PSYCHOLOGY AROUND US 3RD CANADIAN EDITION RONALD – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5

 

Sensation and Perception

 

CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

 

  1. Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.
  • Our sensory systems convert physical stimuli into neural information with specialized cells called sensory receptor cells that convert a specific form of environmental stimuli into neural impulses by a process called sensory transduction.
  • The conversion of physical stimuli into neural impulses only occurs when the stimuli reach a certain level, or threshold. The absolute threshold is the minimum level of a stimulus we can detect. The difference threshold is the smallest difference we can detect between two similar stimuli.
  • Our sensory systems are set up to detect change. With continuous exposure to a stimulus, adaptation occurs.
  • Bottom up processing begins with the physical stimuli from the environment and proceeds through to perception. In top-down processing prior knowledge is used to interpret perceptual information.

 

 

  1. Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.
  • Smell, our olfactory sense, converts chemical odorants into neural signals that the brain can use. Taste, our gustatory sense, is closely intertwined with smell. Most flavours are a combination of scents with the five basic tastes we can discern: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami.
  • Taste buds in papillae on the tongue convert chemicals in our food to neural signals the brain can use. Taste receptors and smell receptors are routinely replaced, since they are more vulnerable to damage than other sensory receptors.
  • Information about smell goes directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex. Areas of the brain that process smells and tastes are plastic, or changeable. Processing of smells also sometimes overlaps with emotions and memories.
  • Our preferred tastes change as we mature from childhood to adulthood, probably from a combination of learning and physical changes in the mouth.
  • True disorders of taste are rare; people more frequently lose part or all of their sense of smell. Anosmia can present safety risks and diminish pleasure in life.

 

 

  1. Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.
  • A variety of sensory receptors throughout our bodies convert touch, pressure, or temperature stimuli into neural impulses that our brains can perceive.
  • The sensory cortex of the brain maps touch sensations. Especially sensitive or important body parts receive disproportionately large representation in the cortex.
  • Pain travels to the brain via both a fast pathway and a slow pathway.
  • The gate control theory of pain suggests that certain patterns of neural activity can close a “gate” so that pain information does not reach parts of the brain where it is perceived.
  • Medical professionals continue to search for ways to relieve people’s chronic pain. Opiate drugs that simulate natural pain-killing endorphins or enkephalins are addictive. Sometimes practitioners resort to neurosurgery, which stops a patient from receiving all touch signals.
  • People who have lost body parts surgically or through accidents often feel phantom sensations in the missing body part. These may be related to reorganization of the somatosensory cortex after an amputation.

 

 

  1. Summarize what happens when we hear.
  • The frequency and amplitude of sound waves produce our perceptions of pitch and loudness of sounds.
  • When sounds enter the ear, they move the ear drum, which sets in motion the ossicles. The last of these, the stirrup, vibrates the oval window, setting into motion fluid in the cochlea. Hair cells on the basilar membrane in the cochlea transduce movements along the basilar membrane into neural signals the brain can interpret.
  • Frequency theory suggests that patterns in the firing rates of the neurons are perceived as different sounds. Place theory suggests that information from different locations along the basilar membrane is related to different qualities of sound.
  • Top-down processing lets us use the general loudness of sounds, as well as differences in the signals received from each ear, to determine location of a sound.
  • Different pitches are represented in a tonotopic map in the auditory cortex of the brain. Association areas of the cortex help us recognize familiar sounds, including speech.
  • The brain integrates information from multiple sensory systems to enable the appropriate recognition and response to stimuli. Some people experience an overlap of sensory systems, known as synesthesia.
  • As young children, we experience a sensitive period during which it is especially easy for us to learn auditory information, including language and music. Some people, particularly those exposed to pure tones during this sensitive period, develop absolute pitch.
  • Common hearing problems include hearing loss and deafness, as well as hearing unwanted sounds, such as tinnitus.

 

 

  1. Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.
  • Rods and cones in the retina at the back of the eye change light into neural impulses. Cones provide detailed vision and help us perceive colour, while rods provide information about intensity of light.
  • Two different theories in combination—trichomatic theory and opponent process theory—explain a good deal of how we perceive colour.
  • The fovea at the centre of the retina contains only cones and provides our sharpest vision. We have a blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the retina to carry information to the brain.
  • Damage to the brain can produce deficits in sensation, as well as abnormal sensory experiences.
  • Top-down processing is involved in much visual perception. Gestalt theorists have identified several principles by which we recognize stimuli even when visual inputs are limited. We use binocular and monocular cues for depth perception. Perceptual constancies, based on learning from previous experiences, help us to see things as stable despite constant shifts in our visual inputs. These top-down processes can be “fooled” by visual illusions.
  • Without adequate visual stimulation through both eyes during a critical period of life, we may not develop binocular vision, a condition known as amblyopia.
  • Individuals with loss of vision can use other sensory modalities to compensate for the loss of visual information. Learning Braille with touch involves the use of brain areas normally used for vision.

 

 

TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS

 

 

  1. Transduction is the process by which sensory receptor cells convert environmental stimuli into neural impulses.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Bottom-up processing begins with previously acquired knowledge.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Olfaction and gustation emerged early in our evolutionary history.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Sweet/sour is the taste associated with monosodium glutamate.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Studies have shown that the piriform cortex is changeable in adulthood.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. All sensory systems send information through the thalamus.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Various parts of your body have differing levels of sensitivity.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Tactile information is first sent from touch receptors in the skin to the somatosensory cortex.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Research suggests that women have twice as many pain receptors in their facial skin as men.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Some people are incapable of detecting pain.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The frequency of a sound wave is measured in Hertz.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The ossicles are fluid-filled membranes in the inner ear.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The auditory receptor cells are easily replaceable.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. To determine the importance of a sound, it is necessary to localize it in space.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Approximately 1 in 1000 people in the Western world can detect absolute pitch.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Under certain conditions, people can see radio waves.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The blind spot created by the location where the optic nerve leaves the eye is not noticeable in most people.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. People with red-green colour blindness have a shortage of cones that respond to either greenish or reddish wavelengths.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The law of good form states that we tend to group objects that are visually attractive.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Linear perspective occurs when parallel lines seem to diverge from one another.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

 

  1. When you look up at the sky and see the clouds, your eyes are engaging in the process of ___; when you think about the clouds and try to pick out recognizable shapes or object, you are engaging in the process of ___.
  2. a) perceiving; sensing
  3. b) sensing; perceiving
  4. c) passive observation; active observation
  5. d) active observation; passive observation

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. A musician described how he could see each musical note as a colour. This phenomenon is known as
  2. a) sensory adaptation.
  3. b) synesthesia.
  4. c) difference threshold.
  5. d) polysensory confusion.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Tami is visiting a tribe that she has learned eats snake eyes and monkey brains for their festive events. In honour of her visit, they hold a festive dinner and serve Tami with a big bowl of colourful meats and vegetables. Tami tries the stew and gags at the thought that a chewy bit she found in her mouth was a piece of brain. Tami’s belief that the texture of her food resembles monkey brains is best described as:
  2. a) bottom-up processing
  3. b) sensory adaptation
  4. c) transduction
  5. d) a perceptual set

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Bence is camping with his Grade 5 class and hears a ghost story about the Stick Monster in the woods. The beast is made out of sticks and it snaps children’s bones like twigs. On his way back to his tent, Bence can’t help but notice all the sticks and twigs poking at him along the narrow path. Finally, he screams with certainty that the Stick Monster has grabbed him. Bence’s belief that the Stick Monster has him is best described as:
  2. a) sensory adaptation
  3. b) bottom-up processing
  4. c) a perceptual set
  5. d) transduction

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Transduction is the process of:
  2. a) interpreting the physical stimuli in the environment and assigning it meaning
  3. b) converting physical stimuli in the environment into a signal that the brain can read
  4. c) associating synchronous firing patterns in neurons throughout the brain
  5. d) attending to and consolidating some environmental stimuli and not others

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The process of converting physical stimuli in the environment into a signal that the brain can read is called:
  2. a) transduction
  3. b) perception
  4. c) top-down processing
  5. d) sensory adaptation

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Detection is to identification as ___ is to ___.
  2. a) sensation; transduction
  3. b) transduction; sensation
  4. c) sensation; perception
  5. d) perception; sensation

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Petra has just identified the funky smell in her kitchen as an old peach that she threw away in the trash and then forgot. The process of having her olfactory system detect the odour is best described as:
  2. a) transduction
  3. b) sensation
  4. c) perception
  5. d) top-down processing

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The conversion of environmental stimuli into neural impulses is called ___.
  2. a) perception
  3. b) translation
  4. c) adaptation
  5. d) transduction

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The reason you are seeing this test is because the light being reflected off the test is converted to neural impulses that the brain can then understand. This process is called ___.
  2. a) transformation
  3. b) sensory transduction
  4. c) sensory adaptation
  5. d) perception

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Matteo misses his grandpa since he passed away. He has his grandpa’s old hat and he often smells it to remember him. He notices, however, that the smell quickly fades each time he does it, but it is back again the next time he tries it. What is the best explanation for Matteo’s inability to smell his grandpa’s scent after a few minutes?
  2. a) it is below his just noticeable difference threshold
  3. b) perceptual set
  4. c) sensory adaptation
  5. d) bottom-up processing

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Eszter thinks that the perfume her boyfriend got her is cheap, because she can’t smell it after she wears it for only a few minutes. What is another possible explanation for Eszter’s inability to smell her perfume?
  2. a) perceptual set
  3. b) it is below her just noticeable difference
  4. c) bottom-up processing
  5. d) sensory adaptation

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Jason’s just noticeable difference for detecting the change in the frequency of a tone is much larger than Kevin’s just noticeable difference. This means that:
  2. a) Both males are considered to have absolute pitch
  3. b) Jason needs a larger difference in pitch in order to notice it
  4. c) Kevin is not able to detect any differences in pitch
  5. d) Jason is less sensitive to changes in pitch than Kevin

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Jenny’s just noticeable difference for detecting a lemon flavour in a glass of water is much larger than Kelsey’s just noticeable difference. This means that:
  2. a) Jenny is less sensitive to changes in lemon flavour than Kelsey.
  3. b) Kelsey is not able to detect lemon flavour.
  4. c) Jenny needs a lot of lemon flavour in order to notice it.
  5. d) Both females are considered supertasters for lemon.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. If a light bulb does not cast a light that can be detected, what threshold has not been surpassed?
  2. a) difference
  3. b) absolute
  4. c) stimulus
  5. d) transduction

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Without the transduction of the physical stimulus into a neural signal that the brain can read, technically, the physical stimulus doesn’t exist. This is most similar to the philosophical statement:
  2. a) A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. b) A tree falling in the woods with no one to hear makes no sound.
  4. c) Lightning never strikes the same place twice.
  5. d) Freedom never extends to outside the mind

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The philosophical question: “Does a tree falling in the woods with no one around make a sound?” would be best interpreted by a psychologist interested in sensation and perception to mean that:
  2. a) without transduction of sound waves into a neural signal, technically, there is no sound.
  3. b) bottom-up processing does not allow conceptual knowledge to influence perception, and so there is no sound.
  4. c) for a sound to be defined as such, it must cross absolute threshold in a human ear.
  5. d) vibrations in air pressure are best detected by the auditory sense, rather than the olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory, or visual sense.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. We can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom apartment. This is a(n) ___.
  2. a) absolute threshold
  3. b) difference threshold
  4. c) sensory minimum
  5. d) just noticeable difference

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Ye-jun is participating in a study in which he is presented with different unpleasant odours that he has to identify. Unfortunately, most of the odours are presented above his absolute threshold. What does this mean?
  2. a) Ye-jun can smell most of the odours
  3. b) Ye-jun can only smell the strongest odours
  4. c) Ye-jun can’t tell the difference between any of the odours
  5. d) Ye-jun didn’t notice most of the odours

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Sensory adaptation is a reduction in the response due to:
  2. a) repeated stimulation of a sensory receptor
  3. b) muscle fatigue
  4. c) habituation
  5. d) opponent processes

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. When a sensory receptor is repeatedly stimulated, it can lead to a reduction in the response. This is called:
  2. a) the just noticeable difference threshold
  3. b) a perceptual set
  4. c) fatigue
  5. d) sensory adaptation

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The first step in any perceptual analysis of an environmental stimulus is:
  2. a) sensory adaptation
  3. b) attention
  4. c) transduction
  5. d) bottom-up processing

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Technically, the first thing that happens with bottom-up processing is:
  2. a) attention
  3. b) perception
  4. c) transduction
  5. d) sensory adaptation

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. A snack manufacturer finds that it must increase the salt content of its chips by 8% so that a sample of consumers will notice that the chips are saltier than they were before. This example most nearly illustrates the concept of a(n) ___ threshold.
  2. a) transduction
  3. b) difference
  4. c) adaptation
  5. d) absolute

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. “It’s so noisy! How can you stand it?” remarks Lily as the thruway traffic screams past her friend Dmitry’s ground floor apartment. “I don’t even notice it anymore,” Dmitry replies. This exchange best exemplifies the concept of ___.
  2. a) adaptation
  3. b) accommodation
  4. c) adjustment
  5. d) attenuation

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. In an experiment, observers first view an adapting stimulus in which small dots on a computer screen all move steadily toward the right. They then view a test stimulus in which they must determine whether a patch of dots is stationary or moving. Based on your text’s discussion, you might predict that the adapting stimulus would
  2. a) decrease observers’ absolute threshold for motion detection.
  3. b) increase observers’ absolute threshold for motion detection.
  4. c) have little or no effect on observers’ absolute threshold for motion detection.
  5. d) decrease observers’ difference threshold for motion detection.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. If a stimulus is at an intensity that doesn’t reach your absolute threshold, what is the most likely result?
  2. a) You will not be able to distinguish this stimulus from another stimulus
  3. b) The difference threshold is just noticeable
  4. c) The stimulus will go unnoticed to you
  5. d) You have adapted to the stimulus and no longer notice it

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Why do we adapt after prolonged exposure to a constant stimulus?
  2. a) so that we continue to respond to ongoing stimulation
  3. b) so that we don’t become distracted by irrelevant changes in the environment
  4. c) so that we detect potentially significant changes in what is happening in our environments
  5. d) so that we don’t become overstimulated by the environment

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. “Wow! I’m sorry! I didn’t recognize you out of context!” you exclaim, excusing your blank stare when your accounting professor greets you in a café. This vignette illustrates the importance of ___ in perception.
  2. a) transduction
  3. b) adaptation
  4. c) bottom-up processes
  5. d) top-down processes

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Which of the following sentences expresses bottom-up processing?
  2. a) You see what’s in front of you.
  3. b) You see what you want to see.
  4. c) You see what you expect to see.
  5. d) You see what you’re conditioned to see.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up processing?
  2. a) Some stimuli are processed in a bottom-up fashion, while others are processed in a top-down manner.
  3. b) Bottom-up processing precedes top-down processing during the perception of most stimuli.
  4. c) Top-down processes only contribute to perception when stimuli are highly novel, unexpected, or ambiguous.
  5. d) Top-down and bottom-up processes occur simultaneously during the perception of many, if not all, stimuli.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Which of the following concepts belongs the most with top-down processing?
  2. a) sensation
  3. b) transduction
  4. c) sensory adaptation
  5. d) perceptual sets

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

  1. Which of the following is an instance of top-down processing?
  2. a) perceptual sets
  3. b) sensory adaptation
  4. c) transduction
  5. d) sensation

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Without sensory adaptation, our perceptual world would be chaos. What would be the biggest problem without sensory adaptation?
  2. a) Our sensory receptors wouldn’t be able to simultaneously transduce stimuli from multiple sensory systems.
  3. b) Our sensitivity to stimuli that are below threshold would be less.
  4. c) We wouldn’t have any mental resources left over to focus on potentially important environmental stimuli.
  5. d) We would succumb to top-down processing at the expense of bottom-up processing.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. What is the advantage of sensory adaptation?
  2. a) We can focus on bottom-up processing and not succumb to top-down processing.
  3. b) We can free up mental resources to focus on potentially important environmental stimuli.
  4. c) We can increase our sensitivity to stimuli that are below absolute threshold.
  5. d) Our sensory receptors are able to simultaneously transduce stimuli from multiple sensory systems.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Hunter and Samuel are both looking at an ambiguous picture. Hunter was shown a series of rabbit pictures in advance of viewing the ambiguous picture; whereas Samuel was shown a series of duck pictures in advance of seeing the ambiguous picture. Based on the concept of perceptual set, what would each say was the object in the picture?
  2. a) Hunter – rabbit; Samuel – duck
  3. b) Hunter – duck; Samuel – rabbit
  4. c) They would both see the same object.
  5. d) It depends on how long they have to look at the picture.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. You are driving to school and your favourite song comes on the radio. You immediately recognize the song and begin to sing along. What type(s) of processing allowed you to do this?
  2. a) top-down
  3. b) bottom-up
  4. c) top-down and bottom-up
  5. d) perceptual set

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Julian, Carson, and Zoe are having a disagreement. Julian claims that there are five senses. Carson, on the other hand, says that there are seven, and Zoe says there are six. Which student is right?
  2. a) Julian
  3. b) Carson
  4. c) Zoe
  5. d) None of them. There are, in fact, eight senses.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The combination of our visual, vestibular, and kinesthetic senses constitutes:
  2. a) our sense of proprioceptive feedback
  3. b) our sense of balance
  4. c) our awareness of our body’s position in space
  5. d) our sense of movement

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Proprioceptive feedback is a combination of which senses?
  2. a) visual, auditory, and vestibular
  3. b) chemical, kinesthetic, and visual
  4. c) vestibular, kinesthetic, and visual
  5. d) somatosensory, vestibular, and kinesthetic

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Suppose Marlene is unable to balance, and Lucas is unable to maintain his body’s posture. What sensory systems have most likely been damaged in each case?
  2. a) Marlene damaged her chemical sense and Lucas damaged his auditory sense
  3. b) Marlene has damaged her somatosensory system and Lucas has damaged his gustatory sense
  4. c) Marlene has damaged her vestibular sense and Lucas has damaged his kinesthetic sense
  5. d) Marlene has damaged her visual sense and Lucas has damaged his auditory sense

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Marcus has damage to his vestibular sense and Larissa has damage to her kinesthetic sense. Which of the following best describes their symptoms?
  2. a) Marcus is unable to hear, and Larissa is unable to taste or smell.
  3. b) Marcus is unable to stop running on his own once he starts and Larissa is unable to balance.
  4. c) Marcus is unable to balance, and Larissa is unable to maintain her body’s posture.
  5. d) Marcus is unable to adapt to sensory input and Larissa is unable to integrate sensory information.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Lola has a pet mouse named Mickey. Which of the following statements would most accurately describe the difference between Lola and Mickey’s senses?
  2. a) Lola relies most heavily on vision; Mickey relies on kinesthesia.
  3. b) Lola relies most heavily on the gustation; Mickey relies on olfaction.
  4. c) Lola relies most heavily on vision; Mickey relies on olfaction.
  5. d) There is no difference. Both rely most heavily on vision.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Karina is cooking hamburger when she suddenly finds that the smell is making her nauseous. When she checks the package, she finds that the “best before” date of the meat had expired a week before, so the meat was no longer safe to eat. What type of psychologist would find this example important to the explanation of the olfactory system?
  2. a) cognitive
  3. b) evolutionary
  4. c) behavioural
  5. d) biological

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. In what hair-like structures are the sensory receptors of the olfactory system located?
  2. a) nasal mucosa
  3. b) papillae
  4. c) odorants
  5. d) cilia

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Approximately how many taste receptors are on each taste bud?
  2. a) 20–40
  3. b) 50–90
  4. c) 30–50
  5. d) 60–100

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Olfaction is to gustation as ___ is to ___.
  2. a) smell; taste
  3. b) hearing; taste
  4. c) taste; hearing
  5. d) taste; smell

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The sense receptors for olfaction are located on hair-like structures called ___. They convert odorants into neural impulses, an example of a process termed ___.
  2. a) papillae; transduction
  3. b) papillae; perception
  4. c) cilia; transduction
  5. d) cilia; perception

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the responsiveness of an individual olfactory receptor?
  2. a) A given olfactory receptor responds only to a specific airborne chemical.
  3. b) A given olfactory receptor responds to a wide range of odorants.
  4. c) A given olfactory receptor responds to one of four or five basic classes of odorants.
  5. d) A given olfactory receptor responds to virtually any airborne chemical.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Your text states that “continuous binding of certain odorants . . . will result in the fatigue of the olfactory receptor neurons to which they bind.” This passage should remind you of the concept of
  2. a) tolerance.
  3. b) adaptation.
  4. c) habituation.
  5. d) desensitization.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. We have taste receptors for sweet, salty, sour, and:
  2. a) bitter
  3. b) bitter and spicy
  4. c) bitter and umami
  5. d) spicy and umami

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Gustatory receptors are contained in the ___, located on the ___.
  2. a) taste buds; cilia
  3. b) cilia; taste buds
  4. c) taste buds; papillae
  5. d) papillae; taste buds

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. How many basic types of taste are there?
  2. a) 3
  3. b) 4
  4. c) 4, perhaps 5
  5. d) 5, perhaps 6

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. For which of the following tastes do we NOT have a receptor?
  2. a) umami
  3. b) spicy
  4. c) sweet
  5. d) bitter

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Regarding taste receptors, which of the following statements is true?
  2. a) Each taste receptor responds to any of the five basic tastes.
  3. b) The diverse types of taste receptors are located on distinct parts of the tongue.
  4. c) The diverse types of taste receptors are evenly distributed across the tongue.
  5. d) The diverse types of taste receptors are not distributed evenly across the tongue.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which are the main senses involved in the experience of a spicy meal?
  2. a) olfaction and gustation
  3. b) gustation and the tactile sense of pain
  4. c) gustation, olfaction, and the tactile sense of pain
  5. d) gustation and the tactile sense of temperature

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Brayden has just burnt his tongue eating hot pizza. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
  2. a) Brayden has done damage to the taste receptors on his tongue.
  3. b) If Brayden keeps burning his tongue, he will experience a permanently decreased sense of taste.
  4. c) Burning his tongue will not do any permanent damage as the taste receptors will regenerate.
  5. d) It is unlikely that Brayden has damaged enough taste receptors that he will lose his sense of taste temporarily.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. When Amber eats the hot peppers she loves so much, a chemical called ___ activates __ receptors in her tongue.
  2. a) capsaicin; taste
  3. b) capsaicin; pain
  4. c) umami; taste
  5. d) umami; pain

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Compared to our other sensory receptors, olfactory receptors and taste receptors show a remarkable ability to:
  2. a) transduce neural signals
  3. b) regenerate
  4. c) adapt
  5. d) activate our autonomic nervous system

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which receptors have a remarkable ability to regenerate and show a relatively fast turn-over rate?
  2. a) visual receptors
  3. b) visual and auditory receptors
  4. c) olfactory and taste receptors
  5. d) gustatory receptors

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. When olfactory information reaches the olfactory nerve, it travels to which organ located beneath the frontal lobes?
  2. a) cerebral cortex
  3. b) olfactory bulb
  4. c) piriform cortex
  5. d) amygdala

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which structure serves as a relay station for incoming sensory information to the cerebral cortex?
  2. a) hippocampus
  3. b) amygdala
  4. c) insula
  5. d) thalamus

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which part of the brain becomes active when we taste and see something revolting?
  2. a) prefrontal cortex
  3. b) insula
  4. c) amygdala
  5. d) thalamus

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Olfactory information is processed in each of these brain areas EXCEPT the
  2. a) thalamus.
  3. b) piriform cortex.
  4. c) hippocampus.
  5. d) amygdala.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Annelle is a professional “perfume smeller” for a major cosmetics firm. She claims that “the nose” is a gift: Some people are just born with more sensitive olfactory mechanisms than others are. How does Annelle view the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up processes in olfaction? Is Annelle’s view of an innate olfactory talent supported by empirical research?
  2. a) Annelle believes that olfaction is primarily a bottom-up process. Her view is supported by research showing that humans have difficulty learning to discriminate among odours and that the piriform cortex is not plastic.
  3. b) Annelle believes that olfaction is primarily a bottom-up process. Her view is discredited by research showing that humans can learn to discriminate among odours and that the piriform cortex is highly plastic.
  4. c) Annelle believes that olfaction is primarily a top-down process. Her view is discredited by research showing that humans have difficulty learning to discriminate among odours and that the piriform cortex is not plastic.
  5. d) Annelle believes that olfaction is primarily a top-down process. Her view is supported by research showing that humans can learn to discriminate among odours and that the piriform cortex is highly plastic.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The relationship between smell and memory reflects connections between the olfactory bulb and the ___. The link between smell and emotion reflects connections between the olfactory bulb and the ___.
  2. a) amygdala; hippocampus
  3. b) amygdala; amygdala, also
  4. c) hippocampus; hippocampus, also
  5. d) hippocampus; amygdala

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the following represents the olfactory pathway from the nose to the brain?
  2. a) olfactory receptor > thalamus > insula > cortex
  3. b) olfactory bulb > olfactory nerve > thalamus > cortex
  4. c) olfactory receptor > olfactory nerve > amygdala > hippocampus
  5. d) olfactory receptor > olfactory nerve > olfactory bulb > cortex

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Whenever Savannah smells fresh chocolate chip cookies baking, it reminds her of when she was a little girl and her mother use to bake cookies for her after school. Now when she smells chocolate chip cookies she feels safe and secure. Which of the following statements is NOT supported by this example?
  2. a) The olfactory system sends signals to the amygdala.
  3. b) The olfactory system sends signals to the hippocampus.
  4. c) The olfactory system is connected to the reward circuits in the brain.
  5. d) The olfactory system could be considered part of a network.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the basic tastes are considered rewarding? Which are considered aversive?
  2. a) Salty and sweet are considered rewarding. Sour and bitter are considered aversive.
  3. b) Sweet is considered rewarding. Salty, sour, and bitter are considered aversive.
  4. c) Sweet and sour are considered rewarding. Salty and bitter are considered aversive.
  5. d) Sweet, sour, and salty are considered rewarding. Bitter is considered aversive.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. While imaging their brains, Dr. Baquero shows one group of participants repulsive scenes on a computer screen. A second group of participants tastes a small portion of revolting food. What should images from the participants’ brains reveal regarding cortical activity in the two groups of participants?
  2. a) The piriform cortex should be active among participants in the visual scene group, whereas the insula should be active among participants in the taste group.
  3. b) The insula should be active among participants in the visual scene group, whereas the piriform cortex should be active among participants in the taste group.
  4. c) The insula should be active among participants in both groups.
  5. d) The piriform cortex should be active among participants in both groups.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Aroon is a newborn. Which of the following statements is true with respect to his chemical senses?
  2. a) Aroon prefers the odour of his mother’s milk to the odour of another woman’s milk.
  3. b) Aroon will rapidly develop a preference for sour tastes.
  4. c) Aroon’s ability to taste is quite poor.
  5. d) Aroon does not yet show a preference for sweet tastes over bitter tastes.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Aleksander has been born a few hours ago and has spent his first moments on earth snuggled up with his mother. What is he likely able to do?
  2. a) show a preference for bitter flavours
  3. b) turn away from a sweet flavour
  4. c) tell his own mother apart from another woman based on smell alone
  5. d) feel more physiologically aroused by the smell of his mother’s milk

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The fact that newborns can recognize their mothers based on smell alone within a few hours after birth suggests that:
  2. a) newborns have more olfactory receptors than adults
  3. b) newborns have a lower absolute threshold for detecting odours than adults
  4. c) olfactory information is in place before birth
  5. d) taste preferences are innate

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Darby is exposed to two odours that are below her just noticeable difference threshold. As a participant in a study, one of these odours is presented just before Darby receives a shock on her finger. What is likely to happen as a result?
  2. a) she will be unable to detect either odour for a few days
  3. b) she will associate the shock with both odours
  4. c) she will now be able to discriminate between the two odours
  5. d) she will develop epileptic seizures triggered by either of the two odours

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Nazir is unable to tell the difference between two odours that have very similar chemical structures. As a participant in a study, one of these odours is paired with the delivery of shock to the finger. What is likely to happen as a result?
  2. a) Nazir will associate shock with both odours
  3. b) Nazir will now be able to discriminate between the two odours
  4. c) Nazir will be unable to detect either odour for a few days
  5. d) Nazir will develop epileptic seizures triggered by either of the two odours

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. How do we know that the chemical senses can be involved in epileptic seizures?
  2. a) some people smell a specific odour right before a migraine
  3. b) supertasters have more migraine headaches than normal tasters
  4. c) the olfactory bulb is often the site of origination of epileptic seizures
  5. d) specific odours can trigger seizures in some people

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. If an olfactory receptor was too fatigued to fire, which of the following would cause it to respond again?
  2. a) changing the odorant
  3. b) having the odour present constantly without interruption
  4. c) increasing the concentration of the odorant
  5. d) taking the odour away permanently

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Ta

 

 

  1. Daphne is 2. Eva is 8. Felipe is 14. Which alternative correctly identifies the basic tastes for which of these individuals have developed a preference?
  2. a) Daphne – sweet; Eva – sweet and sour; Felipe – sweet, sour, and bitter
  3. b) Daphne – sweet; Eva – sweet and sour; Felipe – sweet and sour
  4. c) Daphne – sweet; Eva – sweet, sour, and bitter; Felipe – sweet, sour, and bitter
  5. d) Daphne – sweet and sour; Eva – sweet and sour; Felipe – sweet, sour, and bitter

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Your text states that many of the developmental changes in taste preferences “. . . are the result of learning . . . However, . . . the gustatory system itself changes from infancy to adulthood.” The nonitalicized phrase underscores the importance of ___ processes in gustatory development. The italicized phrase points out the role of ___.
  2. a) top-down; bottom-up processes
  3. b) top-down; top-down processes as well
  4. c) bottom-up; top-down processes
  5. d) bottom-up; bottom-up processes as well

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Your text offers the hypothesis that picky eating in children may be adaptive in helping us survive. Which of the following findings would offer the strongest support for this hypothesis if it were true?
  2. a) Children are picky eaters in a range of very different cultures around the world.
  3. b) Children’s pickiness in their food preferences is related to their parents’ disciplinary styles.
  4. c) In some of the world’s cultures, children are no pickier than adults in their food preferences.
  5. d) Identical twins raised in different adoptive families are equally picky in their food preferences.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Based on your text’s discussion of the development of the sense of taste, which of the following statements is most likely true?
  2. a) Research has confirmed the plasticity of both the piriform cortex and the insula.
  3. b) Research has yet to confirm the plasticity of either the piriform cortex or the insula.
  4. c) Research has established the plasticity of the insula. Research has yet to confirm the plasticity of the piriform cortex.
  5. d) Research has established the plasticity of the piriform cortex. Research has yet to confirm the plasticity of the insula.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Dwight is a man. Estella, his sister, is a woman. How does Estella’s sensitivity to smell probably compare to Dwight’s?
  2. a) Estella is less sensitive to smell than is Dwight, except during ovulation.
  3. b) Estella is more sensitive to smell than is Dwight, except during ovulation.
  4. c) Estella is less sensitive to smell than is Dwight, especially during ovulation.
  5. d) Estella is more sensitive to smell than is Dwight, especially during ovulation.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Supertasters
  2. a) have learned to become more sensitive to the four basic tastes.
  3. b) make up 10% of the population.
  4. c) can better detect a specific bitter chemical than other people can.
  5. d) are more likely to be men than women.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Clarence is a supertaster. This means that he:
  2. a) is especially averse to bitter flavours
  3. b) is in the top 10% of the population for taste sensitivity
  4. c) is most likely a very old man
  5. d) can regenerate his taste receptors faster than most people

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Agnes is a supertaster. This means that:
  2. a) she especially loves bitter flavours
  3. b) she is in the top 25% of the population for taste sensitivity
  4. c) she is most likely a very old woman
  5. d) her taste receptors regenerate faster than people with normal tasting abilities

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Baby Betina is 10 weeks old and has had nothing but breast milk. Today for the first time, her mother put a small drop of lemon on her tongue. How is Betina most likely to react to the lemon?
  2. a) purse her lips and open her eyes very widely
  3. b) smile and kick her feet
  4. c) make sucking movements with her mouth
  5. d) turn her head away and grimace

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Baby Bruce is three months old and has had nothing but breast milk. Today, his mother put a small sprinkle of sugar on his tongue for the first time. What is he likely to do in reaction to the sugar?
  2. a) turn his head away and grimace
  3. b) purse his lips and open his eyes very widely
  4. c) make sucking movements with his mouth
  5. d) root for his mother’s breast

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. According to your text, the fact that a greater percentage of women than men are supertasters may have had adaptive significance. Which of the following psychologists is most likely to endorse this hypothesis?
  2. a) Dr. Hahn, an evolutionary psychologist
  3. b) Dr. Iverson, a neuropsychologist
  4. c) Dr. Joseph, a cognitive psychologist
  5. d) Dr. King, a behavioural psychologist

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the following best describe relative prevalence of ageusia and anosmia?
  2. a) Ageusia and anosmia are equally common.
  3. b) Ageusia is rarer than anosmia.
  4. c) Ageusia is somewhat more common than anosmia.
  5. d) Ageusia is much more common than anosmia.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Oscar has suffered a viral infection in his brain and now has ageusia. This means that he:
  2. a) also has anosmia
  3. b) is a supertaster
  4. c) is unable to taste
  5. d) suffers from seizures that are triggered by specific tastes

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Mariko has suffered a head injury and now has anosmia. This means that she:
  2. a) also has ageusia
  3. b) is unable to smell
  4. c) is a supertaster
  5. d) suffers from migraines that are triggered by a specific odorant

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Galen is anosmic. Which of the following is true?
  2. a) Galen has lost the ability to smell.
  3. b) Galen cannot distinguish among the four or five basic tastes described in your text.
  4. c) Galen can taste the basic tastes as well as other, more complex flavours.
  5. d) Galen can distinguish among the four basic odours but cannot detect more complex smells.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The inability to taste is called ___.
  2. a) agnosia
  3. b) ageusia
  4. c) anosmia
  5. d) aphasia

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Marissa suffered a head injury in a motor vehicle accident. As a result, she complains that she is unable to taste even though her gustatory system is intact. What is most likely Marissa’s problem?
  2. a) Marissa can taste, but her brain is not allowing the message to be transmitted.
  3. b) Marissa is suffering from ageusia.
  4. c) Marissa has suffered damage to her olfactory system.
  5. d) Marissa has probably sustained damage to her olfactory cilia.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about how the brain processes smell and taste is TRUE?
  2. a) All sensory systems have a main pathway that passes through the thalamus
  3. b) Rewarding tastes are processed separately from aversive tastes
  4. c) Olfactory and gustatory information are not combined in the brain.
  5. d) Repulsive visual stimuli activate the amygdala while repulsive tastes activate the reward pathways

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about how the brain processes smell and taste is FALSE?
  2. a) All sensory systems have a main pathway that passes through the thalamus.
  3. b) The olfactory bulb sends information to the amygdala and indirectly to the hippocampus.
  4. c) Rewarding tastes are processed separately from aversive tastes.
  5. d) Repulsive visual stimuli, as well as disgusting tastes, activates the insula.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Jahar suffers from reflex epilepsy, and experiences a seizure only after smelling roses. This suggests that:
  2. a) the olfactory pathways are crossed with multiple sensory pathways
  3. b) the seizure is likely initiated in the olfactory pathways
  4. c) Jahar will be anosmic for a few days following the seizure
  5. d) Jahar’s olfactory bulb is overactive and firing too many action potentials

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Shuji experiences a specific odour hallucination right before he has an epileptic seizure. This suggests that:
  2. a) the seizure is likely initiated in the olfactory pathways
  3. b) his olfactory bulb is overactive
  4. c) specific odours are linked in Shuji’s memory with specific memories
  5. d) Shuji will be anosmic for a few days following the seizure

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Some people experience hallucinations before or during migraines or epileptic seizures. What are these hallucinations called? Which sensory system(s) do they involve?
  2. a) These hallucinations are called auras and usually involve vision.
  3. b) These hallucinations are called auras and may involve any sensory system.
  4. c) These hallucinations are called ageusias and usually involve taste or smell.
  5. d) These hallucinations are called ageusias and may involve any sensory system.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Information about touch is processed in the __________ of the brain.
  2. a) frontal lobe
  3. b) motor cortex
  4. c) somatosensory cortex
  5. d) vestibular cortex

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The ____________ would occupy the most cortical space in the somatosensory cortex.
  2. a) torso
  3. b) back
  4. c) hands
  5. d) feet

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. If the somatosensory cortex was cut off from the rest of the body, this would cause:
  2. a) an inability to move
  3. b) an inability to integrate information across different senses
  4. c) an inability to maintain body posture and balance
  5. d) an inability to feel touch sensations

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. What would happen if the somatosensory cortex was not able to receive signals from the body?
  2. a) an inability to move
  3. b) an inability to integrate information across different senses
  4. c) an inability to feel touch sensations
  5. d) an inability to maintain body posture and balance

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Flora’s power went out and she reaches for her flashlight. What is the first thing that would happen in her somatosensory pathway as she touched the flashlight?
  2. a) her thalamus relays the information to her somatosensory cortex
  3. b) her spinal cord sends signals to her hand to feel for the flashlight
  4. c) her receptors respond to the external tactile stimulation
  5. d) the information is relayed up her spinal cord

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Gurdeep has sustained an injury in his right somatosensory cortex in the area corresponding to his hand. What would this do to Gurdeep’s abilities?
  2. a) he would be unable to move his left hand
  3. b) he would be unable to feel touch or temperature in his left hand
  4. c) he would be unable to move her right hand
  5. d) he would be unable to feel touch or temperature in his right hand

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Polina has suffered an injury in her left somatosensory cortex, specifically in the area corresponding to her hand. How would this manifest in Polina’s daily life?
  2. a) she would be unable to feel touch or temperature in her right hand
  3. b) she would be unable to move her right hand
  4. c) she would be unable to feel touch or temperature in her left hand
  5. d) she would be unable to move her left hand

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which tactile receptors respond to vibrations and heavy pressure?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) Pacinian corpuscles
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Henry is working on a construction site and using a jackhammer for the first time. The machine was fairly heavy, and vibrated something fierce. Which sensory receptor would most likely respond to this sensation?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Pacinian corpuscles
  4. c) Meissner’s corpuscles
  5. d) Ruffini’s end-organs

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which tactile receptors respond to temperature?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) free nerve endings
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which tactile receptors register the movement of joints?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) free nerve endings
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which tactile receptors are found in the hairless regions of the body?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) free nerve endings
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Martina is in a fabric store. As she runs her fingers over different fabrics, which tactile receptors would give her information about different textures?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) free nerve endings
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Holly is experiencing what it is like to read Braille by closing her eyes and running her fingertips over the arrays of bumps. Which sensory receptor would most likely respond to this sensation?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Pacinian corpuscles
  4. c) Meissner’s corpuscles
  5. d) Ruffini’s end-organs

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Ye-eun is baking a pie. When she reaches in to take the pie out of the oven, she burns the top of her arm. Which tactile receptors will inform Ye-eun she has been burned?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs
  4. c) free nerve endings
  5. d) Meissner’s corpuscles

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which of the following tactile sensory receptors is correctly matched with a location?
  2. a) free nerve endings – deep in the skin
  3. b) Meissner’s corpuscles – near the surface of the skin
  4. c) Pacinian corpuscles – in the hairless parts of the body
  5. d) Ruffini’s end-organs – deep in the skin

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which of the following tactile sensory receptors is correctly matched with a function?
  2. a) Merkel’s discs – respond to vibrations and heavy pressure.
  3. b) Ruffini’s end-organs – register light to Medium pressure.
  4. c) Meissner’s corpuscles – transduces information about sensitive touch.
  5. d) Pacinian corpuscles – register heavy pressure and movement of the joints.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The absolute threshold for touch is ___ correlated with the density of touch receptors in the part of the body being stimulated.
  2. a) negatively
  3. b) positively
  4. c) perfectly
  5. d) not

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Touch information is relayed from the thalamus to ___ cortex in the ___ lobe.
  2. a) motor; frontal
  3. b) motor; parietal
  4. c) somatosensory; frontal
  5. d) somatosensory; parietal

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Relative to the location of the stimulation, tactile information is processed on the __ side of the brain; that is, it is processed ___.
  2. a) opposite; ipsilaterally
  3. b) opposite; contralaterally
  4. c) same; ipsilaterally
  5. d) same; contralaterally

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Ouch! A paper cut! You jerk your hand away from the sheet just as a tiny droplet of blood appears on your finger. The cut’s pain signal travels to your brain along the ___ axons of the ___ pain pathway.
  2. a) unmyelinated; slow
  3. b) myelinated; slow
  4. c) unmyelinated; fast
  5. d) myelinated; fast

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The fast pathway would most likely be used to carry pain signals in all the following examples EXCEPT:
  2. a) stubbing your toe
  3. b) getting frostbite
  4. c) burning your hand on the stove
  5. d) getting a paper cut

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of pain information that would have traveled along the slow pathway?
  2. a) getting a paper cut
  3. b) burning your hand on the stove
  4. c) stomach cramps
  5. d) stubbing your toe

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The slower pain pathway uses ___ axons and communicates with the ___ in the brain.
  2. a) myelinated; amygdala
  3. b) myelinated; hypothalamus
  4. c) unmyelinated; amygdala
  5. d) unmyelinated; hypothalamus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Christine has fallen and broken her leg. Although initially, she felt a very sharp pain, it has now progressed to a constant burning pain. Which of the following accurately describes the pain Christine is experiencing?
  2. a) Christine’s pain messages are travelling along the fast pathway of myelinated neurons.
  3. b) Christine’s pain messages are travelling along the slow pathway of unmyelinated neurons.
  4. c) Christine’s pain messages were initially sent along the myelinated neurons, but is now being sent along unmyelinated neurons.
  5. d) Christine’s pain messages were initially sent along unmyelinated neurongs, but is now being sent along myelinated neurons.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. With respect to the development of the tactile senses, which of the following statements is true?
  2. a) Although the tactile senses are highly developed at birth, there is still substantial development in these senses for many years following birth.
  3. b) The tactile senses are almost fully developed at birth; there is only minimal development in these senses following birth.
  4. c) Although the tactile senses are poorly developed at birth, the development of these senses is virtually complete by the age of 2.
  5. d) The tactile senses are poorly developed at birth. The development of these senses continues for many years following birth.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Ivan is going bungie jumping and he has to wear a special harness that fits snuggly across his ribs. The problem is that his ribs are extremely ticklish, and he can’t stand having the instructor buckle him up without having a tickle fit. So, he does his best to do up his own harness and the instructor inspects the finished job. Why was Ivan able to do it himself when he was too ticklish with the instructor?
  2. a) the instructor was trying to tickle him
  3. b) the tactile stimulation is surprising when the instructor is doing it
  4. c) Ivan’s tactile threshold is higher when the instructor is tickling him than when he tickles himself
  5. d) Ivan is beginning to outgrow the ticklish stage, as indicated by the fact that he can no longer tickle himself

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Studies of pain thresholds suggest that which groups of individuals have a lower threshold for detecting pain?
  2. a) women
  3. b) children
  4. c) men
  5. d) older adults

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. How does your text explain the fact that the pain threshold is lower among women than among men? Is this a bottom-up or a top-down account?
  2. a) Women are not encouraged to be stoic in the face of pain. This is a bottom-up account.
  3. b) Women have more pain receptors in their skin than do men. This is a bottom-up account.
  4. c) Women are not encouraged to be stoic in the face of pain. This is a top-down account.
  5. d) Women have more pain receptors in their skin than do men. This is a top-down account.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. In an fMRI study, Dr. Marvin exposes participants to high heat. Participants rate how painful they find the heat. Which of the following hypotheses is most reasonable considering your text’s discussion?
  2. a) Pain ratings should be positively correlated with activity in the thalamus.
  3. b) Pain ratings should be negatively correlated with activity in the thalamus.
  4. c) Pain ratings should be positively correlated with activity in the cingulate cortex.
  5. d) Pain ratings should be negatively correlated with activity in the cingulate cortex.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. How has the gate control theory of pain changed in recent years?
  2. a) Early versions of the theory focused on pain gates in the spinal cord. Recently, the theory has incorporated pain blocking mechanisms in the brain itself.
  3. b) Early versions of the theory focused on pain gates in the brain. Recently, the theory has incorporated pain blocking mechanisms in the spinal cord.
  4. c) Early versions of the theory focused on pain gates in the spinal cord. Recently, the theory has rejected this mechanism of pain control.
  5. d) Early versions of the theory focused on pain gates in the brain. Recently, the theory has rejected this mechanism of pain control.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. In Canada, approximately 1 in ___ people suffers from chronic pain.
  2. a) 3
  3. b) 6
  4. c) 8
  5. d) 10

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The pain-relieving chemicals naturally produced by the nervous system belong to a class of substances called ___; this class also includes ___.
  2. a) stimulants; cocaine and amphetamine
  3. b) depressants; alcohol and valium
  4. c) opiates; heroin and morphine
  5. d) opiates; alcohol and valium

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Fadi injured her back and, after four surgeries, she is no longer able to work due to the pain. Based on research discussed in your textbook, there is a 50 percent probability that Fadi also suffers from ___.
  2. a) cancer
  3. b) hypochondriasis
  4. c) depression
  5. d) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Martin has just run the Boston Marathon. After the first 10 km his legs began to cramp and burn. As he continued running, he found that the pain went away, and he was able to finish the marathon. Which of the following best explains the subsiding of Martin’s pain?
  2. a) gate theory of pain
  3. b) adaptation
  4. c) exogenous opiates
  5. d) endogenous opiates

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. What endogenous chemical would be released by neurons following intense physical exertion or stress?
  2. a) morphine
  3. b) GABA
  4. c) endorphins
  5. d) serotonin

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Odelia stubbed her toe on the corner of a desk. What would be the most practical way of dealing with her pain?
  2. a) Wait it out – endorphins will ease the pain.
  3. b) Wait it out – according to gate theory, the pain will subside.
  4. c) Rub it – this will cause endorphins to be released and ease the pain.
  5. d) Rub it – according to gate theory this will prevent pain from travelling on slow pathways.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Noah was born with the inability to detect pain. Opal lost the ability to detect pain through a medical condition blocking messages from her extremities. Noah suffers from ___. Opal suffers from ___.
  2. a) neuropathy; neuropathy too
  3. b) neuropathy; dysautonomia
  4. c) dysautonomia; dysautonomia too
  5. d) dysautonomia; neuropathy

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

  1. Which of the following is associated with the lack of pain and temperature sensations?
  2. a) phantom limb sensations
  3. b) familial dysautonomia
  4. c) gate control theory
  5. d) enkephalins

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

  1. Which of the following facts about detecting pain is FALSE?
  2. a) women have adapted the ability to withstand more intense pain than men, due to the need to deliver children
  3. b) in some areas of the body, women have twice as many pain receptors as men
  4. c) distraction and breathing techniques can help individuals withstand more intense pain
  5. d) pain sensations travelling along the slow pathway can be somewhat prevented by activating the fast pathway using touch

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which of the following facts about detecting pain is true?
  2. a) women have adapted the ability to withstand more intense pain than men, due to the need to deliver children
  3. b) in some areas of the body, women have twice as many pain receptors as men
  4. c) all pain pathways by-pass the thalamus and have direct connections with the cortex
  5. d) anxiously focusing on the painful stimulus makes it feel better

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Your text book discusses why it is important for us to feel pain. Which type of psychologists would support the argument that recognizing pain is critical for preventing physical damage to the body?
  2. a) cognitive
  3. b) evolutionary
  4. c) clinical
  5. d) behavioural

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Your text states that “when a body part is removed . . . somatosensory inputs from intact body parts expand to occupy those regions of the cortex.” Recall the processes of neural development described in Chapter 4. Which concepts are most clearly suggested by this passage?
  2. a) plasticity and neurogenesis
  3. b) plasticity and synaptogenesis
  4. c) plasticity and neuropathy
  5. d) neurogenesis and synaptogenesis

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Kyle is experiencing extreme pain in his left arm. The only problem is that his left arm was amputated two years ago! According to Ramachandran, ____________ can help decrease the pain.
  2. a) electroconvulsive therapy
  3. b) mirror box therapy
  4. c) Lamaze therapy
  5. d) meditation

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Suravi is suffering from phantom limb pain in her left foot after it had to be amputated last year. Although the foot is no longer there, the pain from it prevents her from sleeping. What sort of therapy has been developed by Ramachandran to help lessen the phantom pain?
  2. a) mirror box therapy
  3. b) electroconvulsive therapy
  4. c) Lamaze therapy
  5. d) meditation

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Of the following, who is MOST likely to suffer from phantom limb pain?
  2. a) Midori, who had her leg amputated after suffering very painful bone cancer.
  3. b) Julian, who was born missing his right hand.
  4. c) Letisha, who always wore a wrist watch on the arm she had amputated.
  5. d) They are all equally likely to suffer phantom limb pain.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Phantom limb sensations reflect not only the reorganization of somatosensory cortex, but also patients’ memory for sensations they experienced prior to the removal of the body part. The contribution of cortical reorganization to phantom limb sensations exemplifies a ___ influence. The contribution of memory exemplifies a ___.
  2. a) top-down; top-down influence also
  3. b) top-down; bottom-up influence
  4. c) bottom-up; bottom-up influence also
  5. d) bottom-up; top-down influence

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. One treatment for phantom limb is the placement of mirrors by the individual on the same side as the missing limb. The patient is then instructed to move the intact limb. This treatment is known as ___.
  2. a) reflection therapy
  3. b) pseudo-limb replacement therapy
  4. c) mirror box therapy
  5. d) limb illusion therapy

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Which type of sensory information does the auditory system convert into neural impulses?
  2. a) vibrations in the air
  3. b) air temperature
  4. c) chemicals in the air
  5. d) air texture

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The number of cycles a sound wave completes in a certain amount of time is referred to as the sound’s ___ and is measured in ___.
  2. a) amplitude; Hertz
  3. b) frequency; decibels
  4. c) amplitude; decibels
  5. d) frequency; Hertz

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The frequency of a sound is responsible for producing ___.
  2. a) amplitude
  3. b) Hertz
  4. c) pitch
  5. d) timbre

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The strength of a given sound wave cycle is the sound’s ___, and is measured in ___.
  2. a) frequency; Hertz
  3. b) frequency; decibels
  4. c) amplitude; Hertz
  5. d) amplitude; decibels

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The amplitude of a sound wave cycle is responsible for the sound’s ___.
  2. a) pitch
  3. b) loudness
  4. c) timbre
  5. d) decibels

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Pitch is to loudness, as ___ is to ___.
  2. a) frequency; decibels
  3. b) decibels; frequency
  4. c) timbre; amplitude
  5. d) amplitude; timbre

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. A sound wave that as a low amplitude would sound:
  2. a) very rhythmic
  3. b) very soft
  4. c) very complex
  5. d) very low pitched

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Frequency is to amplitude as ___ is to ___.
  2. a) loudness; pitch
  3. b) pitch: hue
  4. c) pitch; loudness
  5. d) decibels; Hertz

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Lianne is listening to a sound wave that varies in frequency from high to low. This means that the sound is:
  2. a) changing from loud to soft
  3. b) moving far away and coming closer again
  4. c) decreasing in complexity
  5. d) becoming lower in pitch

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Igor is listening to a sound wave that varies in amplitude from low to high. This means that the sound is:
  2. a) becoming higher in pitch
  3. b) changing from soft to loud
  4. c) moving far away and coming closer again
  5. d) increasing in complexity

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. What is the technical term for the ear drum?
  2. a) occipital membrane
  3. b) tympanic membrane
  4. c) rhythmic membrane
  5. d) temporal membrane

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Collectively, the three small bones in the ear are called the ___.
  2. a) maleus
  3. b) incus
  4. c) ossicles
  5. d) stapes

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The last of the three ossicles contacts which part of the ear?
  2. a) the cochlea
  3. b) the basilar membrane
  4. c) the oval window
  5. d) the tympanic membrane

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following reflects the correct order of structures that sound waves must encounter for hearing?
  2. a) tympanic membrane – oval window—ossicles—cochlea—
  3. b) oval window – tympanic membrane – ossicles—cochlea
  4. c) tympanic membrane – ossicles – oval window –cochlea
  5. d) tympanic membrane — ossicles – cochlea – oval window

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. In the auditory pathway, what happens immediately after the oval window vibrates?
  2. a) the tympanic membrane vibrates
  3. b) waves are created in the basilar membrane that bend the hair cells
  4. c) neural impulses are sent to the thalamus and auditory cortex
  5. d) the incus sends a signal on to the stapes

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The ossicles are
  2. a) a thin membrane where sound waves enter the cochlea.
  3. b) a thin membrane in the cochlea.
  4. c) another word for the eardrum.
  5. d) tiny bones in the ear.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The auditory sensory receptors are
  2. a) bipolar cells that are embedded in the cochlea.
  3. b) bipolar cells that are embedded in the basilar membrane.
  4. c) hair cells that are embedded in the cochlea.
  5. d) hair cells that are embedded in the basilar membrane.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Scientists are excited to have discovered a new species of primate deep in the jungle. Most surprising is that this new primate species has a basilar membrane that is twice as long as ours, and it contains twice as many hair cells. Based on these anatomical findings, what would the place theory of pitch perception assume about this primate’s auditory abilities?
  2. a) it would have absolute pitch
  3. b) it would require louder sounds in order to hear them
  4. c) it would be able to hear better under water
  5. d) it would hear a wider range of frequencies than we do

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. In the auditory pathway, what happens immediately after the hair cells bend?
  2. a) neural impulses are sent to the thalamus and auditory cortex
  3. b) neural impulses are communicated to the auditory nerve
  4. c) waves are created in the basilar membrane
  5. d) the oval window vibrates

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. In a study Dr. Enderby is systematically varying the amplitude of a sound wave and asking observers to indicate how loud the sound seems. In this study, amplitude is a(n) ___ variable. Dr. Enderby should display the results of the study using a(n) ___.
  2. a) dependent; line graph
  3. b) dependent; bar graph
  4. c) independent; line graph
  5. d) independent; bar graph

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following ear structures is correctly paired with a description?
  2. a) tympanic membrane – covered with auditory hair cells
  3. b) ossicles – bones of the middle ear
  4. c) basilar membrane – fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
  5. d) cochlea – ear drum

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following sequences correctly reflects the order of events in which sound waves are converted into neural impulses in the ear, from first to last?
  2. a) deflection of the basilar membrane – formation of wave in cochlea – vibration of the ossicles – deflection of the tympanic membrane
  3. b) deflection of the basilar membrane – vibration of the ossicles – formation of wave in cochlea – deflection of the tympanic membrane
  4. c) deflection of the tympanic membrane – formation of wave in cochlea –vibration of the ossicles – deflection of the basilar membrane
  5. d) deflection of the tympanic membrane – vibration of the ossicles – formation of wave in cochlea – deflection of the basilar membrane

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the structures of the inner ear from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific?
  2. a) cochlea – basilar membrane – hair cells
  3. b) cochlea – hair cells – basilar membrane
  4. c) basilar membrane – hair cells – cochlea
  5. d) basilar membrane – cochlea – hair cells

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Part of the primary auditory cortex is organized in a tonotopic map. The term “tonotopic map” refers to
  2. a) a structure in the cochlea that maps out where hair cells should be.
  3. b) a structure in the auditory cortex that maps out where sounds of different amplitudes should be.
  4. c) representation in the auditory cortex of different sound amplitudes.
  5. d) representation in the auditory cortex of difference sound frequencies.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex refers to the fact that in the brain:
  2. a) different sound locations from the environment are represented in different regions of the auditory cortex
  3. b) different frequencies of sound are represented in different areas of the auditory cortex
  4. c) different amplitudes of sound are represented in different areas of the auditory cortex
  5. d) different kinds of sound are represented in different regions of the auditory cortex

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The fact that our auditory cortex is organized tonotopically means that:
  2. a) different frequencies are represented
  3. b) different locations of sounds are represented
  4. c) different types of sounds are represented
  5. d) different loudness of sound is represented

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Part of primary auditory cortex is organized as a ___ map of the different pitches in the sounds we hear.
  2. a) sonotopic
  3. b) audiotopic
  4. c) tonotopic
  5. d) cochleotopic

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Malcolm hates watching dubbed movies because the soundtrack doesn’t correspond with the images of the actors’ faces when they speak. Malcolm finds this distracting because his brain’s ___ cannot integrate auditory and visual information as easily in dubbed movies as it can normally.
  2. a) primary auditory cortex
  3. b) tonotopic cortex
  4. c) thalamus
  5. d) association areas in the auditory cortex

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. When you are sitting in class listening to a lecture, it is important that you understand what your professor is saying. Which of the following statements is NOT true about language comprehension?
  2. a) Language comprehension takes place in a brain region linked to the auditory association areas.
  3. b) It is more difficult to comprehend speech sounds if we do not also have visual information.
  4. c) Part of language comprehension involves top-down processing.
  5. d) Most of language comprehension occurs in the primary auditory cortex.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which theory of audition states that different frequencies are converted into different rates of action potentials in our auditory nerves?
  2. a) tonotopic
  3. b) place
  4. c) frequency
  5. d) association

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Frequency theory attempts to explain the perception of ___. Place theory attempts to explain the perception of ___.
  2. a) loudness; loudness
  3. b) loudness; pitch
  4. c) pitch; pitch
  5. d) pitch; loudness

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best captures the relative adequacy of the frequency and place theories as accounts of sound perception?
  2. a) Neither frequency theory nor place theory offer an adequate account of sound perception.
  3. b) Place theory seems a better theory of sound perception than does frequency theory.
  4. c) Frequency theory seems a better theory of sound perception than does place theory.
  5. d) Both frequency theory and place theory offer adequate accounts of sound perception.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. While high frequency sounds are best explained by the ___________ theory of pitch perception, low frequency sounds are best explained by the ___________ theory.
  2. a) timing in each ear; loudness in each ear
  3. b) tonotopic; basilar
  4. c) place; frequency
  5. d) amplitude; place

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which term refers to the rare ability to recognize an individual note in isolation?
  2. a) absolute pitch
  3. b) absolute frequency
  4. c) absolute amplitude
  5. d) absolute sound

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following persons is likely to have absolute pitch?
  2. a) David, a Canadian, who began guitar lessons when he was 4 years old
  3. b) Jaiko who was born and raised in Japan and began playing piano at 5 years old
  4. c) Celeste whose fMRI suggests she has a thickening in some areas of the cortex
  5. d) Julia, a German, who has been playing piano since she was 9 years old

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. In Western countries, about 1 in ___ people has absolute pitch.
  2. a) 100
  3. b) 1000
  4. c) 10,000
  5. d) 100,000

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Rhona hypothesizes that the ability of absolute pitch conveys an adaptive advantage. Your text reports that absolute pitch is more common among speakers of tonal languages than among speakers of nontonal languages. How does this finding relate to Rhona’s hypothesis?
  2. a) It doesn’t; the finding is irrelevant to Rhona’s hypothesis.
  3. b) The finding argues against Rhona’s hypothesis.
  4. c) The finding offers moderate support for Rhona’s hypothesis.
  5. d) The finding offers significant for Rhona’s hypothesis.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Nelly is going to undergo a test to see if she has absolute pitch. This test would be looking to see if Nelly can:
  2. a) detect sounds at lower intensities than the average person
  3. b) copy any song perfectly after hearing it only once
  4. c) recognize or produce any note on a musical scale
  5. d) dissect complex sound waves into their individual harmonies

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Dr. Peterson is performing brain surgery on a patient who has absolute pitch. What could Dr. Peterson expect to find in his patient’s brain that is different from the brain of an average person?
  2. a) this patient would have more synapses in their cortex
  3. b) this patient would have more auditory receptors
  4. c) this patient would have portions of their cortex that are thinner
  5. d) this patient would have action potentials that travel faster in their auditory cortex

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Tone deafness is also called ___.
  2. a) anaudia
  3. b) asonia
  4. c) amusia
  5. d) atonia

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Mandy can’t tell the difference between tones of varying frequencies, such as the sound of her doorbell (a high-pitched ‘ding’) and the sound of her dishwasher (a low-pitched ‘ding’). She also doesn’t enjoy listening to music the way other people do. Most likely, Mandy has a condition known as:
  2. a) nerve deafness
  3. b) conduction deafness
  4. c) amusia
  5. d) tinnitus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following would be the biggest problem for someone diagnosed with amusia?
  2. a) if they had children with someone who also had amusia
  3. b) if they had to determine the source of a sound
  4. c) if they lived in a culture where the language is tonal
  5. d) if it occurred later in life when the auditory pathways are set

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The noise of the crowd in the bar fades into the background as Latriece becomes engrossed in a conversation with her date. Suddenly, she hears her name mentioned a dozen feet down the bar: her ears perk up. This example illustrates the ___ effect, a ___ influence on auditory perception.
  2. a) cocktail party; top-down
  3. b) cocktail party; bottom-up
  4. c) happy-hour; top-down
  5. d) happy-hour; bottom-up

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of the cocktail party effect?
  2. a) Otto was listening to his phone until he heard his name being spoken by someone nearby
  3. b) Otto skipped dinner and went from one cocktail party to another all night
  4. c) Otto put headphones on his wife’s stomach and played music for his fetus
  5. d) Otto has a ringing in his hears after spending an evening at a cocktail party

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. What cues are used to localize sound?
  2. a) loudness in each ear
  3. b) timing
  4. c) adjusting our heads
  5. d) all the above

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Hadley hears the faint sound of a police siren. As time passes, the sound of the siren gets louder. Which of the following sound cues will provide Hadley with the most useful information about the location of the police car?
  2. a) loudness in each ear
  3. b) general loudness
  4. c) distance of loudness
  5. d) timing

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. While sitting in a coffee shop, Hildebrandt is listening to a scandalous conversation at a neighbouring table. Without turning her head, which of the following sound cues will provide Hildebrandt with the MOST useful information in figuring out at which neighbouring table the conversation is taking place?
  2. a) general loudness
  3. b) loudness in each ear
  4. c) timing
  5. d) both a) & b)

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. With respect to the development of the ability to recognize sounds, which of the following statements is true?
  2. a) Although many sounds can be recognized at birth, there is still substantial development in the ability to recognize sounds for many years following birth.
  3. b) The ability to recognize sounds is almost fully developed at birth; there is only minimal development following birth.
  4. c) Although the ability to recognize sounds is poorly developed at birth, the development of this ability is virtually complete by the age of 2.
  5. d) The ability to recognize sounds is poorly developed at birth. The development of this ability continues for many years following birth.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Dr. Tannenhaus is seeking funding to support a program to develop music skills among middle-school students in the fifth through seventh grades. You are on the committee evaluating his grant application. Which of the following pieces of feedback should you give him?
  2. a) I would reject Dr. Tannenhaus’ proposal. The ability to acquire music skills is fixed at birth and is unlikely to be influenced by instruction or learning.
  3. b) I would support Dr. Tannenhaus’ proposal. The program is right on target.
  4. c) I would encourage Dr. Tannenhaus to revise the proposal, targeting the program at high-schoolers in the ninth through twelfth grades rather than middle-schoolers. Older students are more likely to have the cognitive skills necessary to benefit from the program.
  5. d) I would encourage Dr. Tannenhaus to revise the proposal, targeting the program at preschoolers rather than middle-schoolers. The preschool years are the sensitive period in which the ability to acquire music skills is at its peak.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Dr. Horner is conducting research on the development of the tonotopic map in the auditory cortex of rats. He repeatedly exposes both young and old rats to pure tones. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects what Dr. Horner will find?
  2. a) There will be a larger representation of those sounds in the auditory cortex of the older rats.
  3. b) There will be equal representation of those sounds in the auditory cortex of both the old and young rats.
  4. c) There will be a larger representation of those sounds in the auditory cortex of the young rats.
  5. d) Bottom-up processes can help reorganize the auditory cortex of older rats even after the sensitive period is over.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the best source of evidence that organization in the primary auditory cortex is tonotopic, and that this organization occurs during a sensitive period in development?
  2. a) animals exposed to pure tones during a certain time in development show more representation of those sounds in the auditory cortex than similar exposure later in development
  3. b) infants who were exposed to pure tones during the last 2 months of gestation are more likely to exhibit absolute pitch
  4. c) animals raised without exposure to sound never develop the ability to hear low frequency sounds
  5. d) infants show a preference for female voices over male voices, and this shapes their auditory cortex to prefer higher frequencies

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Earleen has accumulated so much wax in her left ear that sounds are muffled. Earleen is experiencing
  2. a) conduction deafness.
  3. b) obstructive deafness.
  4. c) nerve deafness.
  5. d) the honeycomb effect.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Research has found that, since the introduction of the ‘ear bud” earphone, the hearing ability of the average 21-year old of today is equivalent to the average 80-year old of ten years ago. This suggests that the “ear bud” might be causing
  2. a) conduction deafness.
  3. b) obstructive deafness.
  4. c) amplitude deafness.
  5. d) nerve deafness.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Melvin has played electric guitar for years at volumes much too loud. Unfortunately, he has permanently damaged his hair cells, and they no longer function. This means that he:
  2. a) cannot identify objects based on sound alone, but can hear sounds
  3. b) cannot tell the difference between two tones of different frequencies, but can hear sounds
  4. c) cannot detect where sounds are coming from, but can hear sounds
  5. d) cannot hear anything

 

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Regarding cochlear implants, which of the following statements is true?
  2. a) Many deaf individuals choose to avoid cochlear implants.
  3. b) Cochlear implants are improving only slowly.
  4. c) Cochlear implants can enable almost every deaf person to hear sounds.
  5. d) Most deaf individuals have embraced cochlear implants.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. According to your text, tinnitus affects about 1 in ___ people.
  2. a) 50
  3. b) 100
  4. c) 200
  5. d) 500

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The term for the perpetual sense of a ringing in the ears is called:
  2. a) conduction deafness
  3. b) amusia
  4. c) tinnitus
  5. d) strabismus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The stimulus for vision is
  2. a) thermal radiation.
  3. b) electric radiation.
  4. c) electromagnetic radiation.
  5. d) photon radiation.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What is defined as the visible spectrum of light?
  2. a) 100–200 nm
  3. b) 250–350 nm
  4. c) 400–700 nm
  5. d) 750–950 nm

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum and visible light?
  2. a) “The electromagnetic spectrum” is just geek-speak for “visible light.” They’re the same thing.
  3. b) The electromagnetic spectrum refers to a small portion of the spectrum of visible light.
  4. c) A small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is visible light.
  5. d) Most but not all the electromagnetic spectrum is visible light.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Transduction from light to a neural signal happens in the:
  2. a) cornea
  3. b) iris
  4. c) optic nerve
  5. d) photoreceptor

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. As compared to cones, rods
  2. a) are more sensitive to light.
  3. b) are more densely concentrated in the fovea.
  4. c) are more responsible for colour perception.
  5. d) are less numerous.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Theresa just walked outside into bright sunlight and her pupils constricted. What part of the eye is responsible for making this happen?
  2. a) fovea
  3. b) iris
  4. c) lens
  5. d) cornea

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Visual receptors are found in the:
  2. a) cornea
  3. b) retina
  4. c) iris
  5. d) optic nerve

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Antarctica scientists have just discovered the frozen body of a new animal species. Upon examination, they discover that the retina of one of the species is only comprised of rods. What could scientists hypothesize about this animal’s lifestyle?
  2. a) It had full colour vision.
  3. b) It did not see colour.
  4. c) It is nocturnal.
  5. d) Both b) and c)

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vision associated with rods?
  2. a) night vision
  3. b) poor visual acuity
  4. c) colour vision
  5. d) peripheral vision

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. An owl conducts most of its hunting at night. Which of the following would you expect to find in greater abundance if you examined its visual system?
  2. a) rods
  3. b) cones
  4. c) bipolar cells
  5. d) ganglion cells

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Of the following, which apply to rods only?

1 – used for daytime vision

2 – found in the periphery of the eye

3 – used for visual acuity

4 – used for colour vision

5 – used for detecting movement

6 – found in nocturnal animals

7 – more numerous in the retina

  1. a) 2, 5, 6, 7
  2. b) 1, 3, 4, 7
  3. c) 2, 3, 5, 6
  4. d) 1, 2, 4, 6

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Of the following, which apply to cones only?

1 – used for daytime vision

2 – found in the periphery of the eye

3 – used for visual acuity

4 – used for colour vision

5 – used for detecting movement

6 – found in nocturnal animals

7 – more numerous in the retina

  1. a) 2, 5, 6, 7
  2. b) 1, 3, 4
  3. c) 2, 3, 5, 6
  4. d) 1, 4, 7

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The optic nerve is composed of axons of ___.
  2. a) bipolar cells
  3. b) ganglion cells
  4. c) rods and cones
  5. d) foveal cells

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The place on the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
  2. a) black hole
  3. b) visual hole
  4. c) visual gap
  5. d) blind spot

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Addison lost the sight in her left eye when she was a child. Although she has excellent vision in her right eye, she notices that when an object is moving into sight on her right side, she will lose sight of it for a very brief second. How would you explain this to Addison?
  2. a) The vision in Addison’s right eye is deteriorating.
  3. b) The image of the object is projecting to an area of the retina that only has rods.
  4. c) The image of the object is projecting to an area of the retina called the fovea.
  5. d) The image of the object is projecting to an area of the retina called the optic disc.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision, from first to last?
  2. a) pupil – retina – lens
  3. b) lens –pupil – retina
  4. c) retina – pupil – lens
  5. d) pupil – lens – retina

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following structures of the eye is correctly matched with its function?
  2. a) iris – detects light
  3. b) pupil – regulates the amount of light entering the eye
  4. c) lens – adjusts the size of the pupil
  5. d) rods – focus the image on the retina

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. In what region of the retina is vision the sharpest due to the largest concentration of cones?
  2. a) fovea
  3. b) optic nerve
  4. c) saturation
  5. d) where the optic nerve leaves the eye

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following best expresses the relationship between the retina and the fovea?
  2. a) They are one and the same: The terms are synonymous.
  3. b) The retina is part of the fovea.
  4. c) The fovea is part of the retina.
  5. d) Light passes through the fovea on its way to the retina.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Connie is watching a movie and is looking straight ahead. Which of following would NOT accurately describe what she would see?
  2. a) Objects directly in front of her would be clear.
  3. b) She would see objects moving in from the periphery.
  4. c) Coloured objects in the periphery would be seen in bright colours.
  5. d) Objects in front of her would be seen most clearly in daylight.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Melanie has just come out of a dark movie theatre into bright sunlight. Which of the following would best describe her visual process as she leaves the theatre?
  2. a) The cones in her eye allow Melanie to immediately notice the bright colours in her environment.
  3. b) The rods in her eye allow Melanie to immediately notice objects moving in her periphery.
  4. c) Her pupils constrict to block out the bright light, allowing her eyes to adapt.
  5. d) Her pupils dilate to allow more light in, so she can adjust to the change from the dark theatre.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which alternative below correctly pairs a dimension of colour with its description?
  2. a) hue – how much light is reflected from the visual stimulus
  3. b) hue – how much white is mixed into the colour
  4. c) brightness – the wavelength of light that the stimulus produces
  5. d) saturation – how much white is mixed into the colour

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. According to the trichromatic theory of colour vision, humans have three different cone receptors, and yet we can detect about seven million different colours. Which of the following is the best explanation of this?
  2. a) Each cone type is responsible for detecting many different colours.
  3. b) Top-down processing (i.e. knowing the colour of specific objects) contributes to our perception of colours.
  4. c) It is the combination of the signals produced by the cones that allows us to perceive so many colours.
  5. d) The light wavelengths are perceived as different shades depending on the strength of the wavelengths.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The ___ theory of colour vision proposes that there are three different receptors for colour.
  2. a) trichromatic
  3. b) frequency
  4. c) opponent-process
  5. d) place

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Ursula is an artist who works with three primary colours and from there, can mix any colour of the rainbow. This idea is most consistent with which theory of colour vision?
  2. a) the opponent process theory
  3. b) Gestalt theory
  4. c) the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
  5. d) colour constancy theory

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. With respect to colour vision, the lateral geniculate nucleus is to the retina as ___ theory is to ___ theory.
  2. a) opponent-process; trichromatic
  3. b) opponent-process; frequency
  4. c) trichromatic; opponent-process
  5. d) place; trichromatic

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the opponent processing theory of colour vision?
  2. a) colour afterimages
  3. b) three types of cone receptors
  4. c) colour blindness
  5. d) antagonistic cone receptors

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. According to the opponent process theory of colour vision, what would happen if you stared at a bowl of red tomatoes for a minute and then looked at an empty white plate?
  2. a) you’d see the afterimage consisting of red tomatoes
  3. b) you’d see the afterimage consisting of green tomatoes
  4. c) you’d see the afterimage as inverted because of the reflection in the plate
  5. d) you’d see the afterimage consisting of black tomatoes, because this is the opposite of white

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. According to the opponent process theory of colour vision, why is the afterimage always the opposite colour of the image?
  2. a) because we have three kinds of photoreceptors in the eye
  3. b) because the antagonistic colour of a pair will overcompensate following release from inhibition
  4. c) because receptors in the visual cortex get fatigued and rebound to the opponent colour
  5. d) because the opposite colour is reflected off the surface while all the other colours are absorbed

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. For over a minute, Laura has been staring at an image with seemingly random areas of white-on-black. When she shifts her gaze from the original image to a white wall, she suddenly sees an image of Jesus on the wall. Which of the following explains this phenomenon?
  2. a) Photoreceptors in the retina have become fatigued.
  3. b) Photoreceptors in the lateral geniculate nucleus have become fatigued.
  4. c) negative afterimage
  5. d) positive afterimage

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Malika has been staring at an image of a green heart framed in blue for almost a minute. When Malika shifts her gaze to a white wall, what is she likely to see?
  2. a) a red heart framed in yellow
  3. b) a yellow heart framed in red
  4. c) a green heart framed in blue
  5. d) a red heart framed in black

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. To what extent are colour afterimages adequately explained by trichromatic theory on the one hand, and opponent-process theory on the other?
  2. a) Trichromatic theory offers a more satisfactory account of colour afterimages than does opponent-process theory.
  3. b) Opponent-process theory offers a more satisfactory account of colour afterimages than does trichromatic theory.
  4. c) Both trichromatic theory and opponent-process theory offer satisfactory accounts of colour afterimages.
  5. d) Neither trichromatic theory nor opponent-process theory offers a satisfactory account of colour afterimages.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What type of colour blindness is most common?
  2. a) yellow-red
  3. b) blue-green
  4. c) blue-red
  5. d) red-green

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The pathway from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe is called the ___________, while the pathway from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe is called the ___________.
  2. a) temporal pathway; parietal pathway
  3. b) anterior pathway; posterior pathway
  4. c) what pathway; where pathway
  5. d) ventral pathway; lateral pathway

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Ludvig is a 6-year-old boy who is colouring a picture of Santa Claus standing next to a Christmas tree. When he proudly presents the finished picture to his mother, she notices that he has coloured the tree red, and Santa’s outfit green. How might you explain this to Ludvig’s mother?
  2. a) Ludvig has damage to his lateral geniculate nucleus.
  3. b) Ludvig has a shortage of either the red or green cones.
  4. c) Ludvig has a shortage of either the red or blue cones.
  5. d) Ludvig has damage to his what pathway.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the structures along the visual pathway, from first to last?
  2. a) thalamus – superior colliculus – visual cortex
  3. b) visual cortex – thalamus – superior colliculus
  4. c) superior colliculus – thalamus – visual cortex
  5. d) thalamus – visual cortex – superior colliculus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Visual information from the middle part of the visual field is processed on the ___ side of the cortex. Visual information from the lateral part of the visual field is processed ___.
  2. a) same; on the opposite side of the cortex
  3. b) opposite; on the same side of the cortex
  4. c) same; on the same side of the cortex as well
  5. d) opposite; on the opposite side of the cortex as well

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following alternatives BEST captures the distinction between the two major visual pathways described in your text?
  2. a) One processes object location. The other processes object identity.
  3. b) One processes chromatic aspects of the visual scene. The other processes nonchromatic aspects of the scene.
  4. c) One processes simple object features. The other processes complex object features.
  5. d) One processes stationary objects in the visual scene. The other processes moving objects.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The “what” pathway terminates in the ___ lobe. The “where” pathway terminates in the ___ lobe.
  2. a) temporal; parietal
  3. b) parietal; temporal
  4. c) occipital; parietal
  5. d) temporal; occipital

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which visual object recognition disorder is correctly identified?
  2. a) the inability to recognize faces – visual agnosia
  3. b) the inability to recognize objects visually – prosopagnosia
  4. c) the apparent unawareness of one side of the visual field – hemi-neglect
  5. d) the inability to recognize faces – anosmia

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Victor suffers from prosopagnosia. With which of the following tasks would Victor have the most difficulty?
  2. a) recognizing someone’s face in a photograph
  3. b) understanding a written paragraph
  4. c) understanding a spoken paragraph
  5. d) recognizing a picture of a car in a parking lot

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Queenie can recognize objects by smell or touch, but not by sight. She has no trouble recognizing objects verbally. Patsy recognizes faces only by focusing on features such as hairstyle, eyeglasses, or jewellery. Queenie suffers from ___. Patsy suffers from ___.
  2. a) hemi-neglect; prosopagnosia
  3. b) visual agnosia; hemi-neglect
  4. c) prosopagnosia; visual agnosia
  5. d) visual agnosia; prosopagnosia

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which alternative below correctly pairs a visual pathway with an object perception disorder?
  2. a) “what” pathway – visual agnosia
  3. b) “what” pathway – hemi-neglect
  4. c) “where” pathway – ageusia
  5. d) “where” pathway – prosopagnosia

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Selena is looking at the pictures in one of her high-school yearbooks. In which parts of her brain is heightened activity probably occurring?
  2. a) occipital lobe only
  3. b) occipital and temporal lobes
  4. c) occipital and parietal lobes
  5. d) temporal lobe only

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Betty has just drawn a picture of a landscape. After she is finished, her daughter notices that Betty did not draw any objects or finish the scene on the left side of the drawing. Based on this it is likely that Betty has sustained damage to the ___ pathway, leaving her with a disorder known as ___.
  2. a) left what pathway; prosopagnosia
  3. b) left where pathway; prosopagnosia
  4. c) right what pathway; hemi-neglect
  5. d) right where pathway; hemi-neglect

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Wilf has suffered brain damage that causes him to ignore everything on the left side. For instance, he only eats from the right half of his plate; he only brushes his hair and teeth on the right side; and he only shaves the right half of his face. What part of the brain did Wilf most likely damage?
  2. a) the ‘what’ pathway
  3. b) the frontal lobe
  4. c) the occipital lobe
  5. d) the ‘where’ pathway

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Evaluation

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Early in psychology’s history, the ___ psychologists identified the principles by which visual information is organized into coherent images.
  2. a) structural
  3. b) psychoanalytic
  4. c) humanist
  5. d) Gestalt

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The Gestalt psychologists believed that with respect to visual perception, the whole is more than the sum of its parts. By contrast, the ___ psychologists assumed that the whole is the sum of its parts.
  2. a) functional
  3. b) structural
  4. c) behavioural
  5. d) psychoanalytic

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Synthesis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The basic premise upon which Gestalt psychology was founded is
  2. a) each sensory input results in the top-down processing of the parts.
  3. b) bottom-up processing forms the basis of true perception.
  4. c) our perception of the whole may give us more information than simply looking at the parts separately.
  5. d) our recognition of objects is better for complex forms than simple forms.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which Gestalt law of grouping indicates that we tend to fill in the gaps of objects, so they are perceived as whole?
  2. a) Proximity
  3. b) Similarity
  4. c) Continuity
  5. d) Closure

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of the Gestalt principle of proximity?
  2. a) AAAABBBB
  3. b) AA AA AA      AA
  4. c) ABABABAB
  5. d) A A B  B  A  A  B  B

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of the Gestalt principle of similarity?
  2. a) AAAABBBB
  3. b) AA AA AA     AA
  4. c) A B A  B  A  B  A  B
  5. d) AAAA AAAA

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

  1. Matilda is counting the money from her piggy bank. When she dumps it out on the table she sees toonies, loonies, quarters, dimes, and nickels. Which Gestalt law is consistent with this example?
  2. a) Closure
  3. b) Proximity
  4. c) Similarity
  5. d) Continuity

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. When you are untangling strings of Christmas lights, it is difficult to tell where one string ends and another begins. Which Gestalt law is consistent with this example?
  2. a) Closure
  3. b) Proximity
  4. c) Similarity
  5. d) Continuity

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The artist, M. C. Escher is most famous for his drawings depicting perceptual illusions. For example, he often includes stairs that “go nowhere”. This would be an example of
  2. a) continuity.
  3. b) puzzling picture.
  4. c) impossible figures.
  5. d) figure-ground.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following Gestalt laws is correctly defined?
  2. a) proximity – we tend to fill in small gaps in objects.
  3. b) continuity – stimuli falling along the same plane tend to be grouped together.
  4. c) good form – stimuli near to one another tend to be grouped together.
  5. d) closure – stimuli resembling one another tend to be grouped together.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms is the best synonym for ‘disparity’?
  2. a) distance
  3. b) depth
  4. c) constancy
  5. d) difference

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The difference between the image of a scene received by the right eye and that received by the left eye can serve as a depth cue termed binocular ___.
  2. a) disparity
  3. b) gradient
  4. c) perspective
  5. d) constancy

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Since Jolly Roger, the pirate, lost one eye in a sword fight, he can no longer use ___ as a cue for the perception of depth and distance.
  2. a) convergence
  3. b) retinal disparity
  4. c) monocular cues
  5. d) accommodation

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Jared was sitting on the patio watching a butterfly flutter around. As he watched, the butterfly flew toward him and seemed to be planning to land on his nose. As the butterfly came closer to his nose, he could feel his eyes turn inwards. The cue that is telling Jared how close the butterfly is getting to him is known as
  2. a) retinal disparity.
  3. b) linear perspective.
  4. c) convergence.
  5. d) texture gradient.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Convergence is a binocular cue based on ___.
  2. a) the brain’s ability to converge signals from both eyes into a single image
  3. b) the feeling of a change in muscular tension required to turn the eyes inward when focusing on closer objects
  4. c) the ability of the brain to triangulate the distance from the retina to the object
  5. d) the detection of movement when objects are coming toward us

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a monocular depth cue?
  2. a) interposition
  3. b) linear perspective
  4. c) texture gradient
  5. d) convergence

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. You are standing on the beach; the sea is choppy. You observe that the crests of distant waves appear not only smaller, but also closer together than do the crests of waves nearer the beach. This example illustrates a depth cue known as ___.
  2. a) linear perspective
  3. b) relative size
  4. c) texture gradient
  5. d) binocular disparity

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. When a singer is on stage the singer can tell which fans are closer to the stage because their facial features are more distinct than those in distant rows. Which depth cue is the singer using?
  2. a) texture gradient
  3. b) interposition
  4. c) relative size
  5. d) clarity

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. When a singer is on stage the singer can tell which fans are closer to the stage because those closer obstruct his or her view of fans in more distant rows. Which depth cue is the singer using?
  2. a) texture gradient
  3. b) interposition
  4. c) relative size
  5. d) clarity

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. As Taralee looked out her window she noticed that the distant mountains looked hazy while the trees in her yard were sharp and clear. Which depth cue is Taralee using?
  2. a) light and shadow
  3. b) clarity
  4. c) texture gradient
  5. d) relative size

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. In a beginning drawing class, your instructor suggests that an illusion of depth may be created in a two-dimensional picture by including parallel lines that converge at a vanishing point. Your instructor is referring to a monocular depth cue known as ___.
  2. a) linear perspective
  3. b) linear parallax
  4. c) relative size
  5. d) texture gradient

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. From the window of an office on a skyscraper’s 90th floor, taxis on the street look tiny. Of course, you know they’re not toy cars; you’re just a long way up. This example illustrates the ___ depth cue of ___.
  2. a) monocular; familiar size
  3. b) binocular; familiar size
  4. c) monocular; texture gradient
  5. d) binocular; texture gradient

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. You are shown two lines and, although they are the same length, you identify one of the lines as being shorter than the other. Which of the following are you experiencing?
  2. a) Muller-Lyer illusion
  3. b) Ponzo illusion
  4. c) perceptual constancy
  5. d) linear perspective

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. When you are standing at the bottom of a ladder looking up, the rungs at the bottom of the ladder look larger than the rungs at the top. This is an example of ___.
  2. a) the Muller-Lyer illusion
  3. b) the Ponzo illusion
  4. c) size constancy
  5. d) shape constancy

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms reflects our tendency to view objects as unchanging in some ways even though the actual visual sensations we receive are constantly changing?
  2. a) perceptual illusion
  3. b) perceptual constancy
  4. c) binocular depth cue
  5. d) monocular depth cue

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Yvonne says goodnight to her boyfriend and watches him walk away. Although the retinal image of her boyfriend is getting smaller and smaller, Yvonne isn’t left wondering why he is suddenly shrinking. This is because Yvonne has:
  2. a) shape constancy
  3. b) size constancy
  4. c) colour constancy
  5. d) object permanence

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. John and Lucia are eating dinner in a restaurant. Although the restaurant manager dims the lights halfway through their meal, they still recognize that their food is the same colour. Which of the following terms explains this phenomenon?
  2. a) perceptual illusion
  3. b) colour constancy
  4. c) ponzo illusion
  5. d) colour illusion

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Quinn watches his white cat walk into the shadows. Although the retinal image of the cat’s colour has changed from white to grey, Quinn isn’t left wondering why his cat suddenly changed colour. This is because Quinn has:
  2. a) size constancy
  3. b) shape constancy
  4. c) colour constancy
  5. d) perceptual set

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. If you hold your hand in front of you at arm’s length, you recognize it as your hand. If you slowly move your hand in toward your face, the image of your hand covers a larger portion of your retina, however, you do not tend to think that your hand has suddenly begun to grow. Which of the following explains this?
  2. a) colour constancy
  3. b) Ponzo illusion
  4. c) Muller-Lyer illusion
  5. d) size constancy

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Lara is watching the moon rise. When the moon is on the horizon it appears to be much larger than when it is higher up in the sky. This phenomenon is called the ___ and is caused by ___.
  2. a) lunar illusion; size constancy cues
  3. b) lunar illusion; a reduction in the size constancy effect
  4. c) moon illusion; a reduction in the size constancy effect
  5. d) moon illusion; size constancy cues

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Regardless of the angle at which you look at a book (e.g., if it is lying flat or standing on a shelf), you still recognize it as a book. This is an example of ___.
  2. a) size constancy
  3. b) object constancy
  4. c) shape constancy
  5. d) angle constancy

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The effect seen in the Ames Room is the result of ___.
  2. a) perceptual consistency
  3. b) shape constancy
  4. c) size constancy
  5. d) both shape and size constancy

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Compared to the other senses, vision is ___ developed at birth.
  2. a) less well
  3. b) equally
  4. c) more highly
  5. d) much more highly

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Vinnie is 1 month old. Uri is 3 months old. Tanisha is a 9-month-old. Which alternative below most accurately describes the visual development of these infants?
  2. a) Vinnie focuses mostly on contrasts. Uri focuses on faces. Tanisha’s focal range is about one foot.
  3. b) Vinnie focuses mostly on contrasts. Uri focuses on faces. Tanisha’s visual acuity is similar to that of an adult.
  4. c) Vinnie focuses mostly on contrasts. Uri’s focal range is about one foot. Tanisha focuses on faces.
  5. d) Vinnie focuses on faces. Uri’s focal range is about one foot. Tanisha’s visual acuity is similar to that of an adult.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Four-year-old Warrick wears an eye patch over his right eye. Why might this be?
  2. a) Warrick is amblyopic.
  3. b) Warrick is strabismic.
  4. c) Warrick is myopic.
  5. d) Warrick is either amblyopic or strabismic.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Zoran has been diagnosed with strabismus. What are the effects of this condition?
  2. a) Zoran cannot identify colours
  3. b) Zoran cannot perceive movement
  4. c) Zoran’s primary visual cortex is not receiving signals from his lateral geniculate nucleus
  5. d) Zoran’s eyes are each receiving a different image

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Stacy has just been told that her 5-year old son has strabismus. What is the doctor likely to say to Stacy about her son’s vision?
  2. a) he can’t identify colours
  3. b) he can’t perceive movement
  4. c) his primary visual cortex is not receiving signals from his lateral geniculate nucleus
  5. d) his eyes are each receiving a different image

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between strabismus and amblyopia?
  2. a) Strabismus can produce amblyopia.
  3. b) Amblyopia can produce strabismus.
  4. c) Strabismus can produce amblyopia but occasionally amblyopia can cause strabismus.
  5. d) Strabismus and amblyopia are unrelated.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Approximately how many people in the Canada may be characterized as blind?
  2. a) 38,000
  3. b) 108,000
  4. c) 278,000
  5. d) 438,000

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. When blind people read Braille, which parts of their brains become active?
  2. a) portions of the occipital lobe
  3. b) portions of somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe
  4. c) portions of the occipital and temporal lobes – the “what” pathway in vision
  5. d) portions of the occipital and parietal lobes – the “where” pathway in vision

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The sense that tells us if we are moving and in which direction we are moving is called the ___.
  2. a) vestibular sense
  3. b) kinesthetic sense
  4. c) synesthetic sense
  5. d) multisthetic sense

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Darren and Lily are dancing. As they sway to the music, which sense detects their body’s position in space?
  2. a) vestibular
  3. b) kinesthetic
  4. c) synesthetic
  5. d) multisthetic

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Kinesthetic is to vestibular as ___ is to ___.
  2. a) ear; muscle
  3. b) muscle; ear
  4. c) superior colliculus; inferior colliculus
  5. d) Inferior colliculus; superior colliculus

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Madeline is taking a ferry to Vancouver Island and is feeling seasick. Seasickness is caused by
  2. a) a mismatch between the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular sense.
  3. b) a mismatch between the kinesthetic sense and the eyes.
  4. c) a mismatch between the vestibular sense and the eyes.
  5. d) mismatch between the kinesthetic sense and the synesthetic sense.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

MATCHING QUESTION

 

 

  1. Match the appropriate words in the left column to the definitions in the right column.

 

Terms

A. Saturation

B. Visual Agnosia

C. Hemi-neglect

D. Amblyopia

E. Vestibular sense

F. Merkel’s discs

G. Ageusia

H. Ruffini end-organs

I. Insula

J. Olfactory bulb

K. Anosmia

L. Perceptual set

M. Bottom-up processing

N. Sensory adaptation

O. Transduction

P. Cochlea

Q. Absolute threshold

R. Hue

 

_____

 

_____

 

_____

_____

 

_____

 

_____

_____

_____

 

_____

_____

Definitions

1. Perception begins with the physical stimuli in the environment.

2. Located in the semicircular canals of the inner ear.

3. Related to the “what” pathway.

4. Area of the cortex that receives taste information.

5. Reduced response from repeated sensory stimuli.

6. Experience of colour based on wavelength.

7. Loss of visual abilities in weaker eye.

8. Sensory receptors that convert information about light to Medium pressure on the skin.

9. The ability to taste is lost.

10. Minimal stimulus necessary for detection.

 

 

 

 

ANSWERS TO MATCHING QUESTION

 

 

  1. M: Bottom-up processing

 

  1. E: Vestibular sense

 

  1. B: Visual Agnosia

 

  1. I: Insula

 

  1. N: Sensory adaptation

 

  1. R: Hue

 

  1. D: Amblyopia

 

  1. F: Merkel’s discs

 

  1. G: Ageusia

 

  1. Q: Absolute threshold

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

 

  1. The physical stimuli used by the gustatory sensory system are called ___.

 

Answer: chemicals

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The sensory system that responds to pressure or damage to the skin is called the ___ system.

 

Answer: somatosensory (touch, heat, pain)

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. The method used by odorants to enter the nose and bind to specific receptor sites is similar to the method used by neurotransmitters binding to receptors sites on receiving neurons. Both bind in a(n) ___ fashion.

 

Answer: lock-and-key

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The human tongue is covered with bumps called ___.

 

Answer: papillae

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The olfactory bulb sends information to the ___, an area important for learning and memory.

 

Answer: hippocampus

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. People who have lost the ability to smell have a disorder known as ___.

 

Answer: anosmia

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. The sensory receptors that detect pain are ___.

 

Answer: free nerve endings

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The fast pathway for pain uses ___ neurons so we can respond quickly to pain.

 

Answer: myelinated

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. The chemicals produced by our bodies that have pain relieving properties are called ___.

 

Answer: endorphins or enkephalins

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. A rare genetic condition associated with the inability to detect pain is known as ___.

 

Answer: familial dysautonomia

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. When we describe the “loudness” of a sound, we are referring to its ___.

 

Answer: amplitude

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The auditory sensory receptors that cover the basilar membrane in the cochlea are rows of ___.

 

Answer: hair cells

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The muscles around the opening of the ears ___ in response to loud noises.

 

Answer: contract

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Part of the primary auditory cortex is organized in a(n) ___ map.

 

Answer: tonotopic

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Another term for tone deafness is ___.

 

Answer: amusia

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. The specialized sheet of nerve cells located in the back of the eye is called the ___.

 

Answer: retina

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Dilation and constriction of the ___ is one way that the visual system adapts to light.

 

Answer: pupil

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. People with a specific form of visual agnosia known as ___ CANNOT recognize faces.

 

Answer: prosopagnosia

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. The term that refers to each eye experiencing a slightly different image of environmental stimuli is ___.

 

Answer: retinal disparity

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Our tendency to view objects as unchanging is referred to as ___.

 

Answer: perceptual constancy, perceptual constancies

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

SHORT ANSWER ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

 

  1. List the technical names for each of the five sensory systems.

 

Answer: olfactory, gustatory, somatosensory, auditory, visual

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. What sensory process describes why the continual presence of a stimulus results in a decreased response to that stimulus over time?

 

Answer: adaptation

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. What type of perceptual processing begins with physical energies that enter the body from the environment?

 

Answer: bottom-up

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. What sense is most closely tied to taste?

 

Answer: smell

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Name the five major taste receptors.

 

Answer: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami

 

Difficulty; Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. “Hot” or spicy foods activate what component of the tongue that communicates pain?

 

Answer: tactile system

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. What structure that is activated by the olfactory bulb is associated with regulation of emotions and fear?

 

Answer: amygdala

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Many people report that smells are evocative of past events. What two structures in the brain may be activated during these olfactory “trips down memory lane”?

 

Answer: hippocampus and amygdala

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Why may a person develop the disorder of ageusia, the loss of the ability to taste?

 

Answer: head trauma or oral surgery

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. What term describes how tactile information on one side of the body is processed on the opposite side of the brain?

 

Answer: contralaterally

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. What tactile receptors located deep in the skin respond to the movement of joints?

 

Answer: Ruffini’s end-organs

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. What class of molecules includes endorphins and enkephalins?

 

Answer: opiates

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Why is insensitivity to pain dangerous?

 

Answer: Prevents detection of discomfort that may lead to serious injury.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. What measure do we use to describe levels of sound?

 

Answer: decibels

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Name the three ossicles.

 

Answer: maleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. What fluid-filled structure in the inner ear contains the basilar membrane?

 

Answer: cochlea

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. What areas within the auditory cortex act to integrate or coordinate auditory information with signals from other sensory modalities?

 

Answer: association

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. What irritating condition is described as “ringing in the ears”?

 

Answer: Tinnitus

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Name the two major classes of photoreceptors.

 

Answer: rods and cones

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What term refers to the wavelength of light that a visual stimulus produces?

 

Answer: hue

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What condition results in a person ignoring one side of their visual field?

 

Answer: hemi-neglect

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What term is used to describe how we determine the distance of objects from us and their spatial relationship with one another?

 

Answer: depth perception

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What disorder is characterized by the inability to naturally develop coordinated movement of both eyes?

 

Answer: Strabismus

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

 

  1. Describe the difference between absolute threshold and difference threshold.

 

Answer: An absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of one stimulus necessary for detection to occur, whereas a difference threshold refers to the smallest amount of difference between two or more stimuli necessary for a person to be able to discriminate one stimulus from another.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Describe how top-down processing and bottom-up processing differ.

 

Answer: Top-down uses previously acquired knowledge and experience to assist us in recognizing environmental stimuli, whereas bottom-up uses the physical energies that enter the body from the environment.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe characteristics shared by all the senses, including receptor cells, transduction, and thresholds, and differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processes of perception.

Section Reference: Common Features of Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. Why are taste and smell referred to as chemical senses?

 

Answer: Both senses involve responses to specific chemicals such as those in ants (for smell) and in food (for taste).

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. How is the consistency of food communicated to the brain?

 

Answer: Touch receptors located on the tongue relay textural information such as “slimy” to the brain.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Identify an age-related disease that produces a diminished sense of smell. What does this relationship between disease and smell indicate about brain structures?

 

Answer: Alzheimer’s disease and the related loss of smell may indicate that the neurons in brain structures located in olfactory brain regions are deteriorating.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Summarize the biological changes that underlie smell and taste.

Section Reference: The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

  1. Describe the pathway whereby touch receptors send information to the brain.

 

Answer: Tactile information is sent via the spinal cord to the brain where it is first received by the thalamus before being routed to the somatosensory cortex (in the parietal lobe).

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Describe the characteristics of the slow and fast pain pathways.

 

Answer: Fast pain pathways use myelinated neurons whereas the slow pain pathways do not. Pain perceived through the fast pathways is sharp pain whereas pain perceived through the slow pathways is nagging or burning pain.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Describe the gate control theory.

 

Answer: Some neural patterns of activity in the brain itself can create a “gate” to prevent pain messages from reaching the brain.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Define phantom limb sensations.

 

Answer: People with amputated limbs report tactile hallucinations or sensations from body parts that no longer exist.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe how the different senses of touch work and what can happen when things go wrong.

Section Reference: The Tactile or Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

 

 

  1. Mickey Mouse has a “high-pitched” voice. What does this mean in terms of frequency?

 

Answer: The frequency of a sound wave refers to the number of cycles the wave completes in a certain amount of time. “High-pitched” sounds indicate that a substantial number of cycles are completed in a short period of time.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Application

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Describe the place theory of audition.

 

Answer: Differences in sound frequency activate different regions of the basilar membrane.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Describe the cocktail party effect.

 

Answer: The brain is able to filter out irrelevant noises in a loud environment so that we can focus attention on meaningful conversations around us.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Define synesthesia and provide an example.

 

Answer: Sensation disorder in which people receive sensations in a different modality than that of the original stimulus; tasting light is an example.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Describe three common causes of deafness.

 

Answer: Infections, physical trauma, overdoes of common medications, genetics, prolonged exposure to loud noises, etc.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Summarize what happens when we hear.

Section Reference: The Auditory Sense: Hearing

 

 

  1. Describe the difference in the type of stimuli rods and cones are used to perceive.

 

Answer: Rods are used to detect light and are useful in night vision. Cones are used to detect colour and minute details.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Explain the trichromatic theory of vision.

 

Answer: There are three different sensors for colour that respond to different wavelengths of light.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Comprehension

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. How does Gestalt inform theories of vision?

 

Answer: Helps add meaning to visual information; laws of grouping and figure/ground help identify how visual information is organized into coherent images.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. What is the difference between monocular and binocular depth cues?

 

Answer: Binocular depth cues require the use of both eyes whereas monocular cues require the use of only one eye.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. Name three diseases that can produce blindness?

 

Answer: Diabetes, glaucoma, macular degeneration, etc.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

  1. An image of the Ames room illusion is shown below. Explain why the illusion leads us to perceive one individual to be larger than the other individual.

 

Answer: The Ames room illusion is the result of both shape and size constancy. First, we expect the room to be square, but it actually is irregularly shaped. Second, because we think the room is square, we believe that both people are the same distance from us, leading us to perceive one as much larger than the other.

 

Difficulty: Hard

Bloomcode: Analysis

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

LABELLING QUESTION

 

 

  1. Indicate the two visual pathways and respective brain cortices on the following diagram.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

Bloomcode: Knowledge

Learning Objective: Describe key processes in visual sensation and perception.

Section Reference: The Visual Sense: Sight

 

 

 

 

LEGAL NOTICE

 

 

 

Copyright © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. or related companies. All rights reserved.

 

 

The data contained in these files are protected by copyright. This manual is furnished under licence and may be used only in accordance with the terms of such licence.

 

The material provided herein may not be downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, modified, made available on a network, used to create derivative works, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise without the prior written permission of John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.

 

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