PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 11TH EDITION BY PHILIP STEIN – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5

NATURAL SELECTION AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

 

All of the pieces are now in place and it’s time to reexamine natural selection (and sexual and kin selection) and move on the macroevolution, the origin of species. Most students have learned about evolution through suspect sources using slogans and overly simplistic models. Hopefully with a background in scientific method, Mendelian genetics, and population genetics, our students will be able to develop a more sophisticated and accurate understanding of evolution and realize what Charles Darwin wrote in the last paragraph of On the Origin of Species:

 

There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.

 

Chapter Summary

Natural selection operates on the variability that is inherent in all populations. Natural selection can be seen as differences in reproductive rates among the variants within a population. Since the possessors of different genotypes produce differing numbers of offspring, their contribution to the next generation differs, and this brings about changes in the gene pool. Individuals or populations with higher survival or fertility rates are said to be better fitted to the environment in which they live. There are three types of natural selection: directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection.

In addition to natural selection, there are two other types of selection: kin selection and sexual selection. In kin selection, an individual contributes to his or her reproductive success by acting in a manner that allows his or her kin to be reproductively successful. One type of sexual selection is intersexual selection, in which selection occurs for traits that make males more attractive to females. Intrasexual selection involves males competing with one another with the successful individuals contributing genes to the next generation.

Macroevolution includes those processes responsible for the evolution of species and higher taxa. The local reproductive population is the deme, and the forces of evolution operate to bring about changes in gene frequencies within gene pools of demes. When demes or groups of demes become reproductively isolated, subspecies may develop. This elimination of gene flow between demes – which is usually the result of some type of geographical barrier – allows for the accumulation of different mutations within each deme. These accumulations and gene-frequency changes – generated within and restricted to each deme – ultimately make successful reproduction between the demes impossible. Over time, these populations may become distinct species, called allopatric species.

Sympatric species are closely related species that have come to reside in the same geographical area. Yet gene flow is effectively prevented by one of several reproductive isolating mechanisms: ecological isolation, seasonal isolation, sexual isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic mortality, zygotic mortality, hybrid inviability, and hybrid sterility.

Populations within a species will tend to disperse into new regions where they occupy similar ecological niches, but these new niches can never be identical to the original ones. Certain individuals within the population may possess preadapted variations that increase their adaptation in the new niche.  When a population enters an area in which it has no competition, or when a population evolves new anatomical or physiological adaptations, speciation may be quite rapid. This rapid proliferation of species is an adaptive radiation. However, if populations unable to compete in their original niche do not adapt to new or changing niches, extinction may result.

 

Student Learning Outcomes for Chapter 5

Upon satisfactory completion of Chapter 5, students should be able to:

  1. Describe the process of evolution and speciation by employing the concepts upon which modern evolutionary theory is based and recognize examples of each.
  2. Understand that evolution proceeds on the basis of natural causes that are not directed by any controlling force with a particular plan or inevitable specific outcome that was predetermined.

 

Learning Objectives for Chapter 5

Upon satisfactory completion of Chapter 5, students should be able to:

  1. Describe the process of natural selection and its role in the evolution of a population.
  2. Distinguish and describe basic concepts such as reproductive population, variability, and environment, habitat, and niche.
  3. Distinguish between natural selection, kin selection, and sexual selection, and understand the mechanisms by which all three operate.
  4. Define what a subspecies is and explain how subspecies evolve into separate species.
  5. Describe the ways in which macroevolution may occur, including the roles of competition, preadaptation, adaptive radiation, extinction, and generalized versus specialized traits and species.
  6. Distinguish between phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.

 

Chapter Outline

Natural Selection

Environment, Habitat, and Niche

The Mechanisms of Natural Selection

Types of Natural Selection

Natural Selection in Humans

Natural Selection and Sickle-Cell Anemia

Sexual Selection

Kin Selection

Summary

The Origin of Species

The Evolution of Subspecies

The Evolution of Species

Specialized and Generalized Species

Rates of Speciation

Important Concepts in the Study of Evolution

Summary

Box 5-1   The Importance of Words

Box 5-2   Social Darwinism

Box 5-3   Eugenics and the Reduction of Variability

 

Discussion Launchers

  1. Why is necessity not the “mother of invention” in evolutionary terms?
  2. In the nineteenth century, many scholars applied the biological concept of natural selection to human society. “Social Darwinism” was used to argue that unemployment, poverty, criminal behavior and so forth were biologically based and that death from disease and starvation was nature’s way of eliminating such individuals from society. What do you think of this idea? What are some of the major fallacies of such reasoning?
  3. The theory of sexual selection has been applied to the study of modern human mate choice. For example, David Buss studied mate preferences in 33 countries to see if their preferences followed those predicted by evolutionary theory. What qualities would evolutionary theory predict human males and females would be looking for in mates? How would this differ for the different sexes? Do you think these factors have played a role in your own dating choices?

 

Films and Videos

Biology and Evolution (30 minutes). This DVD examines the role of evolutionary theory in anthropological studies. It covers such topics as the development of and key figures in the history of evolutionary thought, natural selection, and current controversies regarding evolutionary theory.  [Insight Media]

The Blind Watchmaker: The Evolutionary Ideas of Richard Dawkins (49 minutes). Shows that the diversity we seen in complex adaptations can best be explained by natural selection. [Films Media Group]

Evidence for a Common Ancestry (30 minutes.) Covers such topics as adaptation, adaptive radiation, punctuated equilibrium, anatomical homology, and evidence for mutation and natural selection. [Insight Media]

Evolution (480 minutes). Series on evolution. [PBS VIDEO]

Macroevolution (30 minutes). Examines macroevolution and related processes. It identifies the characteristics that distinguish a species; explores two taxonomy systems; and provides examples of homologies, analogies, and ancestral and derived traits. [Insight Media]

Modern Theory and Speciation (30 minutes). Examines such evolutionary forces as random genetic change, natural selection, genetic drift, and migration and discusses speciation and isolating mechanisms. [Insight Media]

Natural Selection: Its Place in Today’s World (29 minutes). Explores natural selection as an ongoing phenomenon, showing how evolutionary processes continue to shape the future of all life on Earth. [Films Media Group]

Understanding Evolution (23 minutes). Explores variations in genes, the evolutionary results of environmental pressure, adaptation, and heredity. It uses real-life examples to show how genetic drift, bottlenecks, and the founder effect influence allele frequencies in a population; discusses divergent, convergent, and parallel evolution; and considers fossil dating methods. [Insight Media]

Understanding Evolution (49 minutes). A look at the theory of evolution and its impact, including sexual selection, nature versus nature, and genetic testing. [Films Media Group]

What Females Want (50 minutes). Discover how females are shaping the future of their species by choosing the best mates. [PBS VIDEO]

What Males Will Do (51 minutes). For males in the animal kingdom, the main goal is to pass on their genes to the next generation. [PBS VIDEO]

 

Other Resources Including Resources for Distance Learning

The story of the peppered moths with a neat simulation at http://www.techapps.net/interactives/
pepperMoths.swf.

 

The “Tale of the Peacock,” with a short video, can be found on the PBS website at http://www.pbs.org/

wgbh/evolution/library/01/6/l_016_09.html.

 

Information about “Sexual Selection in Bowerbirds,” with several videos, can be found at http://www.life.

umd.edu/biology/borgialab.

 

Exam Questions

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Scientists theorize that life began to form more than _____ years ago:
  2. A) 8 billion B) 3 ½ billion                                        C) 100 million                                      D) 50 million

Answer: B

 

  1. Microevolution refers to:
  2. A) any change in the frequency of alleles in the gene pool of a population
  3. B) only changes that occur due to natural selection
  4. C) only changes due to mutations
  5. D) the evolution of new species

Answer: A

 

  1. The deliberate breeding of domesticated plants or animals is called:
  2. A) natural selection B) artificial selection C) breeding selection                          D) sexual selection

Answer: B

 

  1. The presence of several distinct forms within a population—such as A, B, O, and AB blood types—is termed:
  2. A) pleiotropy B) polytypy                                          C) polymorphism                D) none of the above

Answer: C

 

  1. The specific place where a particular animal lives is that animal’s:
  2. A) habitat B) environment                                   C) ecological niche                             D) none of the above

Answer: A

 

  1. The living elements which surround an organism, such as plant life, are the:
  2. A) physical environment C) cultural environment
  3. B) biological environment D) microenvironment

Answer: B

 

  1. The specific term used for the elements of the environment that are products of human behavior is the:
  2. A) ecological niche B) physical environment   C) cultural environment     D) habitat

Answer: C

 

  1. Each species occupies a _______ that is defined in terms of space and how that space is used by the organism.
  2. A) ecological niche B) habitat C) microenvironment                         D) microhabitat

Answer: A

 

  1. The term ecological niche refers to:
  2. A) everything external to the organism
  3. B) the microenvironment
  4. C) the way the microenvironment is exploited by the organism
  5. D) b and c

Answer: D

 

  1. Any factor which brings about differential fertility is called a:
  2. A) selective agent B) selective pressure                           C) mutation agent                               D) mutation rate

Answer: A

 

  1. An example of a possible selective agent would be a:
  2. A) disease organism B) drug                                                  C) carnivore                                         D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. An example of a selective agent in humans would be:
  2. A) smallpox B) an earthquake                 C) a flood                                                              D) all of the above

Answer: A

 

  1. A selective agent places __________on certain individuals in the population.
  2. A) selective advantage B) selective pressure C) differential pressure       D) differential advantage

Answer: B

 

  1. Selective agents act on the ______ of members of the population.
  2. A) genotype B) phenotype

Answer: B

 

  1. Fitness is:
  2. A) a measure of how well a particular individual or group is adapted to the requirements imposed by the environment
  3. B) the degree of physical strength an organism has in relationship to other organisms of its species
  4. C) a measure of the degree of good health an organism or group of organisms displays
  5. D) b and c

Answer: A

 

  1. Fitness refers to:
  2. A) characteristics a society values, such as education
  3. B) health and strength of an organism
  4. C) resistance to disease
  5. D) how well an individual or population is adapted to the requirements imposed by the environment

Answer: D

 

  1. Fitness:
  2. A) varies with the situation
  3. B) always remains constant even with changing environments
  4. C) never is greater for the heterozygous than the homozygous individual
  5. D) is always greatest for the homozygous individual

Answer: A

 

  1. Fitness could best be measured by how:
  2. A) strong the individual is C) many offspring the individual has
  3. B) healthy the individual is D) many dominant alleles the individual has

Answer: C

 

  1. Mosquitoes have been controlled in most parts of the world by the spraying of DDT. But after years of repeated sprayings, the number of mosquitoes has been increasing in spite of the continued use of DDT because:
  2. A) each new generation of mosquitoes grew up with DDT as a part of the environment and gradually developed immunity
  3. B) mosquitoes exposed to nonlethal concentrations of DDT learned to avoid food and other matters sprayed with DDT
  4. C) DDT-resistant mosquitoes survived to breed, as did their offspring, until more and more of each year’s mosquitoes were resistant
  5. D) none of the above

Answer: C

 

  1. Darwin’s finches are found in:
  2. A) the Hawaiian Islands C) the Trobriand Islands
  3. B) the Galápagos Islands D) New Guinea

Answer: B

 

  1. Peter and Rosemary Grant observed natural selection taking place on the island of Daphne Major located:
  2. A) in the Channel Islands off the coast of California
  3. B) off the east coast of South Africa
  4. C) in the Andaman Islands off the west coast of Thailand
  5. D) in the Galápagos Islands off the west coast of South America

Answer: D

 

  1. Studies of Darwin’s finches were done by:
  2. A) Peter and Rosemary Grant C) Robert and Rebecca Fitzroy
  3. B) Louis and Mary Leakey D) Richard and Meave Leakey

Answer: A

 

  1. During a drought on Daphne Major, the larger and harder seeds were available to eat so:
  2. A) birds with smaller beaks had an advantage
  3. B) birds with larger beaks had an advantage
  4. C) no birds died since there was still some food available
  5. D) birds of every size died in equal numbers

Answer: B

 

  1. When the Grants measured the beaks of the birds on Daphne Major after the drought, they found:
  2. A) a large number of the birds had died as a result of the drought
  3. B) the survivors of the drought had a larger average beak size
  4. C) beak size is inherited so the next generation had a larger average beak size
  5. D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. As a result of a drought, the average size of a bird’s beaks on Daphne Major increased. This is an example of:
  2. A) directional selection B) disruptive selection C) stabilizing selection       D) averaging selection

Answer: A

 

  1. Human infants that are lighter or heavier in weight do not survive as well as those of average weight. This is an example of:
  2. A) directional selection B) disruptive selection C) stabilizing selection       D) averaging selection

Answer: C

 

  1. When natural selection favors the two extremes and individuals near the mean have lower fertility rates, this is termed:
  2. A) directional selection B) disruptive selection C stabilizing selection         D) averaging selection

Answer: B

 

  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect about the ABO blood type system?
  2. A) there are three major alleles for the system
  3. B) there appears to be selective significance between the ABO system and certain types of diseases
  4. C) blood type O is the most frequent blood type in all human populations
  5. D) one or more of the four ABO blood types could be absent from a specific population

Answer: C

 

  1. The ABO blood type system may have a selective advantage to:
  2. A) hemolytic disease B) ulcers                                 C) disease organisms                          D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Sickle-cell anemia is caused by the presence of _____ within the red blood cells.
  2. A) hemoglobin S (HbS) C) hemoglobin A (HbA)
  3. B) hemoglobin A2 (HbA2)                 D) fetal hemoglobin (HbF)

Answer: A

 

  1. A person who develops the disease sickle-cell anemia:
  2. A) is homozygous for HbA                 C) is heterozygous
  3. B) is homozygous for HbS

Answer: B

 

  1. A person with the sickle-cell traits is:
  2. A) is homozygous for HbA C) is heterozygous
  3. B) is homozygous for HbS

Answer: C

 

  1. Relatively high frequencies of hemoglobin S are found in:
  2. A) Central Africa B) Southern Europe                 C) Middle East                                    D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Hemoglobin S conveys a selective advantage to:
  2. A) tuberculosis B) malaria                                                            C) smallpox                                          D) yaws

Answer: B

 

  1. The increase in the incidence of malaria in Africa historically was most directly related to the development of:
  2. A) fishing B) herding                                                             C) agriculture                                       D) industrialism

Answer: C

 

  1. Which of the following statements is logically correct? People in Africa were dying of malaria:
  2. A) so the sickle cell allele came into being
  3. B) so mutation occurred that would protect them
  4. C) but an allele existed which provided some protection against malaria to those who have the allele

Answer: C

 

  1. Malaria is caused by:
  2. A) the genetic coding for an abnormal hemoglobin C) humid weather conditions
  3. B) a virus carried by rats D) parasites of the blood transmitted by mosquitos

Answer: D

 

  1. In a case of balanced polymorphism resulting from heterozygous advantage the greatest fitness is associated with the genotype(s):
  2. A) AA B) Aa                                                     C) aa                                                      D) AA and Aa

Answer: B

 

  1. A situation in which the heterozygous individual is the best fit results in a situation referred to as:
  2. A) allele maintenance C) balanced polymorphism
  3. B) balanced heterozygosity D) heterozygote maintenance

Answer: C

 

  1. Characteristics that increase the success of a male competing for females will increase over time through:
  2. A) natural selection B) gender selection C) sexual selection                              D) competition selection

Answer: C

 

  1. A female’s reproductive success is limited most by ____________; a male’s reproductive success is most limited by ____________.
  2. A) access to males; access to females C) access to males; access to resources
  3. B) access to resources; access to females D) access to resources; access to resources

Answer: B

 

  1. Selection for traits that make males more attractive to females is termed:
  2. A) intersexual selection C) countersexual selection
  3. B) intrasexual selection D) infrasexual selection

Answer: A

 

  1. Selection for traits that make males more able to compete directly for females is termed:
  2. A) intersexual selection C) countersexual selection
  3. B) intrasexual selection D) infrasexual selection

Answer: B

 

  1. An example of intersexual selection would be:
  2. A) females preferring males with large, safe territories
  3. B) the peacock having a brightly colored tail
  4. C) males being significantly larger than females
  5. D) a and b

Answer: D

 

  1. Sexual dimorphism is a result of:
  2. A) intersexual selection C) countersexual selection
  3. B) intrasexual selection                 D) infrasexual selection

Answer: B

 

  1. The large and colorful tail of the peacock is the result of:
  2. A) intersexual selection C) countersexual selection
  3. B) intrasexual selection D) infrasexual selection

Answer: A

 

  1. Many anthropologists would agree that:
  2. A) all human behavior is genetically determined
  3. B) most human behavior is genetically determined
  4. C) the potential range of human behavior is limited by genetic factors, but highly specific behaviors are not controlled by genes
  5. D) genetics plays absolutely no role in influencing human behavior

Answer: C

 

  1. Darwinian psychologists:
  2. A) study the life and mind of Charles Darwin
  3. B) study the role of natural selection in human behavior
  4. C) state that all human behavior is biologically driven
  5. D) b and c

Answer: B

 

  1. Which of the following is not true about human mate choice?
  2. A) males value appearance more than females
  3. B) females value educational background and favorable social status more than males
  4. C) males prefer younger women
  5. D) culture has no influence on traits that males and females prefer

Answer: D

 

  1. David Buss’s study of human mate choice led him to conclude:
  2. A) males prefer women who will reproduce successfully
  3. B) females prefer men who can provide resources
  4. C) many mate preferences are found cross-culturally
  5. D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Evolutionary biologists define altruism as behavior that:
  2. A) decreases the reproductive success of the individual, but benefits the reproductive success of another individual
  3. B) benefits the reproductive success of another individual without having any effect on the fitness of the individual doing the altruism
  4. C) increases the reproductive success of the individual, but decreases the reproductive success of another individual
  5. D) benefits the reproductive success of both the individual doing the altruism and the other individual involved

Answer: A

 

  1. An individual who acts to increase the fitness of a close relative is demonstrating:
  2. A) reciprocal altruism B) kin favoring                 C) kin selection                                    D) sexual selection

Answer: C

 

  1. Based on the theory of kin selection, you should perform the most altruism toward your:
  2. A) aunt B) grandfather                                     C) sibling                                                               D) cousin

Answer: C

 

  1. The coefficient of relatedness between a parent and offspring is:
  2. A) 1 B) ½                                                                       C) ¼                                                                       D) ⅛

Answer: B

 

  1. The coefficient of relatedness between siblings is:
  2. A) 1 B) ½                                                                       C) ¼                                                                       D) ⅛

Answer: B

 

  1. Inclusive fitness refers to:
  2. A) one’s personal fitness plus the fitness that all of one’s relatives contribute to the individual
  3. B) one’s fitness plus that individual’s influence on the fitness of all relatives
  4. C) one’s fitness plus the fitness of one’s mate
  5. D) the additive fitness that an individual possesses for all environmental situations that the individual is exposed to

Answer: B

 

  1. Because inclusive fitness refers to altruistic acts that benefit relatives, it is sometimes called:
  2. A) altruistic selection B) genetic determinism C) relative selection                            D) kin selection

Answer: D

 

  1. The measure of how likely two individuals are to share the same allele is called:
  2. A) coefficient of relatedness C) allele transference
  3. B) homozygosity D) kin selection

Answer: A

 

  1. Macroevolution refers to:
  2. A) large-scale evolutionary changes such as speciation
  3. B) small-scale evolutionary changes based on natural selection
  4. C) the relationship between humans and very large animals
  5. D) how the evolution of one species affects the evolution of another species

Answer: A

 

  1. The smallest possible population, the local population, is the:
  2. A) cline B) deme                                                C) race                                                   D) species

Answer: B

 

  1. A cline is:
  2. A) an asexually produced individual C) a new species
  3. B) a gradient D) an isolating mechanism

Answer: B

 

  1. A deme is:
  2. A) a group of animals who mate most frequently with each other as opposed to other groups
  3. B) the largest possible population
  4. C) an infertile hybrid
  5. D) microhabitat

Answer: A

 

  1. A distribution of frequencies that shows a systematic gradation over space is a:
  2. A) graded distribution B) clinal distribution C) macro distribution                          D) micro distribution

Answer: B

 

  1. In biological terms, a race is a:
  2. A) species B) subspecies                                       C) deme                                                D) cline

Answer: B

 

  1. Speciation is usually initiated by:
  2. A) mutation C) allelic recombination
  3. B) nonrandom mating                 D) geographical isolation

Answer: D

 

  1. A necessity for speciation is some type of:
  2. A) climatic change B) spatial isolation                              C) cataclysmic event                          D) all of the above

Answer: B

 

  1. Reproductive isolating mechanisms:
  2. A) are initiated by geographic isolation C) occur before geographic isolation
  3. B) occur within a deme D) a and b

Answer: A

 

  1. Spatial isolation:
  2. A) cuts off gene flow between groups
  3. B) allows reproductive isolating mechanisms to develop
  4. C) allows for the genetic reconstitution of the separated populations
  5. D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Reproductive isolation that results from incompatibility in mating behavior is termed:
  2. A) ecological isolation B) sexual isolation C) seasonal isolation                           D) mechanical isolation

Answer: B

 

  1. Which of the following is a postmating mechanism of reproductive isolation?
  2. A) hybrid sterility B) zygotic mortality                            C) hybrid inviability                            D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Which of the following are factors in speciation?
  2. A) genetic drift B) natural selection                             C) mutation                                          D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Species that occupy mutually exclusive geographical areas are called:
  2. A) allopatric species B) ecological species C) sympatric species                           D) hybrid species

Answer: A

 

  1. Different species living in the same area but prevented from successfully reproducing are called:
  2. A) allopatric species B) ecological species C) sympatric species                           D) hybrid species

Answer: C

 

  1. The mule represents an example of:
  2. A) hybrid sterility B) hybrid inviability C) gametic mortality                           D) sexual isolation

Answer: A

 

  1. In evolutionary terms, the term competition means that populations:
  2. A) show aggressive behavior toward one another C) occupy the same or parts of the same niche
  3. B) share the same territory D) all of the above

Answer: C

 

  1. Preadaptation:
  2. A) refers to the potential to adapt to a new niche
  3. B) refers to the need to adapt to a new niche
  4. C) would more often characterize an ecologically specialized species as opposed to a generalized one
  5. D) is not important to species that remain within one locality

Answer: A

 

  1. Generalization:
  2. A) allows for a greater tolerance of environmental change
  3. B) characterizes humans as a whole
  4. C) characterizes the koala
  5. D) a and b
  6. E) a and c

Answer: D

 

  1. A species that can survive in a variety of ecological niches is known as a(n) :
  2. A) specialized species B) ecological species C) generalized species        D) niche species

Answer: C

 

  1. A specialized species:
  2. A) is closely fitted to a specific niche C) exhibits little variation
  3. B) cannot tolerate much change in its niche D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. Specialization could lead to all except the following:
  2. A) greater ability to adapt to a greater variety of ecological niches
  3. B) evolutionary dead ends
  4. C) speciation
  5. D) a and c

Answer: A

 

  1. The phyletic gradualism model sees evolution as:
  2. A) basically static
  3. B) a slow process with gradual transformation of one population into another
  4. C) fairly rapid evolutionary change resulting in a multitude of species

Answer: B

 

  1. The phyletic gradualism model of evolution assumes that the rate of evolutionary change is characterized by:
  2. A) abrupt changes followed by periods of no change at all
  3. B) slow but constant change
  4. C) rapid but constant change
  5. D) alternating patterns of rapid and slow periods of change

Answer: B

 

  1. The punctuated equilibrium model might explain evolution on the ____________ level better than does the phyletic gradualism model.
  2. A) molecular C) phenotypic
  3. B) genotypic                                                                 D) molecular and phenotypic

Answer: C

 

  1. The model of evolution characterized by an uneven tempo of change is known as:
  2. A) phyletic gradualism C) disequilibrium
  3. B) punctuated equilibrium D) asymmetrical speciation

Answer: B

 

  1. A gene that regulates or blocks the activities of another gene is called a:
  2. A) regulatory gene B) adjunct gene                                   C) related gene                                     D) helper gene

Answer: A

 

  1. Chimpanzees and humans are very similar genetically, while being much less similar phenotypically. This is likely due to:
  2. A) many differences in structural genes                 C) a few changes in structural genes
  3. B) a few changes in regulatory genes D) none of the above

Answer: B

 

  1. In order for an organism to move into a new ecological niche:
  2. A) there has to be physical access to the new niche
  3. B) the individuals entering the new niche must be preadapted to some degree
  4. C) the new niche must be unoccupied or the entering organisms must be able to compete successfully with existing populations
  5. D) all of the above

Answer: D

 

  1. The evolution of a single population into a number of different species is called:
  2. A) phyletic expansion C) adaptive radiation
  3. B) punctuated equilibrium D) natural diversion

Answer: C

 

  1. The most common outcome in evolutionary histories is:
  2. A) extinction B) speciation                                        C) adaptive radiation                         D) genetic equilibrium

Answer: A

 

Matching Questions

 

In questions 90 through 92, match each term with its definition:

  1. includes exploitation
  2. things external to the organism
  3. specific place where an animal lives

 

  1. habitat                 Answer: C
  2. environment                 Answer: B
  3. ecological niche                 Answer: A

 

In questions 93 through 96, match each reproductive isolating mechanism to its definition or example:

  1. offspring fertile but do not leave offspring in turn
  2. mule
  3. development ceases after fertilization
  4. sperm immobilized and destroyed

 

  1. gametic mortality Answer: D
  2. zygotic mortality                 Answer: C
  3. hybrid inviability Answer: A
  4. hybrid sterility Answer: B

 

In questions 97 through 99, match each type of selection with its definition:

  1. both extremes are favored
  2. selection against both extremes
  3. selection favoring a particular direction

 

  1. directional selection Answer: C
  2. stabilizing selection Answer: B

99 disruptive selection                                                                                        Answer: A

 

In questions 100 through 103, match each type of selection with its definition:

  1. selection for traits that make males better able to compete with one another for access to females
  2. increasing inclusive fitness by altruistic behavior toward those likely to share one’s genes
  3. selection for traits that make males more attractive to females
  4. selection for traits that help individuals of both sexes to survive and reproduce

 

  1. intersexual selection Answer: C
  2. intrasexual selection Answer: A
  3. natural selection Answer: D

103 kin selection                                                                                                 Answer: B

 

In questions 104 through 107, match each term with its definition:

  1. interfertile groups within a species that display significant differentiation among themselves
  2. the smallest reproductive population
  3. species occupying mutually exclusive geographical areas
  4. different species living in the same area but prevented from successfully reproducing

 

  1. allopatric species Answer: C
  2. sympatric species Answer: D
  3. subspecies Answer: A
  4. deme Answer: B

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. What is a one word synonym for environment? The texts talk about three types of environment. What are these three types of environments and what characterizes each?

 

  1. What is the difference between the concept of environment and the concept of habitat? How does the concept of an ecological niche differ from the two concepts mentioned above?

 

  1. How does natural selection act upon a population to change gene frequencies?

 

  1. Why is the expression “survival of the fit” more descriptive than the expression “survival of the fittest”?

 

  1. Give some examples of how natural selection has operated on human populations.

 

  1. Discuss the controversy over Darwinian psychology. What are some of the basic premises of Darwinian psychology?

 

  1. Outline the differences between the phyletic gradualism and the punctuated equilibrium models of evolution.

 

  1. Create a hypothetical population and describe the steps that could occur to segment that population into two or more species.

 

  1. Two keys to the understanding of the process of evolutionary change are reproductive success and reproductive isolation. Write a paragraph explaining microevolutionary change using these two concepts.

 

  1. What is meant by the term preadaptation? How does the concept relate to the statement “Necessity is not the mother of (biological) invention”?

 

  1. Explain the differences between natural selection, sexual selection, and kin selection.

 

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