Pioneers of Psychology 5th Edition by Raymond E. Fancher – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Wundt and the Establishment of Experimental Psychology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Which of the following was NOT proposed in the Preface of Wundt’s early textbook, Contributions to the Theory of Perception, where he described the program that would occupy him for the rest of his life?
  2. an experimental psychology to introspectively study the facts of consciousness
  3. a psychology for studying the higher mental functions based on historical, comparative, and ethnographic analyses
  4. a psychology of individual differences, applying facts of general psychology toward an understanding of single personalities
  5. the systematic study of reaction times

ANS:    C                 DIF:      Moderate   OBJ:    Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Which of the following was NOT an essential aspect of Wundt’s research on mental chronometry?
  2. the measurement of reaction times
  3. the differentiation between perception and apperception
  4. the subtractive procedure
  5. the introspective analysis of memory

ANS:    D                 DIF:      Moderate   OBJ:    Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. Wundt and his students found that it took a subject about one-tenth of a second longer to respond to a stimulus when concentrating attention on the expected stimulus, as opposed to when concentrating on the required response. To what process did they attribute the extra time?
  2. perception
  3. apperception
  4. sensation
  5. anticipation

ANS:    B                 DIF:      Moderate   OBJ:    Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. One of the Wundtian mental chronometry experiments had one condition in which the subject was required to make a different response to each of two different stimuli, and another in which two stimuli were randomly presented but only one had to be responded to. The mental process presumably required for the first task, but not for the second, was
  2. perception.
  3. apperception.
  4. cognition.
  5. association.

ANS:    D                 DIF:      Hard          OBJ:    Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. Wundt’s introspective techniques required his subjects to
  2. restrict their introspecting to relatively simple and immediately recallable stimulus situations.
  3. be especially attentive to their emotional life.
  4. concentrate on recalling events from childhood.
  5. let their thoughts wander freely as they introspected.

ANS:    A                 DIF:      Easy          OBJ:    Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. Wundtian introspective studies analyzed consciousness in terms of
  2. sensations and feelings.
  3. sensations and perceptions.
  4. sensations and judgments.
  5. feelings and judgments.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. Which were the four basic dimensions of sensations in Wundt’s scheme?
  2. size, clarity, interest, direction
  3. height, width, depth, time
  4. mode, quality, intensity, duration
  5. activity, tension, agreeableness, frequency

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. In Wundt’s theory, a creative synthesis accompanies acts of
  2. perception.
  3. apperception.
  4. unconscious inference.
  5. discrimination.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. As indicated by studies in Wundt’s laboratory, what was the maximum number of individual units that could be apperceived at once?
  2. 1
  3. 2 or 3
  4. 4 to 6
  5. 15 to 20

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. One of the major topics covered in Wundt’s Völkerpsychologie was
  2. language.
  3. mental chronometry.
  4. the tri-dimensional theory of feeling.
  5. the study of memory for nonsense syllables.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. For Wundt, the most basic unit of thought is
  2. any word which expresses a distinct concept.
  3. a “general impression” that is independent of words.
  4. a “train” of associated ideas.
  5. an unconscious sensation.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. In recent years, Wundt’s theories have been newly appreciated for their relevance to which current psychological specialty?
  2. psycholinguistics
  3. evolutionary psychology
  4. intelligence testing
  5. psychophysics

ANS:    A         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s influence.

  1. Wundt classified feelings according to what three basic dimensions?
  2. brightness-dullness, tension-relaxation, and activity-passivity
  3. tension-relaxation, pleasantness-unpleasantness, and visual-auditory
  4. pleasantness-unpleasantness, tension-relaxation, and activity-passivity
  5. action–non-action, brightness-dullness, and pleasant–unpleasantness

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Wundt’s “thought meter” experiment challenged which of the following?
  2. the commonsense assumption that when ideas are “registered” in consciousness, they also become subject to focused attention and rational analysis in terms of underlying principles and laws
  3. the commonsense assumption that when two different stimuli strike our senses at the same time, we become consciously aware of both of them at the same instant
  4. the commonsense assumption that apperceived ideas may be combined and organized in many different ways
  5. the commonsense assumption that response times can be used to make inferences about consciousness and other central processes

ANS:    B         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. Who is often regarded as the “father” of modern academic and experimental psychology?
  2. Edward Bradford Titchener
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. William James

ANS:    B         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Identify Wundt.

  1. James McKeen Cattell is known for which of the following?
  2. his invention of the “subtractive” method for reaction time research
  3. his disagreement with Wundt on the matter of spirituality caused him to leave Leipzig
  4. his writing of Principles of Physiological Psychology, one of the first experimental psychology textbooks
  5. his invention of apparatus and techniques for measuring reaction times more accurately, and in a wider and more interesting variety of situations, than had ever been done before

ANS:    D         DIF:   Moderate

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. According to Wundt, voluntaristic psychology was
  2. a nonexperimental branch of psychology that focused on the communal and cultural products of human nature.
  3. a type of experimental psychology that focused first on discovering the “structure” of the mental phenomena before looking at the “function.”
  4. an approach to psychology that described events working at the periphery of conscious experience, events such as apperception, creative synthesis, psychic causality, and will.
  5. an approach to psychology focusing on the functional and practical aspects of behavior.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Wundtian psychology was mistakenly characterized for many years in English-speaking countries as “structuralism” for all of the reasons below EXCEPT
  2. most of Wundt’s original writings were never translated into English.
  3. his student and translator Titchener emphasized only those aspects of his theory that were consistent with structuralism.
  4. most of Wundt’s students were American and they emphasized the “structural” as opposed to the “functional” aspects of his theories.
  5. Wundt’s works tended to be overlooked following the antagonisms of World War I.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Why was Wundt’s landmark book Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874) important?
  2. It was the first genuine “textbook” describing under one cover several recent developments in the area of experimental psychology.
  3. It focused attention on the originality and variety of Wundt’s own experiments.
  4. It introduced the work of early female psychologists.
  5. It established the importance of unconscious motivation.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s influence.

  1. Johann Zöllner, Wundt’s older colleague and one-time supporter at Leipzig, came to bitterly oppose him because of Wundt’s
  2. emphasis on a nonexperimental Völkerpsychologie.
  3. skeptical analysis of “spiritualistic” phenomena.
  4. highly restrictive introspection methods.
  5. support for women in experimental psychology.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand reactants to Wundt.

  1. Titchener strongly advocated an approach to psychology he called
  2. functionalism.
  3. introspection.
  4. structuralism.
  5. empiricism.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Understand Titchener and his work.

  1. Structuralism was an approach to experimental psychology that
  2. focused on the function of the mind rather than the biology of the brain.
  3. focused on what the mind is rather than what the mind is for.
  4. was completely in keeping with the Wundtian framework.
  5. focused solely on physiology, omitting subjective introspection.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Titchener and his work.

  1. Titchener insisted that introspectors should avoid imposing “meaning” or “interpretation” on their subjects, thereby eliminating what he called
  2. the reaction time.
  3. apperception.
  4. the stimulus error.
  5. the forgetting curve.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Titchener and his work.

  1. Titchener’s group, known as the “Experimentalists,” were notable for
  2. the unique experiments they carried out at Leipzig.
  3. not allowing women to join their membership.
  4. carrying out experimental tests of Wundt’s Völkerpsychologie.
  5. creating the “new” brand of experimental psychology in the United States.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:    Understand the Experimentalists’ pros and cons.

  1. __________ was an accomplished American mathematician and vision researcher who challenged Titchener’s policies on his invitation-only group of Experimentalists.
  2. Christine Ladd-Franklin
  3. Eleanor Gibson
  4. Margaret Floy Washburn
  5. Dorothea Jameson

ANS:    A         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:    Understand the Experimentalists’ pros and cons.

  1. Wundt’s former student Oswald Külpe started his own laboratory, where research focused on which of the following subjects?
  2. the forgetting curve and word association
  3. mental chronometry and psychic causality
  4. imageless thought and directed association
  5. association tests and the forgetting curve

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Experimental psychologist Narziss Ach expanded introspective psychology by
  2. asking subjects to associate to stimulus words freely rather than in a highly specific manner.
  3. asking subjects to associate numbers to letters rather than associating letters to numbers.
  4. asking subjects to introspect about their early childhood memories.
  5. performing directed-association studies that revealed the importance of determining tendencies or mental sets.

ANS:    D         DIF:   Hard

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Introspective studies showing that prior instructions can influence thought without directly entering into subjects’ conscious associational processes were said to reveal
  2. mental sets.
  3. unconscious motivation
  4. restricted association.
  5. the process of apperception.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Ebbinghaus’s finding that memory for a learned task drops off most steeply immediately after the learning and then declines more slowly exemplifies the __________.
  2. forgetting curve
  3. method of savings
  4. psychophysical law
  5. stimulus error

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Ebbinghaus’s innovative method for studying memory experimentally made use of
  2. directed association.
  3. mental chronometry.
  4. nonsense syllables.
  5. structural introspection.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Easy

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. For Wundt, the most striking conclusion from his early “thought meter” experiment was that
  2. both the sound and the sight of a pendulum reaching its farthest extent could be registered in his consciousness simultaneously.
  3. if he concentrated on the sound he was unable to process the sight.
  4. if he concentrated on the sight the sound seemed quieter.
  5. separate and measurable acts of attention were required to register first the sound and then the sight of the pendulum’s position.

ANS:    D         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Recall Wundt’s research.

  1. The book by Wilhelm Wundt often credited with launching experimental psychology as a separate discipline was
  2. Elements of Psychophysics.
  3. Principles of Physiological Psychology.
  4. The Interpretation of Dreams.
  5. Psychology: A Briefer Course.

ANS:    B         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Identify Wundt’s works.

  1. The title (in translation) of the psychology journal founded by Wilhelm Wundt in 1881 was
  2. Philosophical Studies.
  3. Psychical Studies.
  4. The German Journal of Experimental Psychology.
  5. The Psychological Review.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Identify Wundt’s works.

  1. All of the following became famous after directly studying with Wilhelm Wundt EXCEPT
  2. James McKeen Cattell.
  3. Oswald Külpe.
  4. Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  5. Edward Titchener.

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Identify Wundt’s influence.

  1. Which piece of experimental apparatus did James McKeen Cattell invent?
  2. a clock rigged to make a sound when its pendulum reached its farthest swing
  3. a lip-key used to help record reaction times for verbal responses
  4. a series of embedded figures that cannot be perceived by color blind subjects
  5. a “tachistoscope” that presented stimuli to subjects for just small fractions of a second

ANS:    B         DIF:   Moderate

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. In Wilhelm Wundt’s terminology, the occurrence of a(n) __________ was a specific instance of what he more generally called __________.
  2. creative synthesis; psychic causality
  3. dream; unconscious motivation
  4. delayed reaction time; perceptual blocking
  5. imageless thought; mental sets

ANS:    A         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. For Wundt, the most important units of analysis in the study of language are what?
  2. single words, which are constructed out of various combinations of individual sounds or phonemes
  3. the simplest individual spoken sounds, or phonemes, that can be distinguished from one another by speakers of the particular language
  4. sentences, each of which contains a general thought or idea, sometimes using different words to express the same idea
  5. the grammatical rules that dictate how words must be put together to convey meaningful thoughts

ANS:    C         DIF:   Hard             OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about Wundt’s Völkerpsychologie?
  2. It focused on the collective as opposed to the individual products of human psychology.
  3. It encouraged the use of historical and comparative methods of analysis.
  4. The study of language was an important aspect of it.
  5. It encouraged the experimental and laboratory-based study of memory.

ANS:    D         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand Wundt’s works.

  1. Who among the following was a doctoral student of Titchener’s who conducted an important study of the sense of smell?
  2. Margaret Floy Washburn
  3. Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble
  4. Christine Ladd-Franklin
  5. Mary Whiton Calkins

ANS:    B         DIF:   Easy

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Which of the following senses proved most difficult for Titchener and his students to study with their introspective method?
  2. vision
  3. audition
  4. smell
  5. taste

ANS:    C         DIF:   Easy             OBJ:          Understand Titchener and his work.

  1. E. B. Titchener’s attitudes towards women in psychology are best summarized by which statement?
  2. He respected and supported women as graduate students but denied them access to the most prestigious professional networks.
  3. He made no gender-based distinctions in his treatment of women.
  4. He supervised a few women graduate students but only grudgingly because he had to do so at a publicly funded land grant university.
  5. He became an outspoken advocate of granting talented women full participation in all of psychology’s professional societies.

ANS:    A   DIF:   Moderate    OBJ:        Explain Titchener’s attitudes toward women.

  1. Wundt’s former student Oswald Külpe went on to establish his own laboratory which conducted introspective experiments on __________, which Wundt objected to because __________.
  2. memory; memory was supposedly a “higher” function insusceptible to experimental analysis
  3. imageless thought; the studies entailed introspection of mental tasks that Wundt believed were too complex for accurate introspective analysis
  4. dream images; dreams were too vague and individualized to be appropriate objects of introspection
  5. mental patients; Wundt believed psychology should concentrate on normal as opposed to abnormal topics

ANS:    B         DIF:   Hard

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Why did Oswald Külpe came to disagree with his former teacher Wundt?
  2. He thought Wundt’s concept of Völkerpsychologie was misguided.
  3. He opposed Wundt’s outspoken German nationalism.
  4. He rejected the use of introspection as a research method.
  5. He believed the finding of mental sets called into question the assumptions of mental chronometry.

ANS:    D         DIF:   Moderate      OBJ:          Understand reactants to Wundt.

  1. Hermann Ebbinghaus’s study of memory is considered historically important because
  2. it demonstrated the existence of unconscious and repressed memories.
  3. it first highlighted the existence of false memories.
  4. it provided an acceptable experimental approach to a “higher” mental function.
  5. it confirmed ancient ideas about memories as stored in separate “compartments.”

ANS:    C         DIF:   Moderate

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Hermann Ebbinghaus was particularly pleased because the results of his memory experiments
  2. revealed a forgetting curve whose shape resembled Fechner’s psychophysical law.
  3. confirmed Wundt’s opinion about the highly complex nature of normal memory.
  4. showed that imageless thoughts and mental sets were important aspects of the process of remembering.
  5. suggested the possibility for a new memory-based test of intelligence.

ANS:    A         DIF:   Moderate

OBJ:     Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

MATCHING

Match the definition with the term.

  1. an approach that argues psychology should focus introspectively on discovering the elements of consciousness rather than their functions
  2. an approach to psychology that emphasizes conscious experiences of will or voluntary effort
  3. nonexperimental psychology that explores communal and cultural products of human nature using comparative and historical methods
  4. the use of reaction time experiments to measure the speed of information processing and make inferences about basic elements of consciousness
  5. mental chronometry
  6. structuralism
  7. Völkerpsychologie
  8. voluntaristic psychology
  9. ANS: D         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  10. ANS: A         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  11. ANS: C         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  12. ANS: B         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define psychological terms.

Match the definition with the term.

  1. a technique where average reaction time for a simple task is subtracted from the average time for a more complex task, with the difference taken to been the time required for a “higher” mental function
  2. consistent individual differences in reaction times, first noted in discrepancies between observers taking astronomical transit readings.
  3. the notion that apperceived ideas may be combined and organized in many ways, including some that have never been experienced before
  4. the notion that there are different rules in place for apperceptive processes that are not reducible to mechanistic causality
  5. creative synthesis
  6. personal equations
  7. psychic causality
  8. subtractive method
  9. ANS: C         DIF:    Hard    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  10. ANS: B         DIF:    Hard    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  11. ANS: D         DIF:    Hard    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  12. ANS: A         DIF:    Hard    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.

Match the definition with the term.

  1. can be categorized according to dimensions of pleasantness-unpleasantness, tension-relaxation, and activity-passivity
  2. can be categorized according to mode, qualities, intensities, and durations
  3. process that occurs when ideas are “registered” in consciousness, accompanied by self-awareness, and become subject to focused attention
  4. the observation and systematic reporting of subjective inner experiences
  5. apperception
  6. feelings
  7. introspection
  8. sensations
  9. ANS: C         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define Wundtian terms.
  10. ANS: A         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define Wundtian terms.
  11. ANS: D         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define Wundtian terms.
  12. ANS: B         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Define Wundtian terms.

Match the definition with the term.

  1. consonant-vowel-consonant combinations, such as taz, bok, and lef, used to study memory
  2. during introspection, imposing meaning or interpretation on mental contents, rather than reducing them to their most basic elements
  3. the finding that memory for a learned task first drops off steeply and then declines more slowly
  4. forgetting curve
  5. nonsense syllable
  6. stimulus error
  7. ANS: C         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  8. ANS: A         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  9. ANS: B         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.

Match the publication with the author.

  1. Grundzüge der Physiologischen Psychologie (Principles of Physiological Psychology)
  2. The Animal Mind
  3. “The Applicability of Weber’s Law to Smell”
  4. Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble
  5. Margaret Floy Washburn
  6. Wilhelm Wundt
  7. ANS: C         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify the author.
  8. ANS: B         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify the author.
  9. ANS: A         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify the author.

Match the definition with the term.

  1. introspective accounts of consciousness free of identifiable sensations or feelings
  2. preliminary orientations toward stimuli, which are outside of conscious awareness, but influence a subject’s associations
  3. the association of stimulus words according to specific instructions rather than in a completely free fashion
  4. directed association
  5. imageless thoughts
  6. mental set
  7. ANS: C         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  8. ANS: A         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.
  9. ANS: B         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Define psychological terms.

Match the study with the researcher.

  1. introspective studies that found imageless thoughts free of sensations or feelings
  2. measured verbal association times and found that reaction times varied greatly not only between tasks, but between different subjects
  3. used nonsense syllables to study memory
  4. Hermann Ebbinghaus
  5. James McKeen Cattell
  6. Oswald Külpe
  7. ANS: C         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.
  8. ANS: B         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.
  9. ANS: A         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.

Match the study with the researcher.

  1. an experiment with a “thought meter,” which challenged the idea that when two separate stimuli strike our sense at the same time we become consciously aware of them at the same instant
  2. extensive introspective studies of the elements of consciousness that produced an estimated 43,000 distinct elements of sensory experience
  3. introspective analyzes of the basic elements of smell, which produced an estimated just noticeable difference for intensities of smell
  4. Edward Bradford Titchener
  5. Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble
  6. Wilhelm Wundt
  7. ANS: B         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.
  8. ANS: C         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.
  9. ANS: A         DIF:    Moderate         OBJ:    Identify experimental psychologists.

Match the (lettered) student with the (numbered) teacher.

  1. Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble
  2. Henry J. Watt
  3. James McKeen Cattell
  4. Edward Bradford Titchener
  5. Oswald Külpe
  6. Wilhelm Wundt
  7. ANS: A         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify a psychologist’s teacher.
  8. ANS: B         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify a psychologist’s teacher.
  9. ANS: C         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify a psychologist’s teacher.

Match the idea with the researcher who championed it.

  1. advocated structuralism as the proper task of experimental psychology, which privileged discovering the contents of consciousness rather than their functions
  2. believed that the higher mental processes, particularly memory, could be studied experimentally
  3. found that certain introspectors reported imageless thoughts, ones that contained no identifiable sensations or feelings
  4. Edward Bradford Titchener
  5. Oswald Külpe
  6. Hermann Ebbinghaus
  7. ANS: A         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify the researcher’s idea.
  8. ANS: C         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify the researcher’s idea.
  9. ANS: B         DIF:    Easy    OBJ:    Identify the researcher’s idea.

SHORT ANSWER

  1. Explain why the Experimentalists were a controversial group.

ANS:

The Experimentalists was a professional group established by Titchener that banned women from membership. Smoking, frank language, and critiques were encouraged, which were not considered appropriately feminine activities. Christine Ladd-Franklin vigorously challenged the all-male membership policy, but it was only after Titchener’s death that women gained membership.

DIF:          Moderate         OBJ:    Understand the Experimentalists’ pros and cons.

  1. Define Völkerpsychologie.

ANS:

Völkerpsychologie was Wundt’s psychology using comparative and historical methods to investigate communal and cultural products of human nature such as languages, religions, mythologies, and customs as a means of understanding the collective mind. He did not believe that these communal and collective processes could be studied by experimental or laboratory based methods.

DIF:          Moderate         OBJ:    Understand Wundt’s theories.

  1. Describe Hermann Ebbinghaus’s investigations of memory.

ANS:

Ebbinghaus’s study of memory challenged Wundt’s view that higher mental processes could not be studied experimentally. Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables (consonant-vowel-consonant combinations, such as taz, bok, and lef) as neutral stimuli to memorize. After memorizing lists of these syllables he tested his retention over time, discovering the forgetting curve, whereby memory first declines steeply and then more slowly, almost leveling off.

DIF:          Moderate         OBJ:    Recall experimental psychologists and their work.

  1. Define the stimulus error.

ANS:

The stimulus error was Titchener’s term for introspections that imposed meaning or interpretation on mental contents rather than reducing them to their most basic elements, which were defined as sensations and feelings.

DIF:        Easy      OBJ:      Understand Titchener and his work.

  1. In what way(s) did the work at Würzburg challenge Wundt’s psychology?

ANS:

Studies of imageless thoughts and directed association at Würzburg by Külpe and others introspectively investigated higher mental functions, something Wundt disapproved of. Introspective studies that reported imageless thoughts, ones without sensations or feelings, contradicted Wundtian psychology. Studies of directed association, which established mental sets in subjects, undermined the logic of the subtractive method, suggesting that complex mental functions were not mere aggregates of more simple functions.

DIF:        Hard      OBJ:      Understand reactants to Wundt.

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