Bachman, *The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice* 6th Edition

**Chapter 5: Sampling**

**Test Bank**

- Imagine researchers are interested in examining multi-generational involvement in crime. A multistage cluster sample is utilized in which families are selected, and then adult children in those families are asked to provide information on their family’s criminal behavior. In this study:

- Families are the elements and adult children are the primary sampling units.
- Adult children are the elements and families are the primary sampling units.

*c. Families are the primary sampling units and children are the secondary sampling units.

- Children are the primary sampling units and families are the secondary sampling units.

Section: The Purpose of Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- For a study on female adolescent prescription drug use, a random sample of New York City high school female students is drawn. Jim argues that the findings are generalizable to New York City high school female students because they were based on a random sample. Meagan argues that the findings are not generalizable to male high school students. How would you evaluate their positions?

- Neither claim can be correct since prescription drug use cannot be generalized to any population.
- Only Jim is correct because he is referring to sample generalizability.
- Only Meagan is correct because she is referring to cross-population generalizability.

*d. Both claims concerning sample and cross-population generalizability are correct.

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- By definition, when a sample is less representative, it:

- Has not been selected randomly but generalizability is not affected
- Has not been selected randomly but is more generalizable
- Has a smaller number of cases and is less generalizable

*d. Has more sampling error and is less generalizable

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- An employment test for men is used by a police department to find successful candidates. A woman who was denied employment with the police department based on her test scores sues the police chief. She claims in her suit that the test cannot be used to predict her job performance since it has been used only with men. This claim raises a question of:

*a. Cross-population generalizability

- Sample representativeness
- Sample generalizability
- Measurement reliability

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- When all units in the population are identical or resources are unlimited:

- The causal validity of conclusions is guaranteed.
- Measurement validity will be exceptionally high.

*c. Sampling is not necessary.

- Cross-population generalizability is unattainable.

Section: Assess Population Diversity

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- You have been asked to draw 600 cases from a population of 12,000. You decide on a systematic random sampling strategy. The sampling interval is:

*a. 20

- 15
- 10
- 5

Section: Systematic Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- The distribution of characteristics of elements in a ________________ sample is the same as the distribution of those characteristics among the total population of elements.

- probability

*b. representative

- nonprobability
- random

Section: Assess Population Diversity

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Tara decides to interview all 20 members of the first graduating class of an inmate GED program. Her research involves a:

*a. Census

- Probability Sample
- Non-probability Sample
- Triangulation

Section: Consider a Census

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Which of the following terms could not be used to describe a random sample?

- Systematic

*b. Haphazard

- Chance
- Representative

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A researcher wishes to survey older people about their perceptions of health. She obtains a list of all of the residents at a senior residential center. This list is the:

- Respondent identification list
- Population
- Representative list

*d. Sampling frame

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- All of the following are probability sampling methods except:

- Cluster sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Systematic random sampling

*d. Quota sampling

Section: Quota Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- In a true simple random sample, the probability of selection:

- Is stratified by population characteristics
- Varies randomly across the elements
- Is impossible to calculate

*d. Is equal for every element

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A researcher has a stack of offender files that she plans to use to draw a sample. The files are arranged from most serious to least serious offenders. If she were to use systematic random sampling, an issue would be:

- Generalizability

*b. Periodicity

- Nonresponse
- Interitem Reliability

Section: Systematic Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- In a disproportionate stratified random sample, the probability of selection is:

- Unknown

*b. Known and unequal across strata

- Known and equal across strata
- Known and proportional across strata

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- In proportionate stratified random samples, the probability of selection is:

- Unknown
- Known and unequal across strata
- Known and random across strata

*d. Known and equal across strata

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Most death row inmates are male. In order to obtain an equal number of male and female death row inmates, a researcher should use a(n):

- Simple random sample

*b. Disproportionate stratified sample

- Availability sample
- Proportionate stratified sample

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Which of the following random samples does not require a sampling frame?

- Simple random sample
- Systematic random sample
- Stratified random sample

*d. Multistage cluster sample

Section: Multistage Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- The National Crime Victimization Survey selects subjects by identifying rural counties or metropolitan areas as primary sampling units, then chooses geographic regions within these units, and then chooses addresses within the geographic regions. This is an example of:

- Simple random sampling

*b. Multistage cluster sampling

- Disproportionate stratified sampling
- Systematic random sampling

Section: Multistage Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- One hundred cases are sampled from a population of 1,000. Each case is identified by a number on the sampling frame. The number for a given case is selected. If replacement sampling is used, what happens to that number?

- It is removed and the number cannot be drawn again.

*b. It is returned to the sampling frame and could be selected again.

- It depends on the desired sample size.
- It depends on how representative the researcher wants the sample to be.

Section: Simple Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- For practical purposes, sampling with replacement and sampling without replacement are comparable as long as:

*a. Only a small fraction of the population is sampled

- The population is relatively small
- The target population corresponds to the population
- The size of the sample is very small

Section: Simple Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- When conducting a multistage cluster sampling, which is preferred:

*a. More clusters with less respondents selected from each

- Fewer clusters with less respondents selected from each
- All respondents selected from a single cluster.
- Neither is more preferable.

Section: Multistate Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A college president is interested in conducting a study on student satisfaction with campus resources. Within the student body are a small number of non-traditional college students, for example, veterans and older students. In order to make sure that a sufficient number of non-traditional college students are included in the sample, he should use which type? Which of the following circumstances makes disproportionate stratified random sampling more appropriate?

- Multistage cluster sampling
- Proportionate stratified random sampling

*c. Disproportionate stratified random sampling

- Simple Random Sampling

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- A researcher obtains a list of all prisons in the United States. She draws a random sample of 75 of the prisons on this list. She then obtains a list of all inmates from the warden at each of the 75 prisons and interviews a random sample of 30 inmates at each prison. This is a:

- Purposive sample
- Simple random sample
- Systematic random sample

*d. Multistage cluster sample

Section: Multistate Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- When drawing a purposive sample, a researcher should continue to select respondents until:

- Saturation
- Completeness

*c. Saturation and Completeness

- Saturation or Completeness

Section: Purposive or Judgment Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A researcher plans to interview participants of a drug treatment program. The researcher will ask for volunteers in each group session. This sampling design is:

*a. An availability sample

- A systematic sample
- A simple random sample
- A quota cluster sample

Section: Availability Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- A study is conducted of gang recruitment and sources of inter-gang conflict. Using a contact at a local youth program, the researcher is able to meet each gang’s leader. A pre-screening questionnaire determines which gang leaders are knowledgeable in these areas and should be included in the sample. This sampling method would be termed:

- Availability
- Quota
- Multistage cluster

*d. Purposive

Section: Purposive Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- To study organized crime, a researcher is able to interview leading members of organized crime families. During these interviews, she requests the names of leading members of other organized crime families. She interviews these other leaders, asks them for additional leaders’ names, and continues in this manner until she has interviewed 45 members from 19 different families. Her sampling method is:

- Availability sampling
- Quota sampling

*c. Snowball sampling

- Cluster sampling

Section: Snowball Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- A stratified random sample is similar to what type of a nonprobability sample?

- Snowball

*b. Quota

- Availability
- Purposive

Section: Quota Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A sampling distribution is:

- A distribution of a statistic obtained in one properly drawn random sample
- Obtained after the same statistic is calculated from more than one sample

*c. A distribution of a statistic across all random samples that could be drawn from a population

- A goal to be obtained in a study using a random method of case selection

Section: Sampling Distributions

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- The purpose of inferential statistics is to:

*a. Estimate how likely it is that a statistic from a sample is representative of the population

- Describe the statistical profile of a population based on a sample
- Standardize the values of descriptive statistics based on samples of differing sizes
- Make “best guess” statistical estimates when a sample was not selected randomly

Section: Estimating Sampling Error

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A study is conducted on the attitudes of college students at a particular university. The sample is a small group of students, freshmen through seniors. If the information obtained from the sample accurately reflects that of the population, it will have:

*a. Sample generalizability

- Population generalizability
- Cross-population generalizability
- Universal generalizability

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- If a study is conducted about attitudes of students at a particular university and the results are applicable to students at other universities, the study will have:

- Sample generalizability
- Population generalizability

*c. Cross-population generalizability

- Universal generalizability

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- In a study of robbers, a researcher finds a sample mean number of 4.5 robberies. Using inferential statistics, she finds a 95% confidence interval for the mean with a lower limit of 3.2 and an upper limit of 6.7. With a 95% confidence interval, we could say:

- She can be 95% confident that the true mean number of robberies is below 3.2.

*b. She can be 95% confident that the true mean number of robberies falls between 3.2 and 6.7.

- She can be 95% confident that the true mean number of robberies is above 6.7.
- She can be 95% confident that the true mean number of robberies is not between 3.2 and 6.7.

Section: Estimating Sampling Error

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- All of the following are recommended ways in which to increase the generalizability of qualitative studies except:

*a. There is a consensus among qualitative researchers that generalizability is not possible in qualitative research.

- Select typical sites
- Select atypical sites
- Study multiple sites

Section: Generalizability in Qualitative Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Which of the following is an accurate statement about the relationship between sample size and representativeness in random sampling?

*a. The larger the sample size the greater the likelihood of representativeness.

- The larger the sample size the lower the likelihood of representativeness.
- Sample size and representativeness are not related in random sampling.
- Sample size and representativeness are only related to each other in heterogeneous populations.

Section: Probability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A sample will have high cross-population generalizability if random sampling error is low.

- True

*b. False

Section: Evaluate Generalizability

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- The more homogenous the population, the more confidence we can have in the representativeness of a sample of any particular size.

*a. True

- False

Section: Probability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Disproportionate stratified random sampling is recommended if the population is heterogeneous.

*a. True

- False

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- In a nonprobability sample, the probability of selection is known.

- True

*b. False

Section: Nonprobability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Sampling error is greater in a multistage cluster sample than in a simple random sample.

*a. True

- False

Section: Multistage Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A sampling distribution is more compact when it is based on smaller samples.

- True

*b. False

Section: Sampling Distributions

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- A sample is the entire set of elements in which a researcher is interested.

- True

*b. False

Section: The Purpose of Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- Sampling is always necessary.

- True

*b. False

Section: The Purpose of Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Everyone who completes the US Census are asked the same number of questions.

- True

*b. False

Section: Consider a Census

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- Nonresponse is not typically a problem in survey research.

- True

*b. False

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- In order to correctly use a quota sampling, the researcher must know the correct quotas in the population ahead of time.

*a. True

- False

Section: Quota Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- The larger the sample, the more confidence in the sample’s representativeness.

*a. True

- False

Section: Probability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- One reason for selection of respondents through purposive sampling is knowledge or expertise.

*a. True

- False

Section: Purposive or Judgment Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- The National Crime Victimization Survey is an example of a simple random sample.

- True

*b. False

Section: Multistage Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- When probability sampling is done correctly, there should be no systematic bias.

*a. True

- False

Section: Probability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

- You are interested in conducting a study of the female homeless population. Indicate a specific population of interest. Could you obtain a sampling frame? Why or why not? What type of sampling method would you use? Why? How far could you generalize your findings?

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- You are to design a sampling strategy for a survey about job stress throughout the criminal justice system, including police officers, defense attorneys, prosecutors, judges, correctional officers, probation officers, and parole officers. Describe a sampling design in which the population is all employees in the system and the sampling elements are the individual employees. Define in your description the sampling frame and the sampling units. Now propose a different sampling design in which the sampling units and the elements are not the same. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two designs?

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Using two nonprobability sampling methods discussed in the text, describe how you would use each method to study offending among high school dropouts. Then using two probability sampling methods discussed in the text, describe how you would use each method to study offending among high school students.

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Propose a study that necessitates purposive sampling. What qualities or characteristics are necessary for inclusion in your sample?

Section: Purposive or Judgment Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluation

- The text points out that the amount of sampling error introduced by random selection changes with the size of a sample and with the homogeneity of the population from which it is selected. Taking these points into account, explain how it is that stratified sampling can result in less sampling error than simple random sampling.

Section: Stratified Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Is sampling always necessary? Discuss under what circumstances it is necessary and under what circumstances it would not be.

Section: The Purpose of Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Explain and provide two examples each of probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. When is probability sampling a better sampling strategy? When is nonprobability sampling?

Sections: Probability Sampling Methods, Nonprobability Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- How can generalizability be increased in qualitative studies?

Section: Generalizability in Qualitative Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- What can researchers do to increase the response rate?

Section: Sampling Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

- Design a study in which you use systematic random sampling. Why is it an appropriate sampling method? Be sure to specify the size of the population and sample. After calculating the sampling interval, describe how you will select cases to be included in your sample.

Section: Systematic Random Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Design a study of residents using a multistage cluster sample. What factors will help determine how many clusters and residents within each cluster will be selected?

Section: Multistage Cluster Sampling

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

- Sampling error is an important concern for researchers. How is random sampling error distributed? What is the difference between systematic sampling error and random sampling error? Define the term
*confidence intervals*. How are confidence intervals affected by sample size?

Section: Estimating Sampling Error

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Category: Law

There are no reviews yet.