Practicing Leadership Principles And Applications 4th Edition By Shriberg – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5:  PSYCHOLOGY I: INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY

 

INTRODUCTION

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BRIEF OUTLINE

DETAILED OUTLINE

ANSWERS TO “QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AND REVIEW”

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

ESSAY QUESTIONS

TEACHING ACTIVITIES

MEDIA RESOURCES

 

INTRODUCTION

Individuals’ intellectual and personality traits contribute significantly to their work in their chosen field.  In addition, our particular life experiences affect our abilities and interests in a variety of ways. When one examines the great leaders of today and yesterday, one cannot help but be awed by the sheer range of backgrounds from which these leaders emerge. It is also astonishing to examine the ability of leaders to inspire those who follow them. An examination of psychology does not provide all the answers to these questions (only you can do that), but in this chapter we will look at two central components of the intersection of psychology and leadership—intelligence and personality. We address the age-old question of whether great leaders are born or made (the answer may surprise you) and consider some of the many theories about motivating others.

 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

  • To understand and differentiate between theories of intelligence.
  • To learn about personality and the ways that it might affect someone’s leadership practices or abilities.

 

BRIEF OUTLINE

  1. Introduction
  2. What is Intelligence?
    1. Psychometric Model
    2. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Model
    3. Leadership Profile: Multiple Intelligences in Practice: The Example of Simon Cowell
    4. Goleman’s Theory of Emotional Intelligence and Social Intelligence
    5. Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
    6. Section Summary
    7. Leadership Profile: Learning Disabled or World Renowned Genius? The Multiple Dimensions of Intelligence
  • Personality
    1. Are Leaders Born or are they Made?
    2. Leadership Profile: John Broadus Watson: “The Father of Behaviorism,” Advertising Pioneer
    3. Attitudes, Perceptions and Attributions
    4. Section Summary

 

DETAILED OUTLINE

What is Intelligence?

Intelligence – the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new and trying situations; the ability to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria.

 

There is a tendency to view intelligence as something that cuts across all areas of one’s life.  However, the brain is an extremely complex structure and to think of an individual as either entirely “intelligent” or “unintelligent” is not likely to be a useful distinction for you to make as a leader. More helpful would be to make the following two assumptions: 1) each individual has a particular set of intellectual strengths and weaknesses; and 2) situations often dictate performance more than global ability.

 

Psychometric Model

IQ: intelligence quotient- a person’s score on a standardized test designed to measure

Intelligence

 

There are a number of different standardized IQ tests that are commonly used in the United States. These tests are typically quite comprehensive and measure a variety of skills, such as verbal skills, non-verbal problem-solving, processing speed, and short and long-term memory.

The first modern intelligence test was created by two Frenchmen, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. The impetus for this test was the recognition by the Minister of Public Instruction in Paris that some schoolchildren were not learning through traditional means. The original Binet-Simon (1905) test had thirty items and no method for scoring the test. The test was expanded to 58 items in 1908 and it was in this version that the concept of a person’s overall mental level (now known as IQ) was introduced.

While Binet’s goal was to promote improved education for children who were having difficulty learning in a standard classroom, in the United States intelligence testing was often utilized for a less noble purpose. By 1911, intelligence testers, led by Henry H. Goddard, were calling for widespread intelligence testing of immigrants at Ellis Island in order to identify those who were intellectually deficient. Goddard was a promoter of something called eugenics and the results of his work were highly influential in perpetuating the belief that immigrants were less intelligent than persons born in the United States.

 

Eugenics – the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding

           

There continues to be a misperception that one number or score can adequately label a person. Perhaps the strongest criticism of the idea of a universal measure of intelligence can be found in Stephen Jay Gould’s (1981) “The Mismeasure of Man.” In this classic work, Gould challenged the idea of reducing something as abstract as intelligence into a single number. Gould also questioned the usefulness of ranking people on constructs like intelligence that do not translate as well as other variables like height and weight do to clear and logical numerical measurements.

 

g and s: Spearman proposed that intelligence can be divided into two factors: s, which

are specific subfactors of intelligence and g, which can be thought of as general

intelligence.  In this model, someone with a high g would be expected to do well on all intellectual tasks while uneven abilities are attributed to different s levels on specific tasks.

           

General intelligence – specific subfactors of intelligence such as verbal comprehension or perceptual reasoning.

 

Psychometrics – The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits.

 

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Model

In contrast to the psychometric model, where tests are generally administered in an office and where the results of these tests often lead to a global interpretation (e.g., “Bob’s IQ is in the 55th percentile”), Howard Gardner, in his classic (1983) “Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,” sought to promote a more naturalistic view of intelligence, focused on real-world skills. In his original model, he divided intelligence into seven different areas:

 

  • Musical intelligence: the ability to understand and create music
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence: the ability to use one’s body in a skilled way, for self-expression or toward a goal
  • Spatial intelligence: the ability to “think in pictures,” to perceive the visual world accurately, and recreate (or alter) it in the mind or on paper
  • Interpersonal intelligence: an ability to perceive and understand other individuals—their moods, desires, and motivations
  • Intrapersonal intelligence: an understanding of one’s own emotions
  • Linguistic intelligence: a sensitivity to the meaning and order of words
  • Logical-Mathematic intelligence: ability in mathematics and other complex logical systems

Later, Gardner added an eighth form of intelligence:

Naturalistic intelligence, ability to recognize and classify plants, minerals, and animals, including rocks and grass and all variety of flora and fauna.

 

From Gardner’s perspective, each of these forms of intelligence is of approximately equal importance, yet he notes that in U.S. society two of these forms—linguistic intelligence and logical-mathematic intelligence—tend to be given higher value in schools.

 

 

Leadership Profile: Multiple Intelligences in Practice: The Example of Simon Cowell

Despite his often bold remarks, a lot of contestants call Simon Cowell their favorite judge because he brings out the best in them, and a number of columnists ascribe the popularity of American Idol to Simon’s personality and the tension that he creates.

Simon Cowell was not always a household name that made millions of dollars for being on TV. A high school drop-out, he began his career in the mailroom of the EMI Music Publishing offices, a job that was given him by his father, who at that time was an EMI executive. Over the years Cowell started a number of record companies and some of them failed. For example, when he was 30 years old, his record company Fanfare Records went bankrupt and Cowell moved in with his parents as a result. Afterwards, Cowell joined BMG records and then S Records. This is when his career started to rise.

Even though Cowell has spent most of his life in the music business, he admits to not having any musical talents. He doesn’t play any instruments, doesn’t read music notes and has no musical education. Cowell says that his talent is in recognizing what will be the next big hit—what people will love. Even though some people might find Cowell’s remarks controversial, it is hard to deny that he has a winning personality and a very specific form of intelligence that gives the show a unique twist. Cowell believes that he is helping people by telling them the way things really are. Those who know Simon on a more personal level say that he is a very nice guy with a sweet personality. Cowell is undoubtedly a successful entrepreneur and one of the most recognizable leaders of the music industry.

 

Goleman’s Theory of Emotional Intelligence and Social Intelligence

Emotional intelligence: The ability to fully understand oneself and to relate well with others

 

Many studies have shown that when it comes to successful leadership, emotional intelligence is even more important than innate/rational intelligence. Daniel Goleman in his book, “Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ” (1995), stated that emotional intelligence can be taught and includes the ability to: motivate oneself and persist despite frustrations; regulate one’s own moods; empathize; delay gratification; handle stress well; have verbal and nonverbal skills in sync; have self/other acceptance/tolerance; and promote “group harmony.” Goleman has argued that emotional intelligence subsumes most of what is not measured by traditional IQ tests.  Goleman’s critics argue that his claims about emotional intelligence go beyond the actual data he obtained to support these claims.

Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) assert that there are eighteen different leadership competencies that fall within four domains of emotional intelligence.

 

Emotional Intelligence Domain

Leadership Competencies

Self-Awareness: A leader must have an accurate self-assessment of his / her strengths and weaknesses.  A leader is self-confident, aware of how his/her feelings affect his/her job performance, and welcomes constructive criticism. Emotional Self Awareness

Accurate Self Awareness

Self Confidence

Self-Management: An emotionally intelligent leader has good self-control, is genuine, adaptable, and achievement-oriented.  Such a leader stays calm and clear-headed under crisis situations, admits mistakes, and confronts unethical behavior in others, is flexible in thinking, and has high personal standards and a commitment to life-long learning. Self-Control

Transparency

Adaptability

Achievement

Initiative

Optimism

Social Awareness: Leaders with emotional intelligence are empathetic and can sense the unspoken emotions in groups.  They are keenly aware of and are able to navigate through organizational hierarchies and foster an open communication environment. As a leader, people pay attention to how you react to setbacks.  Whether you are optimistic, energetic, angry, or rude, your reactions will trickle down to all members of the group. Empathy

Organizational Awareness

Service

Relationship Management: Emotionally intelligent leaders are able to inspire people and help mobilize a shared mission.  They are persuasive and engaging public speakers and enjoy cultivating other people’s strengths and interests. Teamwork, collaboration, conflict management, and spending time forging close relationships outside of work to promote group harmony are of utmost importance to an emotionally intelligent leader. Inspiration

Influence

Developing Others

Change Catalyst

Conflict Management

Teamwork and Collaboration

 

Social intelligence – the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with you.

 

            Whereas emotional intelligence tended to focus on the individual in isolation, in “Social Intelligence: The Revolutionary New Science of Human Relationships” (2006), Goleman examines how one’s interpersonal skills and relationships can have an impact on all parts of one’s life, including how long one lives!  Leaders with strong social intelligence bring out the best in themselves and in others.

 

Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg devised a three-part theory to describe intellectual processes conducive to success on this test.

Componential subtheory: the degree of one’s ability to solve problems using internal mechanisms.

Experiential subtheory: The degree to which an individual effectively uses prior knowledge or past experience.

Contextual subtheory: the degree to which an individual’s culture or values impact their performance in real-life situations.

 

Sternberg’s definition of intelligence: “a mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life,” which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg’s theory is comprised of three parts: componential, experiential, and practical.

 

Here are some examples that illustrate the distinction between these three subtheories. Many of us know people who seem to test above or below their abilities on standardized tests (think of the class valedictorian who scores below an “average” student on the SAT). Those who score above expectations likely have high componential abilities—they are able to use effective problem solving strategies. Similarly, take two persons of approximately equal intelligence and ask them to answer sports trivia questions. If one of those persons follows sports closely (and thus has high experiential knowledge) and the other does not, the sports fan is likely to do better on that task. Finally, contextual theory acknowledges that different people and different cultures have different values. Therefore, if you take two persons of equal intelligence, one raised in a highly competitive society and the other raised in a setting where cooperation is valued over competition, and then place these two people in a competitive situation, the advantage would go to the person raised in the competitive society.

In Sternberg’s writings on leadership, intelligence is not viewed as an overall measurement (as in the concept of g), nor is intelligence seen as a series of discrete skills, as in Gardner’s multiple intelligence model. Instead, Sternberg equates intelligence with success. Specifically, in his theory of successful intelligence, he states that people achieve success by recognizing and capitalizing on their personal strengths and by recognizing and either correcting or compensating for their weaknesses. Thus, successful leaders in this model possesses the intellectual skill of knowing how to put themselves in the best position to succeed, be that by either changing environments or modifying the environment they are in to bring out their talents.

 

Leadership Profile: Learning Disabled or World Renowned Genius? The Multiple Dimensions of Intelligence

The prospects did not look good for a young Albert Einstein. It is believed that the future internationally acclaimed physicist did not speak until age three and that by age nine he still spoke hesitantly, prompting his parents to believe that his intelligence was below average. As a teenager, Einstein failed an examination that would have allowed him to pursue a course of studies in electrical engineering and he was turned down for several positions at universities. It was only while working as a patent worker and writing on theoretical physics in his spare time that Einstein first became widely known in academic circles.

While it is not clear whether or not Einstein had a learning disability (many suspect he had), his story of having intellectual talent that may not have been apparent as a child in school but then going on to being recognized as a leader in his field is a common one. For example, George Washington, the first president of the United States, could not spell and had poor grammar usage. There are many present and past leaders in various fields that are known to or are believed to have a learning disability. This shows how certain conceptions of intelligence don’t necessarily hinder success.

 

Personality

Personality – The particular way an individual affects others and understands him or herself.

 

Psychology is the study of human behavior. Human behavior is of course a broad area, the scope of which is well beyond that of this text. What then are the most salient aspects of human behavior that apply to leadership? Certainly, one important aspect of human behavior is how it forms what we call individual personalities. Only within the past 150 years, however, has there been significant research that examines personality development over the course of the entire life span. Driven by Darwin’s theory of evolution, early personality theorists such as Freud were generally biologists and physicians who sought to understand personality development through the study of physiology.

 

Are Leaders Born or are they Made?

            In 1869, Sir Francis Galton was among the first to assert that those qualities that make great leaders are biologically inherited. This is a notion that continues to be hotly disputed in psychology—primarily through what is known as the nature/nurture debate.

 

Nature versus Nurture Debate – The debate over to what degree personality characteristics and traits are affected by one’s genetics (nature) and environment (nurture).

 

On the “nature” side, some, like Galton and others, would assert that some individuals are simply “natural leaders.” Clearly, children are born with different personalities, and it is reasonable to assume that some personalities are more conducive to developing leadership than others. Although the fundamental characteristics ascribed to these types of leaders vary, typically the characteristics of great leaders were thought to include:

  • Intelligence, including judgment and verbal ability
  • A record of achievement in school and athletics
  • Emotional stability and maturity
  • Strong achievement drive, persistence, and dependability
  • People skills and social flexibility
  • Drive to find status and socioeconomic position

 

Sigmund Freud did not write about personality development in terms of leadership, but he became the most widely known personality theorist and a major articulator of a viewpoint that leaned more heavily toward the “nature” side. A biologist by training, Freud postulated that one’s personality was formed based on one’s ability during childhood to adapt to a world filled with conflict. Children were viewed as passive recipients of stimulation and maladaptive personality development was attributed to bad mothering. Thus, from this perspective, one’s core personality is formed very early on and is created via one’s physiological responses to external stimulation. Because the source of personality is so deeply rooted in physiology and early childhood experiences, the classic Freudian framework views treatment as a long process that may require the analyst to assume parental roles in order to recreate the scene of developmental roadblocks.

At the other end—the “nurture” end—of the continuum are those who follow in the tradition of John Locke, who viewed the infant’s mind as a tabula rasa (blank slate), amenable to all sorts of influences depending on the environment in which one is raised.

 

Tabula Rasa – a young mind not yet affected by experience (according to John Locke)

 

Among the leading proponents in the United States of the “nurture” perspective were John Watson and, later, B. F. Skinner. Skinner began by studying reinforcement mechanisms in animals. He discovered that when he rewarded animals for certain behaviors, those behaviors increased. Through the work of Watson, Skinner, and many others, the notion of biological determinism began to be challenged. The argument was that children’s (and to a certain extent adults’) personalities were not fixed in infancy, but rather reflected the experiences they encountered throughout their lives.

It is now very rare to find an individual who believes in a strictly “nature” or a strictly “nurture” perspective. This is due to a number of factors, most notably studies of monozygotic (identical) twins and of children who have been raised in adoptive or foster homes. Accumulating evidence supports the position that both physiology and environmental influences play important roles in human development.

However, even though there is wide consensus that both nature and nurture play a role in personality development, this does not mean that where one falls on the nature/nurture continuum is unimportant. If you are a leader and you are struggling with finding ways to get the most out of someone you are frustrated with, where you fall on the “nature/nurture” continuum likely plays a key role in the assumptions you make and the actions you take. If you fall closer to the “nurture” side, you are more likely to assume that the other person is not very amenable to change and you may start looking to replace this person with someone more “like-minded”. If you fall more on the “nature” side, however, you might assume that this person is capable of changing his/her attitudes and/or behavior to be more in line with what you desire, or perhaps that you might be capable of changing your views to accommodate this person.

 

Leadership Profile: John Broadus Watson: “The Father of Behaviorism,” Advertising Pioneer

A proponent of bringing “pure science” to psychology, Watson, whose professional life spanned much of the first half of the 20th century, claimed that if he were given access to a child at a very young age he could condition this child to exhibit certain personality traits. His most famous experiment was the “Little Albert” experiment, in which he conditioned a young boy to become afraid of rabbits by scaring the child each time the child was presented with a rabbit.

Credited by some as the first to bring research into advertising, Watson pioneered the notion of understanding one’s customers and their needs before attempting to sell products to that customer. Prior to Watson’s era, much of advertising focused on describing the product, not on potential customers.

While fortunately the days of making young children fearful of rabbits are long gone, the idea that individuals of all ages can be trained to change their behavior through new experiences and ideas remains very much accepted doctrine in both psychology and leadership theory.

Attitudes, Perceptions and Attributions

Attitude – a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways.

 

Successful leadership demands an understanding of attitudes and their manifestations in an organization. The three main aspects of attitudes include affect, the emotional content of a situation; behavior, specific actions taken in response to or in anticipation of a situation; and cognitions, an individual’s thoughts or perceptions of a situation. In general, it is believed that people try to maintain a balance between these three components as they form attitudes. In some situations, the three components come into conflict and a skilled leader will consider feelings as well as behaviors in the attempt to promote positive attitudes.

We pay attention to people and objects in such a way that gives them meaning to us. That idiosyncratic aspect of perception can mean that two people can form two different impressions of the same evidence. Social perceptions have much to do with our impressions of people who are different from ourselves.

 

Social perceptions: these are our perceptions of other people. These are particularly salient when forming impressions of people who are different from us, as we may categorize people into more familiar terms based on limited information.

 

As can be seen here, our view of the world and interactions with others are shaped not only by our personality but also by our unique attitudes, perceptions, and the attributions we make in a given situation.  Being aware of one’s personality as well as your particular attitudes, perceptions, and attributions are closely tied to the concept of emotional intelligence discussed earlier in the chapter.  It is this self-awareness which underlies one’s ability to interact effectively with others in a work, school, or other setting.

 

Stereotyping occurs when we use limited information to reach a broad conclusion based on race, age, sex, religion, occupation, etc.

 

Our perceptions can be inaccurate for three main reasons: stereotyping, selective perception, and perceptual defense. We might negatively stereotype the person with an Italian accent by inferring connections to organized crime, or the person with a disability by assuming he or she is unable to respond to conversation. A stereotype can also be positive, such as hearing a Scandinavian’s accent and assuming the person must be a good skier. Frequent workplace stereotyping occurs with differences in age and gender.  These stereotypes, when applied negatively, can be quite destructive, as in the stereotype that younger employees do not work as hard or that female employees are not as skilled as their male counterparts.

 

selective perception: this occurs when we only hear and see what we want to hear and see

 

Selective perception occurs when we hear or see only what we want to see or hear. Teenagers have marvelous powers of selective perception when they screen out parental requests. We select on the basis of our own experiences, needs, and orientations.

 

perceptual defense: this occurs when we distort or deny something that is too difficult to acknowledge

 

The third way to block perceptions is through perceptual defense. Typically, perceptual defense takes place when we distort or deny something that is too difficult to acknowledge. A common example of perceptual defense occurs when a person knows on one level that the person he/she is dating is not right for them, but continues to find reasons (maybe even irrational reasons) to stay together, ignoring the more compelling reasons to break up.

 

attribution: the reasons we ascribe for our behavior

 

Yet it is not only how we perceive people and events that affects our response to them; attribution, or the reasons we ascribe for our behavior, plays an important role as well. We interpret an event and then try to uncover its cause. Much depends on our view of ourselves and the world and seeing ourselves on a continuum between having a great deal of control over events or being powerless.

 

Section Summary

Our unique personalities affect our ability to lead. Whereas once it was believed that all leadership traits were inherited, modern psychological research supports a perspective that includes both biological and environmental contributors to personality development. We are born with certain dispositions toward leadership that can be aided, stunted, or otherwise altered by the experiences we have during the course of our lifetime. Every day, our personality affects our ability to lead through our perception and attitudes toward other people and situations.

 

ANSWERS TO “QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AND REVIEW”

  1. What are some of the assumptions about intelligence that are characteristic of the psychometric model?

From the psychometric perspective, intelligence is something that can be measured quantitatively and these numbers can be used to make meaningful statements about a person’s abilities, either in terms of specific s factors (e.g., “Your working memory skills are above average”) or in terms of overall abilities (e.g., “your full-scale IQ falls in the average range”).

 

  1. Name two people you know who possess each of the eight intelligences outlined by Gardner.

 

Students’ responses will vary. Should include examples of Musical intelligence,

Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, Spatial intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence, Linguistic intelligence, Logical-Mathematic intelligence and Naturalistic intelligence.

 

  1.  For each of Gardner’s eight intelligences, describe a situation where possessing this intelligence would be a strength and where possessing a strength only in this intelligence would be a weakness.

 

Examples:

Musical intelligence: Strength—playing in an orchestra

Weakness—working with word processing at an office

Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence: Strength—playing on a football team

Weakness—counseling a student who is having family trouble

Spatial intelligence: Strength—designing a building

Weakness—understanding your feelings in reaction to a trauma

Interpersonal intelligence: Strength—facilitating a group therapy session

Weakness—reading a book

Intrapersonal intelligence: Strength—writing a book on your personal memoirs

Weakness—figuring out directions

Linguistic intelligence: Strength—writing a magazine article

Weakness—solving a math puzzle

Logical-Mathematic intelligence: Strength—figuring out the physics for building a roller coaster

Weakness—playing tennis

Naturalistic intelligence: Strength—identifying poisonous plants on a hike

Weakness­­—learning the trombone

 

  1. What characterizes an “emotionally intelligent” leader? How about a “socially intelligent” leader?

 

            An emotionally intelligent leader has the ability motivate oneself and persist despite frustrations, regulate one’s own moods, empathize, delay gratification, handle stress well, have verbal and nonverbal skills in sync, have self/other acceptance/tolerance, and promote “group harmony.” Socially Intelligent leaders have strong interpersonal skills.  Leaders with strong social intelligence bring out the best in themselves and in others. They have strong influence and are good at getting others to cooperate.

 

  1. What is the “nature/nurture” debate? What evidence supports each side? Where do most psychologists fall on the nature/nurture continuum?

 

This is the debate over whether one’s personality and therefore the characteristics needed to become a successful leader are present at birth (“nature”) or are developed through experience (“nurture”). Prevailing wisdom is that leaders benefit both from genetics and experience. Accumulating evidence supports the position that both physiology and environmental influences play important roles in human development. For example, in comparing prevalence rates of certain diseases in monozygotic (identical) versus dizygotic (fraternal) twins, a very common finding is that there are higher concordance (meaning both twins have the trait) rates in monozygotic twins, providing evidence for the “nature” perspective since monozygotic twins are genetically identical. However, monozygotic twins have different personality traits, which support the “nurture” side of personality development. There is wide consensus that both nature and nurture play a role in personality development.

 

  1. Describe a situation in which your initial perception of a situation turned out to be inaccurate. What are the implications of personal attitudes and perceptions on leadership?  

 

Student responses will vary to the first portion of the question. An example of a possible answer might be: “One time I thought that my best friend was mad at me because they ignored me when they walked by and didn’t call me for a few days. Then I found out a couple of days later that her grandmother had passed away and that she had to jump on an airplane the next day to go to the funeral.”

Successful leadership demands an understanding of attitudes and their manifestations in an organization. In some situations, the three components of attitudes (emotion, behavior and cognitions) come into conflict and a skilled leader will consider feelings as well as behaviors in the attempt to promote positive attitudes. On the other hand, a leader work can be made more difficult by inaccurate perceptions. Perceptions can be inaccurate for three main reasons: stereotyping, selective perception, and perceptual defense. These three phenomena can hinder a leader’s ability to run a fair and functional organization if he or she does not recognize these cognitive limitations and setbacks.

 

  1. What is selective perception? How does it differ from stereotyping and perceptual defense?

 

Selective perception occurs when we hear or see only what we want to see or hear. Perceptual defense takes place when we distort or deny something that is too difficult to acknowledge. Stereotyping occurs when we use limited information to reach a broad conclusion based on race, age, sex, religion, occupation, etc.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. The common finding that identical twins raised separately share many but not all personality traits is evidence in support of:
  1. The belief that personality traits are entirely determined by genetics
  2. The belief that personality traits are entirely determined by environmental

events

  1. The belief that personality traits are reflective of a combination of genetics and

environmental events

  1. Locke’s concept of a “tabula rasa”

Answer: c

  1. Robert has decided the best way for his company to go is to expand its marketing department and has begun to put together a proposal to advocate for this approach. Meanwhile, another person in his company has put together a rather convincing report suggesting that expanding the marketing department could have many negative consequences. Robert ignores this report and continues to work on his proposal unchanged in his view. This is an example of:
  2. Stereotyping
  3. Effective leadership
  4. Selective perception
  5. Foolhardiness

Answer: c

 

  1. Which of these items is not one of Gardner’s eight types of intelligence?
  2. Naturalistic intelligence
  3. Musical intelligence
  4. Intrapersonal intelligence
  5. Culinary intelligence

Answer: d

 

  1. What are the three subtheories of Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. Contextual, Complimentary, Emotional
  3. Componential, Experiential, Contextual
  4. Experiential, Practice, Cognitive
  5. Emotional, Experiential, Imaginative

Answer: b

 

  1. Choose the correct paring of theorist and conceptions of intelligence discussed in this chapter:
  2. Locke and tabula rasa
  3. Sternberg and multiple intelligences
  4. Einstein and the triarchic theory of intelligence
  5. Gardner and emotional intelligence

Answer: a

 

  1. Which one of these items is NOT one of the emotional intelligence domains of leadership competency discussed by Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002)?
  2. Relationship Management
  3. Team Management
  4. Self-Awareness
  5. Social Awareness

Answer: b

 

  1. What is “the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding?”
  2. Euthenics
  3. Ebonics
  4. Eugenics
  5. Erratics

Answer: c

 

  1. Which theory of intelligence is the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) associated with?
  2. Multiple Intelligences
  3. Emotional Intelligence
  4. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  5. Psychometric Model of Intelligence

Answer: d

 

  1. Imagine that you are management for a sales organization. You observe that employee A always has their reports prepared a ahead of time and is calm and reserved at meetings, but employee B is always rushing to get this done but tends to be energetic and excitable when presenting at meetings. You have known both of these employees as coworkers at your previous job, and you observed the same kind of behaviors at that organization as you do now. What argument would this observation provide evidence for?
  2. One’s behavior is shaped by what happens in one’s environment (nurture)
  3. One’s behavior is determined from birth by stable personality traits (nature)
  4. Employee B has low emotional intelligence and employee A has high emotional intelligence
  5. Employee A has strengths in linguistic intelligence and employee B has strengths in spatial intelligence

Answer: b

 

  1. Imagine that you are a leader at a patent licensing firm. You have heard that the legal department is frustrated with the marketing department because they are not copying them on important memos and omitting important legal information. You decide to call a staff meaning and address the importance of communication. You are careful to avoid name-calling and make sure to mention instances where you failed to communicate effectively. You help the staff develop a more efficient and inclusive pathway for information within the company. Your actions show that you have strengths in which area of intelligence?
  2. Interpersonal Intelligence
  3. Social Intelligence
  4. Naturalistic Intelligence
  5. Both a and b

Answer: d

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. Describe the similarities and differences between emotional intelligence and social intelligence? How would someone in a leadership position act if he or she was high in emotional intelligence and not social intelligence? How would he or she act if the opposite were true?
  2. What are the three main obstacles to having unbiased perceptions? Describe how each of these phenomena might hinder your ability to be a fair or inspiring leader?
  3. Which two of Gardner’s multiple intelligences do you think are your strongest? Your weakest two? How can you tell? How will these strengths and weaknesses affect you in your future leadership roles?
  4. Pick a side on the nature vs. nurture debate. Provide an argument to support one side of the argument about how good leaders come to be leaders. Be sure to you examples from the text as well as your own examples.

 

TEACHING ACTIVITY

  • Break the students into small groups and give each group this scenario. Afterwards, discuss creative ideas generated and how personality theories help in or limit the organization and progress of businesses.

 

SCENARIO: Choose a well-known company and pretend that your group is the management team for that organization. You have just given assessment to your entire staff that will determine their intelligence strength within Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. How will the information that you receive impact your management? What kinds of changes will you make to staff placement? What departments or areas of the business would benefit from having people with which strengths? Which would suffer if people possessing various weaknesses mainly occupied them? How could your service improve from the use of this knowledge about your employees? How would your profits be affected?

 

MEDIA RESOURCES

  • The Keirsey Temperament Sorter is perhaps the most well-known and widely used self-assessment tool that examines individual personality traits. To learn more about this instrument and to take two short personality quizzes (one focuses on temperament, the other on character), we encourage you to visit: http:///www.keirsey.com.
  • Take the Meyers-Briggs personality test online:

http://www.ithaca.edu/mathcs/LearnStyle/MyersBriggsTest.shtml.

  • Have students take the Implicit Associations test to get a glimpse of their unconscious biases:

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/.

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