Psychology Core Concepts 7th Edition by Philip G. Zimbardo – Test Bank

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Chapter 05: Memory

 

1.0 – Chapter 05 Multiple Choice

 

  1. ________ refers to the term for any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information.
  2. Perception
  3. Processing
  4. Learning
  5. Memory
  6. Sensation

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 172

Topic: What Is Memory?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: d. Memory

 

  1. Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are
  2. receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage.
  3. the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response.
  4. bottom-up processing, selective attention, and top-down processing.
  5. acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery.
  6. elaboration, maintenance, interference.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 173

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5. 1

 

Answer: a. receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage.

 

  1. Psychologists see memory as a(n) ________ system.
  2. learning

Incorrect. We certainly must learn, or be exposed, to information to encode it into memory, but this is not the best answer.

  1. interpretive

Correct. Memory is responsible for taking in certain information while discarding other. That which is taken in is arranged into meaningful patterns.

  1. cognition
  2. imitation
  3. homeostasis

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 173

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: b. interpretive

 

  1. Memory is considered to
  2. involve storage of information as in a bank vault.
  3. operate just like a video recorder.
  4. be a perfect replication of our experiences.

Incorrect. As your text points out in several different areas, memory is anything but perfect!

  1. be an interpretative process.

Correct. Memory is responsible for taking in certain information while discarding other. That which is taken in is arranged into meaningful patterns.

  1. be a permanent form of information storage.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 173

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: d. be an interpretative process.

 

  1. The reason it may be difficult to remember how many rows of stars appear on the United States flag is most likely due to
  2. the limits of our visual system.
  3. sensory adaptation.

Incorrect. Sensory adaptation is not related to your inability to remember things to which you’ve paid less than full attention.

  1. the fact that we pay little attention to such details.

Correct. Attention is the first step in encoding. Only that to which we pay true attention is likely to create any real memory codes.

  1. habituation.
  2. sensory interference.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 173

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: c. the fact that we pay little attention to such details.

 

  1. Our memory ability is WORST for
  2. information which we focused our attention on.
  3. information in which we are interested.

Incorrect. As your authors point out, interest leads to attention, and attention is critical for effective memory skills.

  1. emotionally arousing information.
  2. information that we have practiced repeatedly.
  3. information that doesn’t fit with previous experiences.

Correct. This sort of consistency between new information and previously stored data enhances memory processes.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 173

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: e. information that doesn’t fit with previous experiences.

 

  1. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ________model of memory.
  2. information-processing
  3. top-down storage
  4. classical conditioning
  5. Tolman’s cognitive
  6. Atkinson and Shiffrin

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. information-processing

 

  1. The key tasks of a memory system are to
  2. encode, store, and retrieve.
  3. perceive, chunk, and recall.
  4. sense, understand, and rehearse.
  5. process, rearrange, and simplify.
  6. be exposed to, combine, and consider.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. encode, store, and retrieve.

 

  1. When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called
  2. encoding.
  3. storage.
  4. retrieval.
  5. evaluation.
  6. rehearsal.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. encoding.

 

  1. The first step in the memory process is ________information in a form that the memory system can use
  2. encoding.
  3. storing.
  4. retrieving.
  5. evaluating.
  6. transduction.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. encoding.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of the memory process of encoding?
  2. A stimulus is identified during encoding.
  3. Encoding requires conscious attention.
  4. Emotionally charged experiences are easily encoded.
  5. Encoding involves linking a new concept with one already in memory.
  6. B and D are correct.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: b. Encoding requires conscious attention.

 

  1. During the memory process of ________, we select, identify, and label an experience.
  2. retrieval
  3. storage
  4. access
  5. processing
  6. encoding

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: e. encoding

 

  1. New information is related to older memory information during the memory process of
  2. retrieval.
  3. encoding.
  4. storage.
  5. elaboration.
  6. rehearsing.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: d. elaboration.

 

  1. The memory process of ________ involves the retention of information over time.
  2. retrieval
  3. storage
  4. access
  5. processing
  6. encoding

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: b. storage

 

  1. Our ability to retain encoded material over time is known as
  2. storage.
  3. recognition.
  4. recall.
  5. declarative memory.
  6. chunking.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. storage.

 

  1. The memory process of ________ involves the location and recovery of information from your memory.
  2. retrieval
  3. storage
  4. access
  5. processing
  6. encoding

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. retrieval

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about retrieval?
  2. It is a process that allows an extinguished CR to recover.
  3. It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.

Correct. Retrieval gets information back into consciousness.

  1. It is a process of getting information from the sensory receptors to the brain.

Incorrect. No, this answer describes the process known as encoding.

  1. It is the reason that conditioned taste aversions last so long.
  2. It is the process of making sure that stored memories do not decay.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: b. It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.

 

  1. Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth, but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers the fifth point, but it is too late. Janie had a problem with
  2. translation
  3. storage

Incorrect. She did have the information so it was stored. However, she couldn’t retrieve it.

  1. retrieval

Correct. Yes, she couldn’t find the information in her memory or retrieve it.

  1. evaluation
  2. interpolation

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: c. retrieval

 

  1. Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin’s problem is the ________ component of memory.
  2. encoding
  3. storage
  4. retrieval

Correct. He cannot bring forth, or retrieve, information that he has in memory when he needs it.

  1. retention

Incorrect. He does retain the information, or have it in memory, but he can’t retrieve it.

  1. metacognition

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: c. retrieval

 

  1. Trying to remember someone’s name whom you met long ago is an example of what type of process?
  2. storage
  3. retrieval

Correct. Pulling previously stored information out of memory is retrieval.

  1. encoding

Incorrect. The process of putting information into memory storage is encoding.

  1. decoding
  2. processing

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: b. retrieval

 

  1. Which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?
  2. a table
  3. a modem
  4. a rainbow

Incorrect. Eidetic imagery is more like a photograph and is even called photographic memory.

  1. a photograph

Correct. Yes, it’s like a picture and is sometimes called photographic memory.

  1. a filing cabinet

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Psychology Matters: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: d. a photograph

 

 

 

 

  1. Another term for eidetic imagery is
  2. photographic memory.
  3. recognition.
  4. episodic memory.
  5. engram.
  6. implicit memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 175

Topic: Psychology Matters: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 1.2

 

Answer: a. photographic memory.

 

  1. An eidetic image will fade from memory if you
  2. describe it.

Correct. The visual nature of eidetic memory seems to be interfered with by verbal descriptions.

  1. think about it.
  2. are aware of it.
  3. view it for too long.
  4. rehearse it.

Incorrect. Your authors do not discuss a relationship between eidetic memories and rehearsal processes.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 176

Topic: Psychology Matters: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: a. describe it.

 

  1. The three memory stages, in order of processing, are:
  2. sensory; cognitive; short term
  3. sensory; working; short term
  4. sensory; working; long term
  5. working; long term; short term
  6. recall; recognition; rehearsal

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 177

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. sensory; working; long term

 

  1. When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for a brief period, the phone number is thought to reside within ________ memory.
  2. sensory

Incorrect. The duration of sensory memory for auditory events is just a couple of seconds. This is not the best answer.

  1. working

Correct. Working, or short-term, memory is where we store information for 20-30 seconds while we decide whether to move it to long-term memory.

  1. gustatory
  2. procedural
  3. long-term

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 177

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. working

 

  1. A sensory memory is an impression formed from
  2. input from any of the senses.
  3. thoughts and feelings of early childhood.
  4. cognitions.
  5. reinforcers.
  6. chunking.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 177

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. input from any of the senses.

 

  1. ________ memories are the most fleeting.
  2. Motor
  3. Working
  4. Long-term
  5. Eidetic
  6. Sensory

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 177

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. Sensory

 

  1. A person’s total knowledge of the world and of the self is contained within
  2. photographic memory.
  3. eidetic imagery.
  4. declarative memory.
  5. long-term memory.
  6. maintenance rehearsal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 177-178

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. long-term memory.

 

  1. The stream of information from your foot is first passed through ________ memory.
  2. working

Incorrect. A bit of stimulus must pass through sensory memory before it gets to working memory.

  1. declarative
  2. procedural
  3. sensory

Correct. Sensory memory refers to the first “place” information enters our memory system, and there it is stored in its pure sensory form.

  1. photographic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 178

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. sensory

 

  1. Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment?
  2. primary memory
  3. sensory memory
  4. long-term memory
  5. working memory
  6. eidetic memory

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 177-179

Topic: How Do We Form Memories?; The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. sensory memory

 

  1. The storage capacity of working memory
  2. is smaller than both sensory and long-term memory.
  3. is larger than both sensory and long-term memory.
  4. varies more than both sensory and long-term memory.
  5. is larger than sensory memory, but smaller than long-term memory.
  6. is larger than long-term memory, but smaller than sensory memory.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 178 (Table 5.1)

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. is smaller than both sensory and long-term memory.

 

  1. Sperling’s study involving recall of an array of 12 letters suggested that the actual capacity of sensory memory can be
  2. 2 or 3 items.
  3. 7 (plus or minus 2) items.
  4. limitless.
  5. 12 or more items.
  6. about 7 chunks.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. 12 or more items.

 

  1. Were sensory memories to last longer than normal,

 

  1. we would need more working memory.
  2. our senses would not work together.
  3. we would become overloaded by the amount of incoming information.

Correct. The rapid fading of sensory memories is, as your authors point out, very adaptive to human beings.

  1. it would ultimately destroy cortical neurons.

Incorrect. There is nothing in your chapter that supports this idea.

  1. sensory memory would be able to hold more information.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. we would become overloaded by the amount of incoming information.

 

  1. Why did research participants in Sperling’s experiment recall so few letters stored in iconic memory?
  2. They stopped paying attention after a few stimuli.
  3. Proactive interference reduced the effectiveness of recall.

Incorrect. Interference wasn’t relevant to iconic memory.

  1. The stress of participating in this research became excessive.
  2. The remaining stimuli quickly faded from iconic memory.

Correct. The stimuli faded quickly before they could be read.

  1. Because participants were not able to recall more than 1 or 2 of the letters during each trial.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. The remaining stimuli quickly faded from iconic memory.

 

  1. A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess?
  2. primary memory
  3. iconic memory

Correct. This was one of the first sensory memory experiments ever done.

  1. long-term memory
  2. working memory

Incorrect. Testing working memory was done with verbal items in a list form.

  1. eidetic memory

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. iconic memory

 

  1. The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in
  2. echoic memory.
  3. iconic memory.

Correct. Iconic memory is sensory and the first stage of the memory systems.

  1. long-term memory.
  2. working memory.

Incorrect. This storage location is not first, as the sensory memory system of iconic memory comes before it.

  1. nociceptive memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. iconic memory.

 

  1. Long ago, during the early days of television, when a television set was turned off it took a while for the last image that was on the screen to fade away. This phenomenon is most like
  2. iconic memory.

Correct. Iconic memory is like a fading image.

  1. echoic memory.

Incorrect. Echoic memory is concerned with hearing and not vision.

  1. working memory.
  2. long-term memory.
  3. semantic memory.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. iconic memory.

 

 

 

 

  1. Using the partial report method, Sperling found the capacity of iconic memory to be around
  2. four or five items.
  3. nine or ten items.
  4. all the letters present.
  5. one to two items.
  6. seven plus or minus two items.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. all the letters present.

 

  1. The key to the partial report method of Sperling’s study of iconic memory was to
  2. have the participants report the entire matrix of letters they saw as fast as they could.
  3. have the participants report the entire matrix of letters but mask the letters after presentation with a very bright light.
  4. cue the participants, using a tone, as to which line of the matrix they were to report.
  5. test the use of chunking.
  6. test the use of elaborative rehearsal.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. cue the participants, using a tone, as to which line of the matrix they were to report.

 

  1. Iconic memory is to echoic memory as
  2. implicit is to explicit.
  3. auditory is to visual.

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. visual is to auditory.

Correct. Iconic memory refers to the visual sensory memory, while echoic memory refers to auditory sensory memory.

  1. quick is to slow.
  2. smell is to taste.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. visual is to auditory.

 

  1. Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy’s ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her
  2. iconic sensory memory.
  3. echoic sensory memory.

Correct. Auditory information is first put into echoic memory.

  1. working memory.

Incorrect. Working memory is the stage that occurs after echoic sensory memory, which is being used here.

  1. tactile sensory memory.
  2. gustatory sensory memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. echoic sensory memory.

 

  1. The sensory register for vision is called ________ memory, whereas the sensory register for hearing is called ________ memory.
  2. declarative; procedural
  3. olfactory; auditory
  4. implicit; explicit
  5. explicit; implicit
  6. iconic; echoic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 179

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. iconic; echoic

 

 

 

 

  1. Which memory system is the one that is a working, active system that processes the information within it?
  2. long-term memory
  3. working memory
  4. secondary memory
  5. cognitive memory
  6. phenomenological memory

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. working memory

 

  1. Typically, information is held in working memory for about
  2. 5 to 10 seconds.
  3. 20 to 30 seconds.
  4. 2 to 3 minutes.
  5. an hour or two.
  6. about 1 day.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. 20 to 30 seconds.

 

  1. The capacity of working memory is about ________ items.
  2. 3
  3. 7
  4. 11
  5. 20
  6. 30

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. 7

 

  1. What “magic number” did Miller find to be the capacity of working memory?
  2. 11
  3. 9
  4. 7
  5. 5
  6. 3

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. 7

 

  1. Because of the limited capacity of ________, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush-hour.
  2. sensory memory

Incorrect. The best answer to this question would require a memory storage facility that had a longer duration than just a couple of seconds, which is what sensory memory has.

  1. procedural memory
  2. episodic memory
  3. working memory

Correct. This reminds us that we are only capable of processing a limited number of data in working memory at any point, and the more we try to do the less effectively we do it. Therefore, please put down your phone while you drive, okay?

  1. echoic memory

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. working memory

 

  1. Jamal is trying to buy something over the phone. He asks his partner to read him his credit card number. However, when he tries to repeat it to the sales clerk on the other end of the line, he can’t remember all the numbers. Jamal is coming up against
  2. the decay of numerical memory

Incorrect. Numerical memory is not a term in current usage.

  1. the extinction of auditory traces.
  2. George Miller’s magic number 7, plus or minus 2.

Correct. Credit card numbers are too long for working memory, according to Miller.

  1. the limits of procedural memory.
  2. the problem of absent-mindedness.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. George Miller’s magic number 7, plus or minus 2.

 

  1. Suppose Tamika looks up a number in the telephone book. After getting a busy signal, a minute or so later she tries to call again – but has already forgotten the number! This example illustrates the limited duration of ________ memory.
  2. sensory
  3. working

Correct. Working memory has a duration of approximately20 to 30 seconds if information is not rehearsed.

  1. echoic

Incorrect. Echoic memory refers to auditory sensory memory, which only lasts a second or two.

  1. implicit
  2. procedural

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. working

 

  1. A ________ is any pattern or meaningful unit of information.
  2. schema
  3. bit
  4. code
  5. chunk
  6. morpheme

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. chunk

 

  1. Two strategies that are useful in dealing with the limits of working memory are to
  2. encode and process.
  3. chunk and rehearse.
  4. recall and recognize.
  5. relearn and retrieve.
  6. prime and repress.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. chunk and rehearse.

 

  1. What are the two major types of rehearsal (for moving information from working to long-term memory)?
  2. condensed and expanded
  3. elaborative and permanent
  4. maintenance and permanent
  5. elaborative and maintenance
  6. semantic and episodic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. elaborative and maintenance

 

  1. Maintenance rehearsal is defined as
  2. processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered.
  3. analyzing new material in order to make it memorable.
  4. associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory.
  5. repeating some bit of information over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in working memory.
  6. creating a “photograph” of a stimulus and storing it in a visual format.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. repeating some bit of information over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in working memory.

 

  1. Repeating items over and over in order to aid memory is known as ______ rehearsal.
  2. repetitive
  3. imagery
  4. elaborative
  5. maintenance
  6. self-referent

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. maintenance

 

  1. You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?
  2. condensed
  3. permanent
  4. elaborative

Incorrect. In maintenance rehearsal, items to be remembered are repeated over and over again inside a person’s head. Elaborative rehearsal is a better strategy.

  1. maintenance

Correct. Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating bits of information to aid memory. In maintenance rehearsal, items to be remembered are repeated over and over again inside a person’s head, but it is not a good strategy.

  1. implicit

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. maintenance

 

  1. Bonnie is trying to remember what grocery items she needs from the stores. She repeats the words, “Eggs, cookies, bread, tortillas, and pretzels” over and over again in her mind. Bonnie is utilizing which memory technique?
  2. elaborative rehearsal

Incorrect. If Bonnie came up with a way of making the items she needed more connected to something already stored in her long-term memory, this would demonstrate elaborative rehearsal.

  1. transduction
  2. maintenance rehearsal

Correct. The rote repetition of a stimulus to keep it from fading from working memory is called maintenance rehearsal.

  1. chunking
  2. retroactive interference

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. maintenance rehearsal

 

  1. Luiz is being asked to remember a series of the following 15 letters: FOXHOWLSWANTBUG. He finds this to be easier to remember as the four words “fox howls want bug,” rather than 15 individual letters. Luiz has used a process known as
  2. maintenance rehearsal.
  3. long-term potentiation.
  4. recognition.
  5. chunking.

Correct. Creating meaningful groups out of individual bits of information is chunking.

  1. eidetic imagery.

Incorrect. Eidetic imagery is more akin to what most people think of as photographic memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. chunking.

 

  1. _______ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to _______ rehearsal.
  2. Permanent; condensed
  3. Condensed; permanent
  4. Elaborative; maintenance

Correct. Elaborative rehearsal leads to longer-lasting memories than does maintenance rehearsal, because the deeper the processing, the better the memory.

  1. Maintenance; elaborative

Incorrect. Elaborative rehearsal leads to longer-lasting memories than does maintenance rehearsal. Repeating items over and over, as in maintenance rehearsal, has not been found to be very effective.

  1. Semantic; episodic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. Elaborative; maintenance

 

  1. You are learning a list of items for a test by relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory. Which type of rehearsal are you using?
  2. condensed
  3. permanent
  4. maintenance

Incorrect. Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating the items over and over in your head. Elaborative rehearsal, which involves relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory, is a much better strategy.

  1. elaborative

Correct. Elaborative rehearsal involves relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory, and it is the best strategy for getting information into long-term memory.

  1. proactive

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. elaborative

 

  1. Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in working memory through the process of
  2. chunking.
  3. categorizing .
  4. rote rehearsal.
  5. cueing.
  6. priming.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. chunking.

 

  1. If one wants to increase the capacity of working memory, more items can be held through the process of
  2. chunking.
  3. decoding.
  4. rote rehearsal.
  5. data compression.
  6. priming.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. chunking.

 

  1. Chunking is a means of
  2. immediately forgetting irrelevant details.
  3. combining information into meaningful units.
  4. arranging details into a hierarchy from most to least important.
  5. storing long-term memories.
  6. keeping information active in working memory indefinitely.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. combining information into meaningful units.

 

  1. When test subjects are asked to recall a list of letters they have just seen, the mistakes they make often involve letters that sound similar to the displayed letters. These mistakes are probably due to
  2. retrograde amnesia.
  3. acoustic coding.

Correct. The similarities in the sounds of letters can interfere with accurate encoding of the various stimuli.

  1. retroactive interference during transfer from echoic to iconic memory.
  2. the serial position effect.

Incorrect. This refers to the tendency to remember items in a list better or worse depending on where each item falls in a list.

  1. the tip-of-the tongue phenomenon.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 182

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. acoustic coding.

 

  1. Suppose you’re pitching in a baseball game facing a good hitter. You remember that you struck him out with a fastball the last time he was up. You also remember that your coach told you always to try to be unpredictable, so you decide to throw a curve ball this time. In making this decision, you are primarily using your
  2. central executive.

Correct. The central executive is the part of our working memory that helps us with organization and decision-making.

  1. fight-or-flight response.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question deals with the fight-or-flight response of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. modality-specific memory.
  2. long-term potentiation.
  3. encoding executive.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 182

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. central executive.

 

  1. The fact that letters that sound similar can create memory distortions after they are encoded is one of the problems with the fact that information in working memory is encoded:
  2. verbally
  3. visually
  4. gustatorily.
  5. physically
  6. semantically

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. verbally

 

  1. Bob sells lamps for a living. In order to help people remember his telephone number, he requests the number 981-5267. Bob advertises his number as 981-LAMP. Bob is hoping that ________ will aid his customers in remembering his phone number.
  2. recognition
  3. recall
  4. maintenance rehearsal

Incorrect. If Bob simply repeated the same phone number over and over again, this would demonstrate maintenance rehearsal.

  1. elaborative rehearsal

Correct. By creating a connection between a new stimulus and a previously known stimulus, Bob has used elaborative rehearsal.

  1. engrams

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. elaborative rehearsal

 

  1. The best strategy by which to transfer information from working memory to long-term memory is to engage in
  2. eidetic imagery.
  3. maintenance rehearsal.
  4. long-term potentiation.
  5. elaborative rehearsal.
  6. repression.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 181

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. elaborative rehearsal.

 

  1. Suppose you’re pitching in a baseball game facing a good hitter. You remember that you struck him out with a fastball the last time he was up. You also remember that your coach told you always to try to be unpredictable, so you decide to throw a curve ball this time. In making this decision, you are primarily using your
  2. central executive.

Correct. The central executive is the part of our working memory that helps us with organization and decision-making.

  1. fight-or-flight response.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question deals with the fight-or-flight response of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. modality-specific memory.
  2. long-term potentiation.
  3. phonological loop.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 182

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. central executive.

 

  1. Which memory system is best conceived of as three interrelated systems: central executive, sketchpad, and phonological loop?
  2. sensory memory
  3. working memory
  4. long-term memory
  5. procedural memory
  6. episodic memory

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 182-183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. working memory

 

  1. In the levels-of-processing model of memory, information that gets processed at a ________ level (such as accessing the meaning of a word or phrase) is more likely to be retained longer and form a stronger memory than information that is processed at a ________ level (such as the visual characteristics of a word.
  2. deeper; shallower

Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. shallower; deeper

Incorrect. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. higher; lower
  2. lower; higher
  3. semantic; episodic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: deeper; shallower

 

  1. According to the levels-of-processing model, we are most likely to remember information that we process at a ________level.
  2. deeper

Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. medium
  2. shallower

Incorrect.  According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.

  1. personal
  2. any of these, depending on the information

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. deeper

 

  1. The levels-of-processing model would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word “frog”?
  2. “Does it rhyme with blog?”
  3. “Is it in capital letters?”

Incorrect. This question requires a shallower level of processing and that leads to poorer memory.

  1. “Is it written in cursive?”
  2. “Would it be found in a pond?”

Correct. This question requires a deeper level of processing as it engages meaning. Meaning is seen as a deeper level of processing, which leads to better memory.

  1. “Have I seen this before?”

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. “Would it be found in a pond?”

 

 

  1. Which of the following examples represents the shallowest processing as described by Craik and Lockhart?
  2. recalling an object’s function
  3. attending to the appearance of a word

Correct. Thinking about the appearance of a word is a shallower thought process than thinking about its meaning.

  1. thinking about the meaning of a word

Incorrect. Thinking about meaning requires a deeper level of processing than does thinking about more superficial aspects of the word itself, such as its appearance.

  1. recalling that an object was rectangular
  2. considering whether an object is novel or familiar

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. attending to the appearance of a word

 

  1. Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
  2. levels-of-processing model

Correct. Levels of processing refer to the level of processing depth.

  1. parallel distributed processing model
  2. information-processing model

Incorrect. Information processing isn’t necessarily concerned with the depth of a thought process.

  1. three stage

            e. the flashbulb model

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. levels-of-processing model

 

  1. Which of the following examples represents deep processing as described by the levels-of-processing model?
  2. repeating a word aloud ten times
  3. attending to the sound of a word

Incorrect. Attending to the sound of a word is not a deep level of processing, as it takes place at the perceptual level.

  1. thinking about the meaning of a word

Correct. Thinking about a word’s meaning requires a deeper level of processing.

  1. looking at the shapes of the letters in a word
  2. considering what words a sound “sounds like”

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. thinking about the meaning of a word

 

  1. Micah is trying to remember the specific route he took to the library the night before. What part of working memory is he accessing?
  2. the articulatory loop

Incorect. The articulatory loop is the part of working memory that deals with immediate auditory information.

  1. the sketchpad

Correct. The sketchpad is part of the working memory that deals with immediate visual or graphical information

  1. the internal executive
  2. the control sequence
  3. the central rehearsal strategem

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. the sketchpad

 

  1. The ________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall.
  2. levels-of-processing

Correct. In other words, the more deeply we process a stimulus, the more likely it is that we’ll have an accurate memory of that stimulus at a later time.

  1. engram
  2. spatial analyses
  3. distributed learning
  4. mood-congruent

Incorrect. This theory suggests that the memories we retrieve will be selectively matched to our mood at the time of retrieval.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. levels-of-processing

 

  1. According to the levels-of-processing theory, if Jon wanted Maqsood to remember the sentences “At first, it is better to run than to walk, ” “Birds seldom get too close,” and “A rock can be used as an anchor,” he should
  2. encourage Maqsood to pay attention to the sound of each word.

Incorrect. This would actually encourage Maqsood to process the sentences at a very shallow level, and this would not stimulate effective remembering.

  1. ask Maqsood to underline all of the three-letter words.
  2. have Maqsood alphabetize the words in each sentence.
  3. tell Maqsood the sentences all refer to kite-flying.

Correct. By creating meaning, Jon has helped Maqsood process the sentences at the deepest level. This will help him remember them more effectively.

  1. test Maqsood’s memory immediately.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 183

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. tell Maqsood the sentences all refer to kite-flying.

 

  1. Working memory involves activity in circuits located with the ________ of the brain.
  2. temporal lobe
  3. parietal lobe
  4. cerebellum
  5. corpus callosum
  6. frontal cortex

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 183-184

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. frontal cortex

 

  1. General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as parts of
  2. episodic memory.
  3. procedural memories.
  4. declarative memories.
  5. semantic memory.
  6. explicit memory.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. semantic memory.

 

  1. Long-term memory is thought to have
  2. a limited capacity of approximately 1000 items.
  3. an unlimited capacity.
  4. a large chunking capacity.
  5. a repressed capacity.
  6. a seven-item capacity.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. an unlimited capacity.

 

  1. The two main forms of long-term memory are
  2. recognition and recall.
  3. encoding and rehearsal.
  4. procedural and declarative memory.
  5. semantic and episodic memory.
  6. immediate and eventual memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. procedural and declarative memory.

 

  1. ________ memory is the LTM subsystem that stores specific information such as facts and events in our lives.
  2. Episodic
  3. Semantic
  4. Eventual
  5. Procedural
  6. Declarative

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. Declarative

 

  1. The text suggests that ________ is a good analogy for LTM.
  2. a computer hard drive
  3. the index of a book
  4. a library catalog
  5. the nodes of the internet

Incorrect. There is nothing in your textbook that compares the internet to LTM.

  1. a mental scaffold

Correct. The more associations you make in memory, the more information you can store there.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. a mental scaffold

 

  1. ________ memory is the LTM subsystem that stores memory for how things are done.
  2. Episodic
  3. Semantic
  4. Eventual
  5. Procedural
  6. Declarative

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. Procedural

 

 

 

  1. A guitarist uses ________ to recall how to play the notes of a specific song.
  2. episodic memory
  3. procedural memory

Correct. When you remember “how to” do something, you are having a procedural memory.

  1. semantic memory
  2. a flashbulb memory

Incorrect. A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed and vivid memory of an emotionally impactful event.

  1. mnemonics

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 184

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. procedural memory

 

  1. The two subdivisions of declarative memory are ________ memory, which stores personal information, and ________ memory, which stores the meanings of words and concepts.
  2. episodic; explicit
  3. episodic; semantic
  4. semantic; episodic
  5. implicit; semantic
  6. implicit; explicit

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. episodic; semantic

 

  1. Personal facts and memories of one’s personal history are parts of
  2. episodic memory.
  3. procedural memories.
  4. declarative memories.
  5. semantic memory.
  6. implicit memory.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. episodic memory.

 

  1. Your memory of how much fun you had last spring break is an example of
  2. semantic memory.

Incorrect. Semantic memory is the memory of general facts or bits of information about the world around us. They are not unique to an individual person.

  1. chunking.
  2. procedural memory.
  3. episodic memory.

Correct. Episodic memory refers to our own personal memories of the experiences we’ve had. They are your memories, and yours alone!

  1. sensory memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. episodic memory.

 

 

  1. Remembering your first day of college classes is an example of ________ memories.
  2. episodic

Correct. Episodic memory refers to memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance.

  1. semantic

Incorrect. Semantic memory includes general knowledge, language, and concepts, among other things.

  1. working
  2. implicit
  3. explicit

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. episodic

 

 

 

  1. Jesse still has very vivid memories of his first romantic kiss. This example illustrates a specific form of ________ memory known as a(n) ________ memory.
  2. semantic; autobiographical
  3. episodic; autobiographical

Correct. Autobiographical memories refer to memories of things that have occurred in our own lives.

  1. semantic; personal
  2. episodic; personal

Incorrect.  The form of episodic memory that is referred to in this question is called autobiographical, not personal memory.

  1. proactive; retroactive

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. episodic; autobiographical

 

  1. ________ most clearly resembles an encyclopedia in terms of its content.
  2. Procedural memory

Incorrect. Procedural memory stores our knowledge of how to accomplish specific tasks. It is the remembering of procedures.

  1. Priming
  2. Implicit memory
  3. Distributed learning
  4. Semantic memory

Correct. Semantic memory stores our knowledge of general facts or information about the world around us.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. Semantic memory

 

  1. Recalling the definition of long-term memory is an example of
  2. episodic memory.

Incorrect. Episodic memory refers to memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance.

  1. semantic memory.

Correct. Semantic memory refers to the memory of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world.

  1. working memory.
  2. implicit memory.
  3. procedural memory.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. semantic memory.

 

  1. In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is
  2. procedural.
  3. semantic.

Correct. Semantic memory concerns common knowledge.

  1. episodic.
  2. working.

Incorrect. The type of memory needed to access the answers to these kinds of questions is semantic and not a form of working memory. Working, or working, memory is not permanent.

  1. autobiographical.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. semantic.

 

  1. Which of these is an example of what has been called childhood amnesia?
  2. Betty, age 25, can recall only good memories of what happened when she was 4

to 5 years old.

  1. Johnny, age 10, has no memory of a family vacation that occurred when he was

2 years old.

Correct. Childhood amnesia refers to the tendency to not remember things that happened before the age of 3.

  1. When faced with a horrible stressor, some people return to an earlier stage of

development, such as infancy, for the comfort that it provides.

  1. Despite the fact that Alice, age 35, played the piano from ages 3 through 13, she

has very little ability to do so now.

Incorrect. Childhood amnesia doesn’t refer to skills; rather, it refers to the tendency to not remember things that happened before the age of 3.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 186

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. Johnny, age 10, has no memory of a family vacation that occurred when he was 2 years old.

 

  1. The physical trace that is the biological basis of memory is known as a(n)
  2. phoneme.
  3. schema.
  4. long-term potentiation.
  5. engram.
  6. phosgene.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. engram.

 

  1. Patient H.M. is unable to form ________ memories as a result of the removal of his ________.
  2. declarative; hippocampus and amygdala
  3. semantic; medulla
  4. procedural; thalamus
  5. declarative; frontal cortex
  6. implicit; cerebellum

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. declarative; hippocampus and amygdala

 

  1. A patient’s chart indicates he just had surgery to remove his hippocampus as a result of a tumor. What change do you anticipate in the patient after the operation?
  2. The patient will not be able to process colors.
  3. The patient will have problems experiencing hunger.
  4. The patient will not be able to remember new information.

Correct. Damage to the hippocampus results in long-term memory problems.

  1. The patient will not be able to perform tasks such as block designs.

Incorrect. The patient will not be able to remember new information because the hippocampus is crucial in storing information in long-term memory.

            e. The patient will not be able to remember “physical” memories.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. The patient will not be able to remember new information.

 

  1. A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer’s family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?
  2. proactive amnesia
  3. anterograde amnesia

Correct. Anterograde amnesia occurs when new long-term memories cannot be formed.

  1. retrograde amnesia

Incorrect. Retrograde amnesia deals with not being able to get old information out of storage.

  1. retroactive amnesia
  2. pernicious amnesia

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. anterograde amnesia

 

  1. Loss of memory from the point of injury or illness forward is called
  2. anterograde amnesia.
  3. retrograde amnesia.
  4. consolidation.
  5. infantile amnesia.
  6. eidetic amnesia.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. anterograde amnesia.

 

  1. Mateo is 70 years old and had a stroke last year. He is now unable to remember how to get to and return from his new doctors office using a specific route. What brain structure was potentially damaged by Mateo’s stroke?
  2. his amygdala

Incorrect. While the amygdala may be related to fear-based memories, the best answer to this question is the hippocampus.

  1. his hypothalamus
  2. his hippocampus

Correct. Research has found that the hippocampus is essential in the formation and encoding of new memories.

  1. his cerebellum
  2. his medulla

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. his hippocampus

 

  1. ________ refers to the inability to form new memories.
  2. Retrograde amnesia
  3. Anterograde amnesia
  4. Retroactive interference
  5. Proactive interference
  6. Repression

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. Anterograde amnesia

 

  1. If ________is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, ________ is like pushing the “save” key and having the document disappear instead of being stored.
  2. anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia

Incorrect. If retrograde amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, anterograde amnesia is like pushing the “save” key and having the document disappear instead.

  1. retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia

Correct. If retrograde amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, anterograde amnesia is like pushing the “save” key and having the document disappear instead.

  1. adolescent amnesia, conductive amnesia
  2. procedural amnesia, implicit amnesia
  3. implicit amnesia, explicit amnesia

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187-188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
  2. All memories are stored in one place in the brain.
  3. Memories are randomly distributed throughout the brain.
  4. Different parts of the brain are specialized for the storage of memories.
  5. Almost all memories are primarily stored in the brain stem.
  6. Though many structures contribute to memory, the destruction of the hypothalamus would destroy a person’s set of memory skills.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 187-188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. Different parts of the brain are specialized for the storage of memories.

 

  1. Recent neuroscientific research suggests that the amygdala plays an especially important role in
  2. sound learning.
  3. word meaning.
  4. classical conditioning.
  5. creating memories that have strong emotional associations.
  6. taste learning.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer : d. creating memories that have strong emotional associations.

 

 

  1. An emotionally arousing event will cause
  2. people to repress the memory of the event.

Incorrect. There is nothing presented by your authors to support this answer.

  1. difficulties in retrieving the memory.
  2. interference with episodic memory, but not semantic memory.
  3. an enhanced ability to remember the event.

Correct. Perhaps it is because those emotions draw our attention to that event, and as your authors have stated attention is the first key to effective remembering.

  1. long-term potentiation to diminish, thus increasing memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: d. an enhanced ability to remember the event.

 

  1. Retrograde amnesia involves ________ and can be caused by ________.
  2. memory distortion; meditation
  3. the loss of prior memory traces; head trauma
  4. the inability to transfer into LTM; head trauma
  5. the failure of semantic memory; abuse of alcohol
  6. the inability to transfer into LTM; cortical damage

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. the loss of prior memory traces; head trauma

 

  1. Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001, is an example of a(n)
  2. flashbulb memory.

Correct. These are memories of emotionally important or impactful events.

  1. semantic memory.
  2. procedural memory.

Incorrect. This question does not apply to remembering “how to” do something, so it is not referencing a procedural memory.

  1. implicit memory.
  2. sensory memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. flashbulb memory.

 

  1. Which of the following is true of flashbulb memories?
  2. They involve unusual events.
  3. They have strong emotional associations.
  4. They usually often consist of some personal involvement.
  5. They are no more accurate than everyday memories.
  6. All of the above are correct.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: e. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of a(n)
  2. eidetic image.

Incorrect. This is an example of a flashbulb memory. Eidetic images are perfect images formed by a person with photographic memory; they are of anything the person sees, not just highly significant events.

  1. flashbulb memory.

Correct. This is an example of a flashbulb memory, which is like a flash picture of a highly emotional event and is not always accurate.

  1. semantic memory.
  2. procedural memory.
  3. TOT memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. flashbulb memory.

 

 

 

 

  1. Flashbulb memories
  2. are not subject to periodic revision.
  3. usually concern events that are emotionally charged.
  4. are almost always highly accurate.
  5. usually concern events from early childhood.
  6. are more subject to decay than regular memories.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: b. usually concern events that are emotionally charged.

 

  1. Memories that concern events that are highly significant and are vividly remembered are called
  2. eidetic images.
  3. elaborative rehearsals.
  4. flashbulb memories.
  5. eyewitness images.
  6. engrams.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. flashbulb memories.

 

  1. Your memory for the moment you heard about the planes crashing into the World Trade Towers in New York would be most appropriately termed a(n) ________ memory.
  2. episodic
  3. autobiographical

Incorrect. While this memory may be autobiographical in nature, the best answer to this question is a flashbulb memory.

  1. flashbulb

Correct. This incredibly emotional memory would be an example of a flashbulb memory.

  1. repressed
  2. echoic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. flashbulb

 

  1. Which of the following statements about flashbulb memories is true?
  2. Flashbulb memories tend to be about as accurate as other types of memories.

Correct. Although researchers used to think of flashbulb memories were more accurate than other memories, recent research has debunked that belief.

  1. People feel unconfident about their recall of flashbulb memories.

Incorrect. In fact, while people’s confidence about the accuracy of flashbulb memories is very high, the actual accuracy of those memories is about equal to other types of memory.

  1. A major news event automatically causes a person to store a flashbulb memory.
  2. Your memory of how you felt at the onset of a flashbulb memory rarely changes over time.
  3. Flashbulb memories only occur for positive life events.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 189

Topic: Psychology Matters: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. Flashbulb memories tend to be about as accurate as other types of memories.

 

  1. We are always aware of ________ memory whereas ________ memory may be incidentally learned.
  2. semantic; episodic
  3. implicit; explicit

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. episodic; semantic
  2. explicit; implicit

Correct. Explicit memories are those that involve conscious effort, while implicit memories are those that occur automatically.

  1. semantic; procedural

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 191

Topic: How Do We Retrieve Memories?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: d. explicit; implicit

 

  1. ________ memory is an unconscious form of memory that can alter behavior.
  2. Semantic
  3. Implicit
  4. Episodic
  5. Explicit
  6. Declarative

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 191

Topic: How Do We Retrieve Memories?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: b. Implicit

 

  1. How do retrieval cues help you to remember?
  2. They provide inferences.
  3. They help chunk information.

Incorrect. Chunking is a process that is used in working memory. Cues are related to long-term memory.

  1. They direct you to relevant information stored in long term memory.

Correct. Cues help prime your long-term memory to find a specific piece of information that is needed.

  1. They provide numbers for ideas.
  2. They don’t – this is a placebo effect that leaves you feeling as if memory was aided when it really was not.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 191

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: c. They direct you to relevant information stored in long term memory.

 

  1. Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can’t remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president’s name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n)
  2. elaborative rehearsal cue.

Incorrect. You are not rehearsing or repeating anything in this task as you would in an elaborative rehearsal process.

  1. cross code.
  2. structural cue.
  3. retrieval cue.

Correct. The hint that made you think of the city of Cleveland helped you retrieve the name of Grover Cleveland.

  1. mnemonic cue.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 191

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: d. retrieval cue.

 

  1. When asked to recall the date of John Kennedy’s assassination, Peter draws a blank; however, when asked whether it was October 24, 1962, November 22, 1963, or February 1, 1965, he correctly answers with the second of the choices. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of
  2. state-dependent memory.
  3. retrieval cues.

Correct. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of retrieval cues as Peter probably had the date stored in memory and then just had to take a set of dates and check which one he had stored.

  1. cross links in deep structure.
  2. mnemonic devices.

Incorrect. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of retrieval cues. A mnemonic is a poem or acronym that aids memory through aiding retrieval

  1. mood-congruency.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 191

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: b. retrieval cues

 

  1. If I asked you what you ate for dinner on Saturday, it might be a difficult task. However, if I reminded you that you went to Outback Steakhouse with your mother and aunt, it may be easier to remember. Why is that?
  2. You have been provided with retrieval cues.

Correct. These external cues help to direct our long-term memories to where specific bits of information are stored.

  1. You are now relying on recognition rather than recall.

Incorrect. The distinction between recall and recognition is not at the heart of this question, but even if it was you’d be relying on recall rather than recognition.

  1. You are now utilizing procedural memory.
  2. There is no more proactive interference.
  3. You have used maintenance rehearsal to access the memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 191

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: a. You have been provided with retrieval cues.

 

  1. Ted asks Krystal to say the words “hop,” “pop,” and “mop.” Then, Ted asks Krystal, “What do you do at a green light?” Krystal quickly replies, “Stop,” (instead of the right answer: “Go”) because of
  2. recognition.
  3. encoding specificity.
  4. TOT phenomenon.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the temporary inability to recall information that a person knows they have stored in long-term memory.

  1. priming.

Correct. You have pre-set Krystal’s memory to call forth certain stimuli. This is known as priming.

  1. misattribution.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 192

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: d. priming.

 

  1. The ________ method of retrieval is used when you are asked to answer an essay question.
  2. implicit memory
  3. recognition
  4. recall
  5. memory traces
  6. procedural memory

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 192

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: c. recall

 

  1. Because ideas in LTM are stored in terms of meaning, a practical way to improve memory is to
  2. cut down on alcohol intake on study days.

Incorrect. While this may be very good advice, it is not specifically noted in your textbook.

  1. use only maintenance rehearsal when studying.
  2. study in a noisy crowded environment.
  3. wait until the last moment to learn new material.
  4. make the material meaningful when it is in working memory.

Correct. By doing this, which is called elaborative rehearsal, the information gets stored in a more logical arrangement in long-term memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 192

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: e. make the material meaningful when it is in working memory.

 

  1. Recall and recognition are examples of
  2. encoding methods.
  3. storage methods.
  4. retrieval methods.
  5. elaboration.
  6. organizational methods.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 192-193

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: c. retrieval methods.

 

  1. Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, ________ is a less demanding task than ________.
  2. recognition; recall

Correct. Recognition is an easier task than recall.

  1. recall; recognition

Incorrect. Recognition is an easier task than recall. Recognition always entails a hint that enables you to check the given answers against memory.

  1. priming; the savings method
  2. the savings method; priming
  3. a mnemonic; the method of loci

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: a. recognition; recall

 

  1. To answer this multiple choice question, you must use
  2. implicit memory.
  3. recognition.
  4. recall.
  5. procedural memory.
  6. the method of loci.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: b. recognition.

 

  1. Memories are encoded and stored in a context. The idea that the context of a memory can serve as a cue to aid retrieval is known as
  2. encoding specificity.
  3. transience.
  4. long-term potentiation.
  5. the TOT phenomenon.
  6. retrograde facilitation.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Other Factors Affecting Retrieval

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: a. encoding specificity.

 

  1. The best place to take your biology exam to ensure good retrieval of biology concepts is in
  2. the biology classroom

Correct. If you could take the test where you studied, that would be the best.

  1. an auditorium to prevent cheating
  2. the English classroom
  3. the special testing room used for all exams

Incorrect. The special testing room won’t give you any retrieval cues; the best place is in the biology classroom.

  1. silence

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Other Factors Affecting Retrieval

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. the biology classroom

 

  1. “The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved.” What concept does this statement describe?
  2. memorability
  3. registered learning

Incorrect. Encoding specificity is being described. Registered learning is not a real term.

  1. encoding specificity

Correct. Encoding specificity is being described as it refers to the similarity of the learning and testing situation and how it aids performance.

  1. accessible decoding
  2. mood congruency

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Other Factors Affecting Retrieval

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: c. encoding specificity

 

  1. The observation that depressed people tend to favor recall of depressing memories is known as ________ memory.
  2. sociopathic
  3. anterograde
  4. mood-congruent

Correct. This concept suggests that memories that are retrieved are selectively consistent with the mood we’re in at the time of retrieval.

  1. retrograde
  2. encoding specificity

Incorrect. This concept emphasizes the need for consistency between the details of an encoding situation and the details of the retrieval situation.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 193

Topic: Other Factors Affecting Retrieval

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: c. mood-congruent

 

  1. The TOT phenomenon occurs when
  2. a flood of memories enter consciousness.
  3. memories interfere with one another.
  4. the order of presentation impacts recall.
  5. you know a word but cannot name it.
  6. a person strongly believes that incorrect memories are accurate.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 194

Topic: Psychology Matters: On the Tip of Your Tongue

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: d. you know a word but cannot name it.

 

  1. Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War. Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it is something like taxes. Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of a sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from
  2. encoding problems

Incorrect. Janie was suffering from tip-of-the-tongue effects. She probably had encoded the information, but she couldn’t find it; thus, it was a retrieval problem.

  1. storage inversion
  2. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Correct. Janie was suffering from the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon as she felt the information was almost ready to be said or on the tip of her tongue.

  1. evaluation overload
  2. anterograde amnesia

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 194-195

Topic: Psychology Matters: On the Tip of Your Tongue

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: c. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding TOT experiences is FALSE?
  2. They often involve the names of famous people or familiar objects.

Incorrect. This is a common feature of TOT events.

  1. They typically involve recognition tasks.

Correct. Your textbook does not suggest that TOT is more common for recognition tasks than for recall tasks.

  1. About half the time, the words do eventually pop into mind.
  2. When words are finally remembered, it is usually within one minute.
  3. They may be explained by inadequate context cues.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 195

Topic: Psychology Matters: On the Tip of Your Tongue

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 1.2

 

Answer: b. They typically involve recognition tasks.

 

  1. The TOT phenomenon is explained as due to a weak match between
  2. retrieval cues and encoding in LTM.

Correct. If the hints we’re given are not adequate to prompt the memory we’re seeking, we may experience the TOT phenomenon.

  1. mnemonics and engrams.
  2. semantic memory and recall.
  3. implicit and explicit memory.

Incorrect. There is nothing in the text’s discussion of the TOT phenomenon that involves a match between implicit and explicit memories.

  1. episodic memory and recognition.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 195

Topic: Psychology Matters: On the Tip of Your Tongue

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: a. retrieval cues and encoding in LTM.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Daniel Schacter’s “seven sins” of memory?
  2. bias
  3. absent-mindedness
  4. suggestibility
  5. encoding failure
  6. transience

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 196-202

Topic: Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. encoding failure

 

  1. If you are unable to remember the name of your second grade teacher because you haven’t thought of her in awhile, you are demonstrating
  2. the serial position effect.

Incorrect. This refers to the tendency to remember items in the middle of a list less effectively than remembering items at the start and end of that list.

  1. transience.

Correct. Transience refers to the impermanence of long-term memories.

  1. misattribution.
  2. absent-mindedness.
  3. encoding specificity.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. transience.

 

  1. Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten
  2. more rapidly as time goes by.
  3. gradually at first, then with increasing speed.
  4. quickly at first, then tapers off gradually.
  5. most quickly one day after learning.
  6. at a constant pace over time.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. quickly at first, then tapers off gradually.

 

  1. Your teacher has given each student the name of a key figure in the history of psychology. The assignment is to describe at least one significant contribution made by this person. If your historical figure is Hermann Ebbinghaus, what contribution might you describe to the class?
  2. He described the limits of sensory storage.

Incorrect. Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables that were crucial to studying learning. Sperling was crucial in the study of sensory storage.

  1. He discovered the parts of the brain responsible for processing memories.
  2. He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a “pure” form.

Correct. Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables that were crucial to studying learning.

  1. He developed a series of memory aids that is still used by students today.
  2. His development of the fMRI to test brain activity during memory tasks.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a “pure” form.

 

  1. You are invited to take part in a study by a researcher trying to replicate the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus. What might this researcher ask you to do?
  2. “Write down all the words you can remember.”
  3. “Read this poem and then interpret its meaning.”
  4. “Listen to me: BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said.”

Correct. Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables to avoid previous associative links.

  1. “Listen to these sounds and write down words that come to mind.”

Incorrect. He would probably say, “BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said.” Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables because they had no previous associations.

  1. Look at these inkblots and tell me what you see in them.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. “Listen to me: BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said.”

 

  1. Hermann Ebbinghaus used ________ to study his long-term retention of verbal material.
  2. elaboration
  3. maintenance rehearsal
  4. a savings method
  5. elaborative rehearsal
  6. priming

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. a savings method

 

  1. The forgetting curve noted by Ebbinghaus demonstrates the ________ of memory.
  2. transience

Correct. Ebbinghaus showed that memories are very susceptible to loss. This is consistent with the idea of transience.

  1. encoding
  2. interference

Incorrect. Ebbinghaus’s research did not specifically address interference theory.

  1. repression
  2. durability

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. transience

 

  1. Ebbinghaus’s studies of memory for relatively unimportant material demonstrate that
  2. there is a slow initial loss of memory followed by a steady rate of loss.
  3. memories fade rapidly and consistently.
  4. memories fade slowly and consistently.
  5. there is a slow initial loss of memory, followed by an increasing rate of loss.
  6. there is a rapid initial loss of memory, followed by a decreasing rate of loss.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: e. there is a rapid initial loss of memory, followed by a decreasing rate of loss.

 

  1. One of the most common causes of transience comes from ___________ when one item prevents us from forming a robust memory for another item.
  2. transduction
  3. transference
  4. an engram
  5. interference
  6. misattribution

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. interference

 

  1. Material that is ________ is more susceptible to interference in memory.
  2. low in context
  3. low in emotional content
  4. high in context
  5. low in meaningfulness

Correct. Because we tend not to encode this information as effectively, it will be more apt to suffer the effects of interference.

  1. A and D are correct.

Incorrect. D is correct but nothing in your chapter supports A.

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. low in meaningfulness

 

  1. Writing the previous year on your checks instead of the current year is an example of
  2. retroactive interference

Incorrect. This refers to situations where newly learned (recent) information obstructs retrieval of previously learned (old) information.

  1. encoding specificity.
  2. proactive interference.

Correct. This refers to situations where previously learned (old) information obstructs retrieval of newly learned (recent) information.

  1. repression.
  2. transience.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. proactive interference.

 

  1. Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when
  2. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information.
  3. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.
  4. information is not attended to and fails to be encoded.
  5. information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time.
  6. older information becomes distorted over time and is retrieved incorrectly.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information.

 

  1. You start out using Firefox, then change to Explorer because your company demands that browsers be Microsoft products. If you have trouble with Explorer, it is most likely due to
  2. proactive interference

Correct. In proactive interference, older information interferes with newer information.

  1. retroactive interference

Incorrect. In retroactive interference, newer information interferes with older information. In this example, the old interferes with the new, which is proactive interference.

  1. anterograde interference
  2. consolidation problems
  3. retrograde interference

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. proactive interference

 

  1. Imagine that the first car you learned to drive was a manual transmission with a clutch, but the car you drive now is an automatic. Sometimes you find yourself reaching for the clutch that is no longer there. This example illustrates
  2. retroactive interference.

Incorrect. Retroactive interference is the tendency for new or recently learned material to interfere with the retrieval of older material.

  1. proactive interference.

Correct. Proactive interference is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the retrieval of newer, more recently learned material.

  1. retrograde amnesia.
  2. anterograde amnesia.
  3. eidetic amnesia.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. proactive interference.

 

  1. Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa’s memory is suffering from
  2. cue-dependent forgetting.
  3. proactive interference.

Correct. Shalissa’s memory is suffering from proactive interference.

  1. decay.
  2. retroactive interference .

Incorrect. Shalissa’s memory is suffering from proactive interference as old information is knocking out the new. Retroactive interference is the reverse.

  1. encoding specificity.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. proactive interference.

 

  1. An example of proactive interference is when you
  2. forget your birthday.
  3. cannot find your car keys.
  4. write the previous year on this year’s checks.

Correct. This refers to situations where previously learned (old) information obstructs retrieval of newly learned (recent) information.

  1. are unable to recall the name of your first-grade teacher.
  2. thank your mother for a gift that you received from your brother.

Incorrect. This is a simple mistake, but it does not reflect proactive interference.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. write the previous year on this year’s checks.

 

  1. In proactive interference, old memories act to
  2. cause us to forget other old memories.
  3. distort our sensory memory.
  4. add additional information to permanent external memory.
  5. reverse the order of items in LTM.
  6. block our ability to learn new information.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: e. block our ability to learn new information.

 

  1. ________ occurs when newly learned information prevents the retrieval of previously stored, similar information.
  2. Implicit amnesia
  3. Retroactive interference
  4. Proactive interference
  5. Suppression
  6. Explicit amnesia

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. Retroactive interference

 

  1. Jessica took psychology in the fall semester and is now taking sociology. Several of the concepts are similar, and Jessica finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major psychological theorists. She keeps getting them confused with sociological theorists. Jessica’s problem is most likely due to
  2. decoding failure.
  3. retroactive interference.

Correct. In retroactive interference, new information interferes with older information.

  1. proactive interference.

Incorrect. In proactive interference, older information interferes with newer information, but in this example the situation is reversed.

  1. Toronto syndrome.
  2. anterograde amnesia.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. retroactive interference.

 

  1. Retroactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when
  2. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information.
  3. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.
  4. information is not attended to and fails to be encoded.
  5. information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time.
  6. previously stored information becomes distorted by personal biases and prejudices.

ANS: b, p. 241, F, LO=6.10, (2)

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.

 

  1. Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her French test, all she can remember is history! Shalissa’s memory is suffering from
  2. cue-dependent forgetting.
  3. proactive interference.

Incorrect. In proactive interference, old information interferes with new. In Shalissa’s situation, the new information (history) is interfering with the old (French), which is called retroactive interference.

  1. decay.
  2. retroactive interference.

Correct. Retroactive interference occurs when new information interferes with old.

  1. TOT.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. retroactive interference.

 

  1. When newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information, this is called
  2. cue-dependent forgetting.
  3. proactive interference.
  4. decay.
  5. retroactive interference.
  6. transience.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. retroactive interference.

 

  1. If knowing the names of your current teachers makes it difficult to remember the names of your teachers from last year, you are experiencing
  2. retroactive interference.

Correct. This refers to situations where newly learned (recent) information obstructs retrieval of previously learned (old) information.

  1. proactive interference.

Incorrect. This refers to situations where previously learned (old) information obstructs retrieval of newly learned (recent) information.

  1. misattribution.
  2. suggestibility.
  3. transience.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. retroactive interference.

 

  1. The fact that it is easier to recall items at the beginning and end of a list of unrelated items is known as the
  2. phi phenomenon.
  3. implicit memory effect.
  4. serial position effect.
  5. sequestering effect.
  6. location parallax.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. serial position effect.

 

  1. When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the
  2. phi phenomenon.
  3. recency effect.
  4. chunking effect.
  5. primacy effect.
  6. impression effect.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. primacy effect.

 

  1. Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the
  2. encoding specificity effect.
  3. serial position effect.

Correct. The finding is known as the serial position effect, as it refers to the ability to better remember things at the beginning and end of a list.

  1. TOT effect.

Incorrect. TOT is when you know the item but can’t retrieve it at a particular moment, which is not the case in this example. Moishe’s problem is with the serial position effect.

  1. reintegrative effect.
  2. priming effect.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. serial position effect.

 

  1. When given a list of items to remember, you are more likely to remember
  2. the items in the beginning better than those in the middle or at the end.
  3. the items in the middle more than those at the beginning or at the end.
  4. the items at the end more than those in the middle or at the beginning of the list.
  5. the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list.
  6. only those items in which you have a dedicated, personal interest.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list.

 

  1. If you are trying to remember the names of all the U.S. presidents, the serial position effect would predict that you will have difficulty
  2. remembering more than about seven (plus or minus two) of them.
  3. recognizing the names of the presidents on a list.

Incorrect. This answer makes no specific reference to the serial position effect.

  1. recalling the earliest presidents.
  2. recalling the most recent presidents.
  3. recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.

Correct. The serial position effect refers to the tendency to remember items in the middle of a list less effectively than remembering items at the start and end of that list.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197-198

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: e. recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.

 

  1. Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve
  2. trying to study while watching television.

Correct. Absent-mindedness refers to lapses in memory due to a lack of attention.

  1. a failure to encode a stimulus event.
  2. a failure to connect new input to previously stored information.
  3. a failure of iconic memory.

Incorrect. Iconic memory is a form of sensory memory. Absent-mindedness refers to deficits in long-term memory.

  1. an old memory making it difficult to recall a newer one.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 198

Topic: Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. trying to study while watching television.

 

  1. A temporary failure to recall where you left your keys is most likely due to
  2. transience.

Incorrect. This refers to the impermanence of long-term memories.

  1. proactive interference.
  2. misattribution.
  3. absent-mindedness.

Correct. Absent-mindedness refers to lapses in memory due to a lack of attention.

  1. the TOT phenomenon.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 198

Topic: Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause Forgetting

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. absent-mindedness.

 

  1. ________ occurs when memories are retrievable, but they are associated with the wrong time, place, or person.
  2. Misattribution
  3. Interference
  4. Bias
  5. Priming
  6. Repression

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 199

Topic: Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. Misattribution

 

  1. Simon read the words “bed,” “night,” “snore,” “dream,” “comfort,” and “pillow” to Jennifer. As a result of misattribution, we could expect Jennifer to
  2. remember the word sleep.

Correct. This refers to a memory error that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place, or person.

  1. experience some sleepiness.
  2. only remember three or four of the words.
  3. remember the first and last words, but not the middle words.

Incorrect. This answer references the serial position effect, but that phenomenon is not related to the example in the question.

  1. confuse the order of the words.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 199

Topic: Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. remember the word sleep.

 

  1. Suggestibility can cause us to
  2. lose old memories in our LTM.
  3. distort memories and create false ones.
  4. block painful or upsetting memories.
  5. be unable to forget painful memories.
  6. rehearse important material repeatedly.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 200

Topic: Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. distort memories and create false ones.

 

  1. Based on Loftus’s 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presentation of an accident, and some of the subjects were asked a question about a blue car when the actual slides contained pictures of a green car. When these same subjects were asked about the color of the car at the accident, they were found to be confused. This is an example of the
  2. instant replay effect.
  3. constructive processing effect.
  4. levels-of-processing effect.
  5. misinformation effect.
  6. hindsight bias.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 200

Topic: Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. misinformation effect.

 

  1. Elizabeth Loftus is best known for her work on
  2. eyewitness accuracy.
  3. blocking.
  4. proactive interference.
  5. the forgetting curve.
  6. retrograde amnesia.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 200

Topic: Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. eyewitness accuracy.

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to demonstrate accurate eyewitness recall?
  2. George, who has been told that interrogation can create memory bias

Correct. By being aware of this bias, George would be in the best position to avoid distorted memories.

  1. Paul, who is being questioned long after the event occurred
  2. Richard, who is 73 years old
  3. Stu, who is three years old

Incorrect. As your authors point out, young children are particularly susceptible to memory retrieval errors.

  1. John, who is feeling particularly confident about his memories

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 201

Topic: Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. George, who has been told that interrogation can create memory bias

 

  1. ________ refers to a situation in which memories are colored by our beliefs and previous experiences.
  2. Misattribution
  3. Suggestibility
  4. Interference
  5. Transference
  6. Bias

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 201

Topic: Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: e. Bias

 

  1. Because of self-consistency bias,
  2. Don may have trouble remembering how he initially felt about Vicki.
  3. Pete’s feelings about Anne may be stronger than they once were.
  4. Sam may not love Florence any more.
  5. Shawna believes that she always felt passionately about Matthew.

Correct. This error in memory causes us to reconstruct memories to promote consistency in our own thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.

  1. Tom believes that he loves Coral more than Mike does.

Incorrect. This would be a self-serving bias, not a self-consistency bias.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 202

Topic: Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: d. Shawna believes that she always felt passionately about Matthew.

 

  1. When memories for unpleasant events are intrusive, what has occurred?
  2. suggestibility
  3. persistence
  4. mnemonics
  5. bias
  6. transience

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 202

Topic: Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. persistence

 

  1. The memory failure caused by transience is adaptive in that it
  2. removes unneeded information from LTM.

Correct. Even though LTM has an unlimited capacity, we don’t want it full of unneeded junk, do we?

  1. retains the most important information.
  2. eliminates memories that conflict with our beliefs.
  3. makes it difficult to encode sensory memories.

Incorrect. There is nothing about transience that is related to the difficulty of encoding sensory memories.

  1. ensures memories are stored by both sight and sound.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 202

Topic: The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. removes unneeded information from LTM.

 

  1. The failures of memory identified by Schachter
  2. cannot be overcome.

Incorrect. Many of these “sins” can be overcome with some useful strategies and techniques.

  1. primarily only affect semantic memory.
  2. are worsened by mnemonics.
  3. affect men much more than women.
  4. are naturally adaptive.

Correct. Several of these sins actually assist our memory processes in different ways.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 202-203

Topic: The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: e. are naturally adaptive.

 

  1. Mnemonics are methods for
  2. repressing memories that are too painful to remember.
  3. encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.
  4. retrieving information that has already been stored in LTM.
  5. reducing the bias we sometimes experience when storing memories.
  6. enhancing our ability to detect sensory information.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 203

Topic: Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.

 

  1. The word “mnemonics” comes from a ________ word meaning ________.
  2. French; memory
  3. Spanish; improve
  4. Greek; remember
  5. Hebrew; trick
  6. Arabic; method

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 203

Topic: Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. Greek; remember

 

  1. The method of loci is a
  2. mnemonic technique.
  3. a way to reduce memory bias.
  4. retrieval strategy.
  5. chunking strategy.
  6. priming technique.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 203

Topic: Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. mnemonic technique.

 

  1. To remember the five Great Lakes, you might remember the word HOMES, because each of the five letters in HOMES is the first letter of one of the Great Lakes. This strategy is known as
  2. the method of loci.

Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
  2. a natural language mediator.

Correct. This refers to a word associated with new information to be remembered .It is a form of a mnemonic.

  1. a recognition task.
  2. maintenance rehearsal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 203

Topic: Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: c. a natural language mediator.

 

  1. By looking over the chapter outline, the summary, the Key Questions, and Core Concepts, you form the impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are later associated with this overall impression. This is known as
  2. distributed learning.
  3. the whole method.

Correct. By learning the overall “whole” first and getting a feel for its general flavor, we can go back and learn smaller details later.

  1. the method of loci.

Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. overlearning.
  2. repression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 204

Topic: Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: b. the whole method.

 

  1. If you study for an exam on one day and then continue studying on the next day, you are using
  2. distributed learning.

Correct. By studying a little each day over several days, you will have more success than one long cramming session. That would be called “massed” learning.

  1. the whole method.
  2. the method of loci.

Incorrect. This refers to a mnemonic strategy that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar locations.

  1. overlearning.
  2. repression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 204

Topic: Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. distributed learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0 – Chapter 05 Completion

 

  1. A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved is the

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 174

Topic: Metaphors for Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.1

 

Answer: information-processing model

 

  1. Name the form of memory that records our fleeting impressions about sights, sounds, and smells.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 177

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: sensory memory

 

  1. What is the capacity of working memory?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 180

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: About seven chunks of information. 7+2 chunks would also be acceptable.

 

  1. Explain the difference between the two forms of rehearsal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 181-182

Topic: The Second Stage: Working Memory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: Maintenance rehearsal may involve simply repeating out loud the material to be learned. Elaborative rehearsal involves repetition as well as trying the connect the new information to existing knowledge.

 

  1. What are the major divisions of declarative memory?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: semantic memory and episodic memory

 

  1. Damage to the hippocampus results in _________.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: a. anterograde amnesia

 

  1. Which retrieval method is used during an essay test?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 192

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: recall

 

  1. When you retrieve the answer from your memory from minimal retrieval cues, say on a short answer or essay exam, you are using

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 192

Topic: Retrieval Cues

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.3

 

Answer: recall.

 

  1. Interference is most likely under what conditions?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 197

Topic: Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: When previously stored information prevents the learning of new material, when the new material is similar to old knowledge, and when the information is low in meaning.

 

  1. Based on the principle of __________, to reduce the likelihood of transience you should study material you will be tested on in several shorter sessions, rather than in one big “cram” session.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 204

Topic: Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: a. distributed learning

 

3.0 – Chapter 05 Essay

 

  1. Name the three memory stages and discuss the duration and capacity of each stage.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 178-189

Topic: The First Stage: Sensory Memory; The Second Stage: Working Memory; The Third Stage: Long-Term memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: Sensory memory may hold 9 or more items. Visual images last about 1/4 of a second, whereas sounds last up to 4 seconds. Working (or, short-term memory) holds between 5 and 9 items, and information stays there for, at most, 20 seconds. Information in long-term memory may remain permanently, and its capacity is unlimited.

 

  1. Name and discuss the various types of long-term memories.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 184-185

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: The two main forms are procedural memory (which involve remembering how to do things) and declarative memory (which involves more specific information). The two main types of declarative memories are episodic memory (which involves memory for specific events) and semantic memory (which stores facts and the meanings of words and concepts). A “flashbulb memory” (which is a clear memory for an important event) is one type of episodic memory.

 

  1. Name and discuss the two forms of amnesia.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 187-188

Topic: The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 5.2

 

Answer: Anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia involves the inability to form new memories such as in the case of H.M. as opposed to retrograde amnesia which involves the inability to remember information previously stored in memory. Retrograde amnesia is commonly seen after an individual sustains an injury to the head. Those suffering from retrograde amnesia can form new memories, unlike those with anterograde amnesia.

 

  1. Name and discuss at least five reasons why the memory of a healthy person may fail.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 196-202

Topic: Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: The “seven sins” of memory include transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and unwanted persistence. Other concepts include lack of attention, our rehearsal strategies, repression, cramming as well. Credit is not to be given for answers referring to Alzheimer’s disease, surgery, or brain damage, since the question referred to “healthy” people.

 

  1. Name at least four strategies that would help a person studying for a test.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 203-205

Topic: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Skill: Applied

Objective: 5.4

 

Answer: Acceptable answers would including topics such as paying attention, using elaborative rehearsal, creating mnemonics (method of loci and/or natural language mediators), only studying one subject at a time, taking breaks (distributed learning) rather than cramming, trying to make the material personally meaningful, trying to figure out what kinds of questions the instructor may ask, studying with a friend, and so on.

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