 1
Psychologists see memory as a(n) ________ system.

  1. a)  learning

Incorrect. We certainly must learn, or be exposed, to information to encode it into memory, but this is not the best answer.

  1. b)  interpretive

Correct. Memory is responsible for taking in certain information while discarding other information. That which is taken in is arranged into meaningful patterns.

  1. c)  cognition
  2. d)  imitation
  3. e)  homeostasis

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 2
Memory is considered to

  1. a)  involve storage of information as in a bank vault.
  2. b)  operate just like a video recorder.
  3. c)  be a perfect replication of our experiences.

Incorrect. As the text points out in several different areas, memory is anything but perfect!

  1. d)  be an interpretative process.

Correct. Memory is responsible for taking in certain information while discarding other details. That which is taken in is arranged into meaningful patterns.

  1. e)  be a permanent form of information storage.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

 M/C Question 3
The reason it may be difficult to remember how many rows of stars appear on the United States flag is most likely due to

  1. a)  the limits of our visual system.
  2. b)  sensory adaptation.

Incorrect. Sensory adaptation is not related to your inability to remember things to which you’ve paid less than full attention.

  1. c)  the fact that we pay little attention to such details.

Correct. Attention is the first step in encoding. Only that to which we pay true attention is likely to create any real memory codes.

  1. d)  habituation.
  2. e)  sensory interference.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 4
Our memory ability is WORST for

  1. a)  information that we focused our attention on.
  2. b)  information in which we are interested.

Incorrect. As the authors point out, interest leads to attention, and attention is critical for effective memory skills.

  1. c)  emotionally arousing information.
  2. d)  information that we have practiced repeatedly.
  3. e)  information that doesn’t fit with previous experiences.

Correct. This sort of consistency between new information and previously stored data enhances memory processes.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 5
When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called

  1. a)  encoding.
  2. b)  storage.
  3. c)  retrieval.
  4. d)  evaluation.
  5. e)  rehearsal.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 6
Which of the following statements is true about retrieval?

  1. a)  It is a process that allows an extinguished CR to recover.
  2. b)  It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.

Correct. Retrieval gets information back into consciousness.

  1. c)  It is a process of getting information from the sensory receptors to the brain.

Incorrect. No, this answer describes the process known as encoding.

  1. d)  It is the reason that conditioned taste aversions last so long.
  2. e)  It is the process of making sure that stored memories do not decay.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 7
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam, there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth, but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers the fifth point, but it is too late. Janie had a problem with

  1. a)  translation
  2. b)  storage

Incorrect. She did have the information, so it was stored. However, she couldn’t retrieve it.

  1. c)  retrieval

Correct. Yes, she couldn’t find the information in her memory or retrieve it.

  1. d)  evaluation
  2. e)  interpolation

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 8
Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin’s problem is the ________ component of memory.

  1. a)  encoding
  2. b)  storage
  3. c)  retrieval

Correct. He cannot bring forth, or retrieve, information that he has in memory when he needs it.

  1. d)  retention

Incorrect. He does retain the information, or have it in memory, but he can’t retrieve it.

  1. e)  metacognition

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 9
Trying to remember someone’s name whom you met long ago is an example of what type of process?

  1. a)  storage
  2. b)  retrieval

Correct. Pulling previously stored information out of memory is retrieval.

  1. c)  encoding

Incorrect. The process of putting information into memory storage is encoding.

  1. d)  decoding
  2. e)  processing

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 10
Which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?

  1. a)  a table
  2. b)  a modem
  3. c)  a rainbow

Incorrect. Eidetic imagery is more like a photograph and is even called photographic memory.

  1. d)  a photograph

Correct. Yes, it’s like a picture and is sometimes called photographic memory.

  1. e)  a filing cabinet

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 11
An eidetic image will fade from memory if you

  1. a)  describe it.

Correct. The visual nature of eidetic memory seems to be interfered with by verbal descriptions.

  1. b)  think about it.
  2. c)  are aware of it.
  3. d)  view it for too long.
  4. e)  rehearse it.

Incorrect. The authors do not discuss a relationship between eidetic memories and rehearsal processes.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=Memory Is Constructed, and Reconstructed

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 12
When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for about 20 or 30 seconds, the phone number is thought to reside within ________ memory.

  1. a)  sensory

Incorrect. The duration of sensory memory for auditory events is just a couple of seconds. This is not the best answer.

  1. b)  working

Correct. Working, or short-term, memory is where we store information for 20–30 seconds while we decide whether to move it to long-term memory.

  1. c)  gustatory
  2. d)  procedural
  3. e)  long-term

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.1: Recognize that memories represent our unique perceptions of events rather than being accurate or objective

Topic=How Do We Form Memories?

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 13
The stream of information from your foot is first passed through ________ memory.

  1. a)  working

Incorrect. A bit of stimulus must pass through sensory memory before it gets to working memory.

  1. b)  declarative
  2. c)  procedural
  3. d)  sensory

Correct. Sensory memory refers to the first place information enters our memory system, and there it is stored in its pure sensory form.

  1. e)  photographic

 

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 14
If sensory memories were to last longer than normal,

  1. a)  we would need more working memory.
  2. b)  our senses would not work together.
  3. c)  we would become overloaded by the amount of incoming information.

Correct. The rapid fading of sensory memories is, as the authors point out, very adaptive to human beings.

  1. d)  it would ultimately destroy cortical neurons.

Incorrect. There is nothing in the chapter that supports this idea.

  1. e)  sensory memory would be able to hold more information.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

 M/C Question 15
A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you, followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess?

  1. a)  primary memory
  2. b)  iconic memory

Correct. This was one of the first sensory memory experiments ever done.

  1. c)  long-term memory
  2. d)  working memory

Incorrect. The testing of working memory was done with verbal items in a list form.

  1. e)  eidetic memory

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

 

M/C Question 16
The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in ________ memory.

  1. a)  echoic
  2. b)  iconic

Correct. Iconic memory is sensory and the first stage of the memory systems.

  1. c)  long-term
  2. d)  working

Incorrect. This storage location is not first, as the sensory memory system of iconic memory comes before it.

  1. e)  nociceptive

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 17
Long ago, during the early days of television, when a television set was turned off it took a while for the last image that was on the screen to fade away. This phenomenon is most like ________ memory.

  1. a)  iconic

Correct. Iconic memory is like a fading image.

  1. b)  echoic

Incorrect. Echoic memory is concerned with hearing and not vision.

  1. c)  working
  2. d)  long-term
  3. e)  semantic

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 18
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy’s ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ________ memory.

  1. a)  iconic sensory
  2. b)  echoic sensory

Correct. Auditory information is first put into echoic memory.

  1. c)  working

Incorrect. Working memory is the stage that occurs after echoic sensory memory, which is being used here.

  1. d)  tactile sensory
  2. e)  gustatory sensory

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 19
Because of the limited capacity of ________ memory, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush hour.

  1. a)  sensory

Incorrect. The best answer to this question would require a memory storage facility that had a longer duration than just a couple of seconds, which is what sensory memory has.

  1. b)  procedural
  2. c)  episodic
  3. d)  working

Correct. This reminds us that we are only capable of processing a limited amount of data in working memory at any point, and the more we try to do, the less effectively we do it. Therefore, please put down your phone while you drive, okay?

  1. e)  echoic

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

 

M/C Question 20
Jamal is trying to buy something over the phone. He asks his partner to read him his credit card number. However, when he tries to repeat it to the sales clerk on the other end of the line, he can’t remember all the numbers. Jamal is coming up against

  1. a)  the decay of numerical memory

Incorrect. Numerical memory is not a term in current usage.

  1. b)  the extinction of auditory traces.
  2. c)  George Miller’s magic number 7, plus or minus 2.

Correct. Credit card numbers are too long for working memory, according to Miller.

  1. d)  the limits of procedural memory.
  2. e)  the problem of absent-mindedness.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 21
Suppose Tamika looks up a number in the telephone book. After getting a busy signal, a minute or so later, she tries to call again—but has already forgotten the number! This example illustrates the limited duration of ________ memory.

  1. a)  sensory
  2. b)  working

Correct. Working memory has a duration of approximately 20 to 30 seconds if information is not rehearsed.

  1. c)  echoic

Incorrect. Echoic memory refers to auditory sensory memory, which only lasts a second or two.

  1. d)  implicit
  2. e)  procedural

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

 

M/C Question 22
You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?

  1. a)  condensed
  2. b)  permanent
  3. c)  elaborative

Incorrect. In maintenance rehearsal, items to be remembered are repeated over and over again inside a person’s head. Elaborative rehearsal is a better strategy.

  1. d)  maintenance

Correct. Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating bits of information to aid memory. In maintenance rehearsal, items to be remembered are repeated over and over again inside a person’s head, but it is not a good strategy.

  1. e)  implicit

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 23
Bonnie is trying to remember what grocery items she needs from the stores. She repeats the words, “Eggs, cookies, bread, tortillas, and pretzels” over and over again in her mind. Bonnie is utilizing which memory technique?

  1. a)  elaborative rehearsal

Incorrect. If Bonnie came up with a way of making the items she needed more connected to something already stored in her long-term memory, this would demonstrate elaborative rehearsal.

  1. b)  transduction
  2. c)  maintenance rehearsal

Correct. The rote repetition of a stimulus to keep it from fading from working memory is called maintenance rehearsal.

  1. d)  chunking
  2. e)  retroactive interference

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 24
Luiz is being asked to remember a series of the following 15 letters: FOXHOWLSWANTBUG. He finds this to be easier to remember as the four words fox howls want bug, rather than 15 individual letters. Luiz has used a process known as

  1. a)  maintenance rehearsal.
  2. b)  long-term potentiation.
  3. c)  recognition.
  4. d)  chunking.

Correct. Creating meaningful groups out of individual bits of information is chunking.

  1. e)  eidetic imagery.

Incorrect. Eidetic imagery is more akin to what most people think of as photographic memory.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 25
_______ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to _______ rehearsal.

  1. a)  Permanent; condensed
  2. b)  Condensed; permanent
  3. c)  Elaborative; maintenance

Correct. Elaborative rehearsal leads to longer-lasting memories than does maintenance rehearsal because the deeper the processing, the better the memory.

  1. d)  Maintenance; elaborative

Incorrect. Elaborative rehearsal leads to longer-lasting memories than does maintenance rehearsal. Repeating items over and over, as in maintenance rehearsal, has not been found to be very effective.

  1. e)  Semantic; episodic

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 26
You are learning a list of items for a test by relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory. Which type of rehearsal are you using?

  1. a)  condensed
  2. b)  permanent
  3. c)  maintenance

Incorrect. Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating the items over and over in your head. Elaborative rehearsal, which involves relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory, is a much better strategy.

  1. d)  elaborative

Correct. Elaborative rehearsal involves relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory, and it is the best strategy for getting information into long-term memory.

  1. e)  proactive

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 27
When test subjects are asked to recall a list of letters they have just seen, the mistakes they make often involve letters that sound similar to the displayed letters. These mistakes are probably due to

  1. a)  retrograde amnesia.
  2. b)  acoustic encoding.

Correct. The similarities in the sounds of letters can interfere with accurate encoding of the various stimuli.

  1. c)  retroactive interference during transfer from echoic to iconic memory.
  2. d)  the serial position effect.

Incorrect. This refers to the tendency to remember items in a list better or worse depending on where each item falls in a list.

  1. e)  the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 28
Suppose you’re pitching in a baseball game and facing a good hitter. You remember that you struck him out with a fastball the last time he was up. You also remember that your coach told you always to try to be unpredictable, so you decide to throw a curve ball this time. In making this decision, you are primarily using your

  1. a)  central executive.

Correct. The central executive is the part of our working memory that helps us with organization and decision-making.

  1. b)  fight-or-flight response.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that deals with the fight-or-flight response of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. c)  modality-specific memory.
  2. d)  long-term potentiation.
  3. e)  encoding executive.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 29
The fact that letters that sound similar can create memory distortions after they are encoded is one of the problems with the fact that information in working memory is encoded

  1. a)  verbally.
  2. b)  visually.
  3. c)  gustatorily.
  4. d)  physically.
  5. e)  semantically.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 30
Bob sells lamps for a living. In order to help people remember his telephone number, he requests the number 981-5267. Bob advertises his number as 981-LAMP. Bob is hoping that ________ will aid his customers in remembering his phone number.

  1. a)  recognition
  2. b)  recall
  3. c)  maintenance rehearsal

Incorrect. If Bob simply repeated the same phone number over and over again, this would demonstrate maintenance rehearsal.

  1. d)  elaborative rehearsal

Correct. By creating a connection between a new stimulus and a previously known stimulus, Bob has used elaborative rehearsal.

  1. e)  engrams

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 31
In the levels-of-processing model of memory, information that gets processed at a ________ level (such as accessing the meaning of a word or phrase) is more likely to be retained longer and form a stronger memory than information that is processed at a ________ level (such as the visual characteristics of a word).

  1. a)  deeper; shallower

Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. b)  shallower; deeper

Incorrect. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. c)  higher; lower
  2. d)  lower; higher
  3. e)  semantic; episodic

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 32
According to the levels-of-processing model, we are most likely to remember information that we process at a ________level.

  1. a)  deeper

Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. b)  medium
  2. c)  shallower

Incorrect. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. d)  personal
  2. e)  any of these, depending on the information

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 33
The levels-of-processing model would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog?

  1. a)  “Does it rhyme with blog?”
  2. b)  “Does it rhyme with blog?”

Incorrect. This question requires a shallower level of processing, and that leads to poorer memory.

  1. c)  “Is it written in cursive?”
  2. d)  “Would it be found in a pond?”

Correct. This question requires a deeper level of processing as it engages meaning. Meaning is seen as a deeper level of processing, which leads to better memory.

  1. e)  “Have I seen this before?”

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 34
Which of the following examples represents deep processing as described by the levels-of-processing model?

  1. a)  repeating a word aloud 10 times
  2. b)  attending to the sound of a word

Incorrect. Attending to the sound of a word is not a deep level of processing because it takes place at the perceptual level.

  1. c)  thinking about the meaning of a word

Correct. Thinking about a word’s meaning requires a deeper level of processing.

  1. d)  looking at the shapes of the letters in a word
  2. e)  considering what words a sound sounds like

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 35
Micah is trying to remember the specific route he took to the library the night before. What part of working memory is he accessing?

  1. a)  the articulatory loop

Incorrect. The articulatory loop is the part of working memory that deals with immediate auditory information.

  1. b)  the sketchpad

Correct. The sketchpad is the part of the working memory that deals with immediate visual or graphical information

  1. c)  the internal executive
  2. d)  the control sequence
  3. e)  the central rehearsal strategem

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 36
According to the levels-of-processing theory, if Jon wanted Maqsood to remember the sentences “At first, it is better to run than to walk,” “Birds seldom get too close,” and “A rock can be used as an anchor,” he should

  1. a)  encourage Maqsood to pay attention to the sound of each word.

Incorrect. This would actually encourage Maqsood to process the sentences at a very shallow level, and this would not stimulate effective remembering.

  1. b)  ask Maqsood to underline all of the three-letter words.
  2. c)  have Maqsood alphabetize the words in each sentence.
  3. d)  tell Maqsood the sentences all refer to kite-flying.

Correct. By creating meaning, Jon has helped Maqsood process the sentences at the deepest level. This will help him remember them more effectively.

  1. e)  test Maqsood’s memory immediately.

 

 

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.3: Review the structure, function, and processing levels of the working memory

Topic=The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 37
The text suggests that ________ is a good analogy for LTM.

  1. a)  a computer hard drive
  2. b)  the index of a book
  3. c)  a library catalog
  4. d)  the nodes of the Internet

Incorrect. There is nothing in the text that compares the internet to LTM.

  1. e)  a mental scaffold

Correct. The more associations you make in memory, the more information you can store there.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 38
A guitarist uses ________ to recall how to play the notes of a specific song.

  1. a)  episodic memory
  2. b)  procedural memory

Correct. When you remember how to do something, you are having a procedural memory.

  1. c)  semantic memory
  2. d)  a flashbulb memory

Incorrect. A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed and vivid memory of an emotionally impactful event.

  1. e)  mnemonics

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 39
Your memory of how much fun you had last spring break is an example of

  1. a)  semantic memory.

Incorrect. Semantic memory is the memory of general facts or bits of information about the world around us. They are not unique to an individual person.

  1. b)
  2. c)  procedural memory.
  3. d)  episodic memory.

Correct. Episodic memory refers to our own personal memories of the experiences we’ve had. They are your memories, and yours alone!

  1. e)  sensory memory.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 40
Remembering your first day of college classes is an example of ________ memories.

  1. a)  episodic

Correct. Episodic memory refers to memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance.

  1. b)  semantic

Incorrect. Semantic memory includes general knowledge, language, and concepts, among other things.

  1. c)  working
  2. d)  implicit
  3. e)  explicit

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 41
Jesse still has very vivid memories of his first romantic kiss. This example illustrates a specific form of ________ memory known as a(n) ________ memory.

  1. a)  semantic; autobiographical
  2. b)  episodic; autobiographical

Correct. Autobiographical memories refer to memories of things that have occurred in our own lives.

  1. c)  semantic; personal
  2. d)  episodic; personal

Incorrect. The form of episodic memory that is referred to in this question is called autobiographical, not personal memory.

  1. e)  proactive; retroactive

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 42
________ most clearly resembles an encyclopedia in terms of its content.

  1. a)  Procedural memory

Incorrect. Procedural memory stores our knowledge of how to accomplish specific tasks. It is the remembering of procedures.

  1. b)  Priming
  2. c)  Implicit memory
  3. d)  Distributed learning
  4. e)  Semantic memory

Correct. Semantic memory stores our knowledge of general facts or information about the world around us.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 43
Recalling the definition of long-term memory is an example of ________ memory.

  1. a)  episodic

Incorrect. Episodic memory refers to memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance.

  1. b)  semantic

Correct. Semantic memory refers to the memory of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world

  1. c)  working
  2. d)  implicit
  3. e)  procedural

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 44
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is

  1. a)  procedural.
  2. b)  semantic.

Correct. Semantic memory concerns common knowledge.

  1. c)  episodic.
  2. d)  working.

Incorrect. The type of memory needed to access the answers to these kinds of questions is semantic and not a form of working memory. Working memory is not permanent.

  1. e)  autobiographical.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

 M/C Question 45
Which of these is an example of what has been called childhood amnesia?

  1. a)  Betty, age 25, can recall only good memories of what happened when she was 4 to 5 years old.
  2. b)  Johnny, age 10, has no memory of a family vacation that occurred when he was 2 years old.

Correct. Childhood amnesia refers to the tendency to not remember things that happened before the age of 3.

  1. c)  When faced with a horrible stressor, some people return to an earlier stage of development, such as infancy, for the comfort that it provides.
  2. d)  Despite the fact that Alice, age 35, played the piano from ages 3 through 13, sheas very little ability to do so now.

Incorrect. Childhood amnesia doesn’t refer to skills; rather, it refers to the tendency to not remember things that happened before the age of 3.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 46
A patient’s chart indicates he just had surgery to remove his hippocampus as a result of a tumor. What change do you anticipate in the patient after the operation?

  1. a)  The patient will not be able to process colors.
  2. b)  The patient will have problems experiencing hunger.
  3. c)  The patient will not be able to remember new information.

Correct. Damage to the hippocampus results in long-term memory problems.

  1. d)  The patient will not be able to perform tasks such as block designs.

Incorrect. The patient will not be able to remember new information because the hippocampus is crucial in storing information in long-term memory.

  1. e)  The patient will not be able to remember physical memories.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 47
A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer’s family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?

  1. a)  proactive amnesia
  2. b)  anterograde amnesia

Correct. Anterograde amnesia occurs when new long-term memories cannot be formed.

  1. c)  retrograde amnesia

Incorrect. Retrograde amnesia deals with not being able to get old information out of storage.

  1. d)  retroactive amnesia
  2. e)  pernicious amnesia

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 48
Mateo is 70 years old and had a stroke last year. He is now unable to remember how to get to and return from his new doctor’s office using a specific route. What brain structure was potentially damaged by Mateo’s stroke?

  1. a)  his amygdala

Incorrect. While the amygdala may be related to fear-based memories, the best answer to this question is the hippocampus.

  1. b)  his hypothalamus
  2. c)  his hippocampus

Correct. Research has found that the hippocampus is essential in the formation and encoding of new memories.

  1. d)  his cerebellum
  2. e)  his medulla

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 49
If ________ amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, then ________ amnesia is like pushing the save key and having the document disappear instead of being stored.

  1. a)  anterograde; retrograde

Incorrect. If retrograde amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, anterograde amnesia is like pushing the save key and having the document disappear instead.

  1. b)  retrograde; anterograde

Correct. If retrograde amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, anterograde amnesia is like pushing the save key and having the document disappear instead.

  1. c)  adolescent; conductive
  2. d)  procedural; implicit
  3. e)  implicit; explicit

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 50
An emotionally arousing event will cause

  1. a)  people to repress the memory of the event.

Incorrect. There is nothing presented by the text to support this answer.

  1. b)  difficulties in retrieving the memory.
  2. c)  interference with episodic memory but not semantic memory.
  3. d)  an enhanced ability to remember the event.

Correct. Perhaps it is because those emotions draw our attention to that event, and as the authors have stated, attention is the first key to effective remembering.

  1. e)  long-term potentiation to diminish, thus increasing memory.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 51
Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001, is an example of a(n) ________ memory.

  1. a)  flashbulb

Correct. These are memories of emotionally important or impactful events.

  1. b)  semantic
  2. c)  procedural

Incorrect. This question does not apply to remembering how to do something, so it is not referencing a procedural memory.

  1. d)  implicit
  2. e)  sensory

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

 

 

M/C Question 52
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of a(n)

  1. a)  eidetic image.

Incorrect. This is an example of a flashbulb memory. Eidetic images are perfect images formed by a person with photographic memory; they are of anything the person sees, not just highly significant events.

  1. b)  flashbulb memory.

Correct. This is an example of a flashbulb memory, which is like a flash picture of a highly emotional event and is not always accurate.

  1. c)  semantic memory.
  2. d)  procedural memory.
  3. e)  TOT memory.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 53
Which of the following statements about flashbulb memories is true?

  1. a)  Flashbulb memories tend to be about as accurate as other types of memories.

Correct. Although researchers used to think of flashbulb memories as more accurate than other memories, recent research has debunked that belief.

  1. b)  People feel unconfident about their recall of flashbulb memories.

Incorrect. In fact, while people’s confidence about the accuracy of flashbulb memories is very high, the actual accuracy of those memories is about equal to other types of memory.

  1. c)  A major news event automatically causes a person to store a flashbulb memory.
  2. d)  Your memory of how you felt at the onset of a flashbulb memory rarely changes over time.
  3. e)  Flashbulb memories only occur for positive life events.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 54
We are always aware of ________ memory, whereas ________ memory may be incidentally learned.

  1. a)  semantic; episodic
  2. b)  implicit; explicit

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. c)  episodic; semantic
  2. d)  explicit; implicit

Correct. Explicit memories are those that involve conscious effort, while implicit memories are those that occur automatically.

  1. e)  semantic; procedural

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 55
How do retrieval cues help you to remember?

  1. a)  They provide inferences.
  2. b)  They help chunk information.

Incorrect. Chunking is a process that is used in working memory. Cues are related to long-term memory.

  1. c)  They direct you to relevant information stored in long-term memory.

Correct. Cues help prime your long-term memory to find a specific piece of information that is needed.

  1. d)  They provide numbers for ideas.
  2. e)  They don’t—this is a placebo effect that leaves you feeling as if memory was aided when it really was not.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 56
Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can’t remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president’s name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n)

  1. a)  elaborative rehearsal cue.

Incorrect. You are not rehearsing or repeating anything in this task as you would in an elaborative rehearsal process.

  1. b)  cross code.
  2. c)  structural cue.
  3. d)  retrieval cue.

Correct. The hint that made you think of the city of Cleveland helped you to retrieve the name of Grover Cleveland.

  1. e)  mnemonic cue.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 57
When asked to recall the date of John Kennedy’s assassination, Peter draws a blank; however, when asked whether it was October 24, 1962; November 22, 1963; or February 1, 1965, he correctly answers with the second of the choices. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of

  1. a)  state-dependent memory.
  2. b)  retrieval cues.

Correct. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of retrieval cues as Peter probably had the date stored in memory and then just had to take a set of dates and check which one he had stored.

  1. c)  cross links in deep structure.
  2. d)  mnemonic devices.

Incorrect. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of retrieval cues. A mnemonic is a poem or acronym that aids memory through aiding retrieval

  1. e)  mood-congruency.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 58
If I asked you what you ate for dinner on Saturday, it might be a difficult task. However, if I reminded you that you went to Outback Steakhouse with your mother and aunt, it may be easier to remember. Why is that?

  1. a)  You have been provided with retrieval cues.

Correct. These external cues help to direct our long-term memories to where specific bits of information are stored.

  1. b)  You are now relying on recognition rather than recall.

Incorrect. The distinction between recall and recognition is not at the heart of this question, but even if it was, you’d be relying on recall rather than recognition.

  1. c)  You are now utilizing procedural memory.
  2. d)  There is no more proactive interference.
  3. e)  You have used maintenance rehearsal to access the memory.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 59
Ted asks Krystal to say the words hop, pop, and mop. Then, Ted asks Krystal, “What do you do at a green light?” Krystal quickly replies, “Stop,” (instead of the right answer: “Go”) because of

  1. a)  recognition.
  2. b)  encoding specificity.
  3. c)  TOT phenomenon.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the temporary inability to recall information that a person knows they have stored in long-term memory.

  1. d)  priming.

Correct. You have preset Krystal’s memory to call forth certain stimuli. This is known as priming.

  1. e)  misattribution.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 60
Because ideas in LTM are stored in terms of meaning, a practical way to improve memory is to

  1. a)  cut down on alcohol intake on study days.

Incorrect. While this may be very good advice, it is not specifically noted in the text.

  1. b)  use only maintenance rehearsal when studying.
  2. c)  study in a noisy and crowded environment.
  3. d)  wait until the last moment to learn new material.
  4. e)  make the material meaningful when it is in working memory.

Correct. By doing this, which is called elaborative rehearsal, the information gets stored in a more logical arrangement in long-term memory.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 61
Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, ________ is a less demanding task than ________.

  1. a)  recognition; recall

Correct. Recognition is an easier task than recall.

  1. b)  recall; recognition

Incorrect. Recognition is an easier task than recall. Recognition always entails a hint that enables you to check the given answers against memory.

  1. c)  priming; the savings method
  2. d)  the savings method; priming
  3. e)  a mnemonic; the method of loci

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 62
To answer this multiple choice question, you must use

  1. a)  implicit memory.
  2. b)  recognition.
  3. c)  recall.
  4. d)  procedural memory.
  5. e)  the method of loci.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 63
The best place to take your biology exam to ensure good retrieval of biology concepts is in

  1. a)  the biology classroom

Correct. If you could take the test where you studied, that would be the best.

  1. b)  an auditorium to prevent cheating
  2. c)  the English classroom
  3. d)  the special testing room used for all exams

Incorrect. The special testing room won’t give you any retrieval cues; the best place is in the biology classroom.

  1. e)  silence

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 64
“The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved.” What concept does this statement describe?

  1. a)  memorability
  2. b)  registered learning

Incorrect. Encoding specificity is being described. Registered learning is not a real term.

  1. c)  encoding specificity

Correct. Encoding specificity is being described as it refers to the similarity of the learning and testing situation and how it aids performance.

  1. d)  accessible decoding
  2. e)  mood congruency

 

 

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 65
The observation that depressed people tend to favor recall of depressing memories is known as ________ memory.

  1. a)  sociopathic
  2. b)  anterograde
  3. c)  mood-congruent

Correct. This concept suggests that memories that are retrieved are selectively consistent with the mood we’re in at the time of retrieval.

  1. d)  retrograde
  2. e)  encoding specificity

Incorrect. This concept emphasizes the need for consistency between the details of an encoding situation and the details of the retrieval situation.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 66
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam, there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that is). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it is something like taxes. Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of a sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from

  1. a)  encoding problems

Incorrect. Janie was suffering from tip-of-the-tongue effects. She probably had encoded the information, but she couldn’t find it; thus, it was a retrieval problem.

  1. b)  storage inversion
  2. c)  the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Correct. Janie was suffering from the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon as she felt the information was almost ready to be said or on the tip of her tongue.

  1. d)  evaluation overload
  2. e)  anterograde amnesia

 

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 67
Which of the following statements regarding TOT experiences is FALSE?

  1. a)  They often involve the names of famous people or familiar objects.

Incorrect. This is a common feature of TOT events.

  1. b)  They typically involve recognition tasks.

Correct. The text does not suggest that TOT is more common for recognition tasks than for recall tasks.

  1. c)  About half the time, the words do eventually pop into mind.
  2. d)  When words are finally remembered, it is usually within one minute.
  3. e)  They may be explained by inadequate context cues.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 68
The TOT phenomenon is explained as due to a weak match between

  1. a)  retrieval cues and encoding in LTM.

Correct. If the hints we’re given are not adequate to prompt the memory we’re seeking, we may experience the TOT phenomenon.

  1. b)  mnemonics and engrams.
  2. c)  semantic memory and recall.
  3. d)  implicit and explicit memory.

Incorrect. There is nothing in the text’s discussion of the TOT phenomenon that involves a match between implicit and explicit memories.

  1. e)  episodic memory and recognition.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.5: Relate retrieval cues with respect to the differences between implicit and explicit memories

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 69
If you are unable to remember the name of your second grade teacher because you haven’t thought of her in a while, you are demonstrating

  1. a)  the serial position effect.

Incorrect. This refers to the tendency to remember items in the middle of a list less effectively than remembering items at the start and end of that list.

  1. b)  transience.

Correct. Transience refers to the impermanence of long-term memories.

  1. c)  misattribution.
  2. d)  absent-mindedness.
  3. e)  encoding specificity.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 70
Your teacher has given each student the name of a key figure in the history of psychology. The assignment is to describe at least one significant contribution made by this person. If your historical figure is Hermann Ebbinghaus, what contribution might you describe to the class?

  1. a)  He described the limits of sensory storage.

Incorrect. Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables that were crucial to studying learning. Sperling was crucial in the study of sensory storage.

  1. b)  He discovered the parts of the brain responsible for processing memories.
  2. c)  He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a pure form.

Correct. Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables that were crucial to studying learning.

  1. d)  He developed a series of memory aids that is still used by students today.
  2. e)  His development of the fMRI to test brain activity during memory tasks.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 71
You are invited to take part in a study by a researcher trying to replicate the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus. What might this researcher ask you to do?

  1. a)  “Write down all the words you can remember.”
  2. b)  “Read this poem and then interpret its meaning.”
  3. c)  “Listen to me: BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said.”

Correct. Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables to avoid previous associative links.

  1. d)  “Listen to these sounds and write down words that come to mind.”

Incorrect. He would probably say, “BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said.” Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables because they had no previous associations.

  1. e)  “Look at these inkblots and tell me what you see in them.”

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 72
The forgetting curve noted by Ebbinghaus demonstrates the ________ of memory.

  1. a)  transience

Correct. Ebbinghaus showed that memories are very susceptible to loss. This is consistent with the idea of transience.

  1. b)  encoding
  2. c)  interference

Incorrect. Ebbinghaus’s research did not specifically address interference theory.

  1. d)  repression
  2. e)  durability

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 73
Writing the previous year on your checks instead of the current year is an example of

  1. a)  retroactive interference

Incorrect. This refers to situations where newly learned (recent) information obstructs retrieval of previously learned (old) information.

  1. b)  encoding specificity.
  2. c)  proactive interference.

Correct. This refers to situations where previously learned (old) information obstructs retrieval of newly learned (recent) information.

  1. d)  repression.
  2. e)  transience.

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 74
You start out using Firefox, then change to Explorer because your company demands that browsers be Microsoft products. If you have trouble with Explorer, it is most likely due to

  1. a)  proactive interference

Correct. In proactive interference, older information interferes with newer information.

  1. b)  retroactive interference

Incorrect. In retroactive interference, newer information interferes with older information. In this example, the old interferes with the new, which is proactive interference.

  1. c)  anterograde interference
  2. d)  consolidation problems
  3. e)  retrograde interference

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 75
Imagine that the first car you learned to drive was a manual transmission with a clutch, but the car you drive now is an automatic. Sometimes you find yourself reaching for the clutch that is no longer there. This example illustrates

  1. a)  retroactive interference.

Incorrect. Retroactive interference is the tendency for new or recently learned material to interfere with the retrieval of older material.

  1. b)  proactive interference.

Correct. Proactive interference is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the retrieval of newer, more recently learned material.

  1. c)  retrograde amnesia.
  2. d)  anterograde amnesia.
  3. e)  eidetic amnesia.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 76
Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa’s memory is suffering from

  1. a)  cue-dependent forgetting.
  2. b)  proactive interference.

Correct. Shalissa’s memory is suffering from proactive interference.

  1. c)  decay.
  2. d)  retroactive interference .

Incorrect. Shalissa’s memory is suffering from proactive interference as old information is knocking out the new. Retroactive interference is the reverse.

  1. e)  encoding specificity.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 77
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the

  1. a)  phi phenomenon.
  2. b)  recency effect.
  3. c)  chunking effect.
  4. d)  primacy effect.
  5. e)  impression effect.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 78
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the ________ effect.

  1. a)  encoding specificity
  2. b)  serial position

Correct. The finding is known as the serial position effect, as it refers to the ability to better remember things at the beginning and end of a list.

  1. c)  TOT

Incorrect. TOT is when you know the item but can’t retrieve it at a particular moment, which is not the case in this example. Moishe’s problem is with the serial position effect.

  1. d)  reintegrative
  2. e)  priming

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 79
If you are trying to remember the names of all the U.S. presidents, the serial position effect would predict that you will have difficulty

  1. a)  remembering more than about seven (plus or minus two) of them.
  2. b)  recognizing the names of the presidents on a list.

Incorrect. This answer makes no specific reference to the serial position effect.

  1. c)  recalling the earliest presidents.
  2. d)  recalling the most recent presidents.
  3. e)  recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.

Correct. The serial position effect refers to the tendency to remember items in the middle of a list less effectively than remembering items at the start and end of that list.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 80
Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve

  1. a)  trying to study while watching television.

Correct. Absent-mindedness refers to lapses in memory due to a lack of attention.

  1. b)  a failure to encode a stimulus event.
  2. c)  a failure to connect new input to previously stored information.
  3. d)  a failure of iconic memory.

Incorrect. Iconic memory is a form of sensory memory. Absent-mindedness refers to deficits in long-term memory.

  1. e)  an old memory making it difficult to recall a newer one.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 81
A temporary failure to recall where you left your keys is most likely due to

  1. a)  transience.

Incorrect. This refers to the impermanence of long-term memories.

  1. b)  proactive interference.
  2. c)  misattribution.
  3. d)  absent-mindedness.

Correct. Absent-mindedness refers to lapses in memory due to a lack of attention.

  1. e)  the TOT phenomenon.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 82
Simon read the words bed, night, snore, dream, comfort, and pillow to Jennifer. As a result of misattribution, we could expect Jennifer to

  1. a)  remember the word sleep.

Correct. This refers to a memory error that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place, or person.

  1. b)  experience some sleepiness.
  2. c)  only remember three or four of the words.
  3. d)  remember the first and last words, but not the middle words.

Incorrect. This answer references the serial position effect, but that phenomenon is not related to the example in the question.

  1. e)  confuse the order of the words.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.7: Examine the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Commission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

 

 

 

M/C Question 83
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to demonstrate accurate eyewitness recall?

  1. a)  George, who has been told that interrogation can create memory bias

Correct. By being aware of this bias, George would be in the best position to avoid distorted memories.

  1. b)  Paul, who is being questioned long after the event occurred
  2. c)  Richard, who is 73 years old
  3. d)  Stu, who is three years old

Incorrect. As the authors point out, young children are particularly susceptible to memory retrieval errors.

  1. e)  John, who is feeling particularly confident about his memories

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.7: Examine the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Commission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 84
Because of self-consistency bias,

  1. a)  Don may have trouble remembering how he initially felt about Vicki.
  2. b)  Pete’s feelings about Anne may be stronger than they once were.
  3. c)  Sam may not love Florence any more.
  4. d)  Shawna believes that she always felt passionately about Matthew.

Correct. This error in memory causes us to reconstruct memories to promote consistency in our own thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.

  1. e)  Tom believes that he loves Coral more than Mike does.

Incorrect. This would be a self-serving bias, not a self-consistency bias.

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.7: Examine the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Commission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

M/C Question 85
The memory failure caused by transience is adaptive in that it

  1. a)  removes unneeded information from LTM.

Correct. Even though LTM has an unlimited capacity, we don’t want it full of unneeded junk, do we?

  1. b)  retains the most important information.
  2. c)  eliminates memories that conflict with our beliefs.
  3. d)  makes it difficult to encode sensory memories.

Incorrect. There is nothing about transience that is related to the difficulty of encoding sensory memories.

  1. e)  ensures memories are stored by both sight and sound.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.7: Examine the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Commission

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 86
The failures of memory identified by Schacter

  1. a)  cannot be overcome.

Incorrect. Many of these sins can be overcome with some useful strategies and techniques.

  1. b)  primarily only affect semantic memory.
  2. c)  are worsened by mnemonics.
  3. d)  affect men much more than women.
  4. e)  arise from adaptive memory features.

Correct. Several of these sins actually assist our memory processes in different ways.

 

ANS: e

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 87
To remember the five Great Lakes, you might remember the word HOMES, because each of the five letters in HOMES is the first letter of one of the Great Lakes. This strategy is known as

  1. a)  the method of loci.

Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. b)  the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
  2. c)  a natural language mediator.

Correct. This refers to a word associated with new information to be remembered. It is a form of a mnemonic.

  1. d)  a recognition task.
  2. e)  maintenance rehearsal.

 

 

ANS: c

Objective=5.8: Examine the way mnemonics helps us in improving memory

Topic=Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 88
By looking over the chapter outline, the summary, the Key Questions, and Core Concepts, you form the impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are later associated with this overall impression. This is known as

  1. a)  distributed learning.
  2. b)  the whole method.

Correct. By learning the overall whole first and getting a feel for its general flavor, we can go back and learn smaller details later.

  1. c)  the method of loci.

       Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. d)  overlearning.
  2. e)  repression.

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.8: Examine the way mnemonics helps us in improving memory

Topic=Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 89
If you study for an exam on one day and then continue studying on the next day, you are using

  1. a)  distributed learning.

Correct. By studying a little each day over several days, you will have more success than one long cramming session. That would be called massed learning.

  1. b)  the whole method.
  2. c)  the method of loci.

Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. d)  overlearning.
  2. e)  repression.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.8: Examine the way mnemonics helps us in improving memory

Topic=Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

Essay

 

Essay Question 90
Name the three memory stages and discuss the duration and capacity of each stage.

Global Correct Feedback: Sensory memory may hold nine or more items. Visual images last about 1/4 of a second, whereas sounds last up to four seconds. Working (or, short-term memory) holds between five and nine items, and information stays there for, at most, 20 seconds. Information in long-term memory may remain permanently, and its capacity is unlimited.

Objective=5.2: Recall the transience of the memory that gets captured in our sensory memory

Topic=The First Stage: Sensory Memory; The Second Stage: Working Memory; The Third Stage: Long-Term memory

Skill=Analyzing

Difficulty=Difficult

 

Essay Question 91
Name and discuss the various types of long-term memories. Give an example of a memory that might demonstrate each type.

Global Correct Feedback: The two main forms are procedural memory (which involve remembering how to do things) and declarative memory (which involves more specific information). The two main types of declarative memories are episodic memory (which involves memory for specific events) and semantic memory (which stores facts and the meanings of words and concepts). A flashbulb memory (which is a clear memory for an important event) is one type of episodic memory.

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Difficult

 

Essay Question 92
Name and discuss the two forms of amnesia. Do you feel that these forms are or are not accurately portrayed by the media?

Global Correct Feedback: Anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia involves the inability to form new memories such as in the case of H.M.. as opposed to retrograde amnesia, which involves the inability to remember information previously stored in memory. Retrograde amnesia is commonly seen after an individual sustains an injury to the head. Those suffering from retrograde amnesia can form new memories, unlike those with anterograde amnesia.

Objective=5.4: Review the long-term memory that enables us to store and retrieve the information of a lifetime

Topic=The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill=Analyzing

Difficulty=Difficult

 

Essay Question 93
Name and discuss at least five reasons why the memory of a healthy person may fail.

Global Correct Feedback: The “seven sins” of memory include transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and unwanted persistence. Other concepts include lack of attention, our rehearsal strategies, repression, cramming as well. Credit is not to be given for answers referring to Alzheimer’s disease, surgery, or brain damage, as the question referred to “healthy” people.

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission; & 5.7: Examine the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Omission; The Sins of Commission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

Essay Question 94
Name at least four strategies that would help a person studying for a test.

Global Correct Feedback: Acceptable answers would including topics such as paying attention, using elaborative rehearsal, creating mnemonics (method of loci and/or natural language mediators), only studying one subject at a time, taking breaks (distributed learning) rather than cramming, trying to make the material personally meaningful, trying to figure out what kinds of questions the instructor may ask, studying with a friend, and so on.

Objective=5.8: Examine the way mnemonics helps us in improving memory

Topic=Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

M/C Question 95
Nelson just started dating Pam, less than a week after breaking up with Cherie. He dated Cherie for 3 years and is still in a lot of pain over the end of their relationship. According to research by Wimber and others (2015), what will happen every time he thinks about Pam?

  1. a)  His memories of Cherie will become weaker and weaker.
  2. b)  He will trigger competing memories of Cherie, and will eventually come to dislike
  3. c)  He will have stronger feelings for Pam as his anger toward Cherie is rechanneled into his new relationship.
  4. d)  He will come to find that both Pam and Cherie are less attractive.
  5. e)  His memories of Cherie will become even stronger than they already are.

 

ANS: a

Objective=5.6: Summarize the three sins of omission

Topic=The Sins of Omission

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 96
It is estimated that as many as one in five airline accidents can be traced to errors in ________ memory.

  1. a)  procedural
  2. b)  explicit
  3. c)  episodic
  4. d)  prospective
  5. e)  semantic

 

ANS: d

Objective=5.5: Evaluate retrieval cues that aid memory

Topic=Implicit and Explicit Memory

Skill=Remembering

Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 97
Neuroimaging research finds that those who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be experiencing faulty communication between the _________ and __________ in the brain.

  1. a)  limbic system; brain stem
  2. b)  hippocampus; prefrontal cortex
  3. c)  reticular activating system; reticular inhibiting system
  4. d)  hypothalamus; amygdala
  5. e)  ventral tegmentum; dorsal insula

 

ANS: b

Objective=5.7: Explain the sins of commission

Topic=The Sins of Commission

Skill=Remembering

Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 98
In which of the following important ways does human memory differ from that of a computer?

  1. a)  Human memory is not erasable and exists permanently.
  2. b)  Human memory is constructive rather than static and predictable.
  3. c)  Human memory requires active attention to encoding.
  4. d)  Human memory exists from the moment we are “created.”
  5. e)  Human memory cannot be shared from one person to another.

 

ANS: b

Objective=Core Concept 5.1

Topic=Key Question: What Is Memory?

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 99
Why did psychologists shift from addressing short-term memory to calling it working memory?

  1. a)  It was found that it only “works” in about 85% of those who were examined.
  2. b) This memory stage was found to work both forward and backward from sensory to long-term memory stores.
  3. c)  It was discovered that there were multiple active processes that took place in this memory store.
  4. d) Research identified this as the storage facility in which amnesia is most likely to occur.
  5. e) Only through explicit encoding can working memory be encoded on to long-term stores.

 

ANS: c

Objective=Core Concept 5.2

Topic=Key Question: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill=Understanding

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 100
Of the following, which is NOT one of Schachter’s “seven sins” of memory?

  1. a)  bias
  2. b)  misattribution
  3. c)  transience
  4. d)  unwanted persistence
  5. e)  misconstruction

 

ANS: e

Objective=Core Concept 5.4

Topic=Key Question: Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us, and What Can We Do About It?

Skill=Remembering

Difficulty=Hard

 

M/C Question 101
Mal has extraordinary recall ability. She is able, for example, to read an entire novel and remember every word on every page. The technical name for this skill is

  1. a)  eidetic imagery.
  2. b)  photographic memory.
  3. c)  explicit recall.
  4. d)  flashbulb memory.
  5. e)  episodic retrieval.

 

ANS: a

Objective=Core Concept 5.1

Topic=Psychology Matters: What You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 102
Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding flashbulb memories?

  1. a) People actually have less confidence in the accuracy of flashbulb memories than they do in other kinds of memories.
  2. b) The are more accurate but no more vivid than other, normal memories.
  3. c)  They are more vivid but no more accurate than other, normal memories.
  4. d) Flashbulb memories are always implicit, while other kinds of memories are always explicit.
  5. e)  Flashbulb memories are highly resistant to decay over time.

 

ANS: c

Objective=Core Concept 5.2

Topic=Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill=Remembering

Difficulty=Medium

 

M/C Question 103
When you are asked to name all seven dwarfs (from the Snow White fairy tale), you may have difficulty recalling the name of Doc because the other names come to mind more easily. When one retrieved memory blocks access to another memory, this is called

  1. a)  an encoding failure.
  2. b)  misattribution.
  3. c)  transience.
  4. d)  decay.
  5. e)  interference.

 

ANS: e

Objective=Core Concept 5.3

Topic=Psychology Matters: On the Tip of Your Tongue

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Easy

 

M/C Question 104
Professor Spiegelman regularly tells his students that reviewing all of their notes from a given unit on a nightly basis will help them on the next exam. “Avoid studying everything the night before the test, and instead study it all a little bit each night.” He tells them that they will save time and frustration in the long run, and will earn better grades. Professor Spiegelman is encouraging his students to use

  1. a)  the whole method.
  2. b)  massed practice.
  3. c)  the serial position effect.
  4. d)  distributed learning.
  5. e)  SQ4R.

 

ANS: d

Objective=Core Concept 5.4

Topic=Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Skill=Applying

Difficulty=Medium

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