Personality Theory and Research 13th Edition By by Daniel Cervone – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download

 

Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Chapter: Chapter 05: A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Theory of Personality

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ theory is primarily a theory of
    1. the structure of personality.
    2. the nature of psychology as a science.
    3. the process of change.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Two main trends seen throughout Rogers’ life are
    1. a concern with the subjective-experiential and the objective-scientific.
    2. concern with religion and philosophy.
    3. concern with individuals and media.
    4. concern with the correlational approach and theconstruct validity approach.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

Rogers’ theory of personality is associated with a particular view of human nature.  That view is reflected in which of the following statements?

  1. to the extent that people are as Freud pictured them they are neurotic.
  2. human nature is basically negative.
  3. self-actualization is essentially the same as Freud’s concept of socialization.
  4. people are basically sinful.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements does not accurately reflect an aspect of Rogers’ theory of personality?
  1. A person’s phenomenological field is made up of both conscious and unconscious perceptions.
  2. The most important determinants of behavior are those which are unconscious.
  3. A person’s phenomenological field is made up of both symbolized and unsymbolized perceptions.
  4. The most important determinants of behavior are those which are symbolized.

 

    1. Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenological approach emphasizes
  1. feelings-experiences.
  2. self-report measures.
  3. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The person’s perceptions of the world make up the
  1. construct system.
  2. phenomenal field.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not expressive of Rogers?
  1. experience is the highest authority.
  2. people have inherently cruel parts.
  3. life is a flowing, changing process.
  4. people drop false fronts when provided with security.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. In terms of the potential for discovery of laws of personality, Rogers is

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the highest authority is
  1. the scientific process.
  2. there is no single authority.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. In terms of his view of people, Rogers
  1. has a Pollyanna view.
  2. denies that people can be hostile or selfish.
  3. emphasizes the potential for destruction.
  4. emphasizes positive tendencies.

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. Research by Lieberman, Jarcho, and Sapute (2004) confirms the Rogerian idea that people have a core _____ sense of self.
    1. counterintuitive
    2. intuitive
    3. counternormative
    4. nonintuitive

 

 

Ans: b

 

 

  1. Research by Lieberman, Jarcho, and Sapute (2004) indicates that when people think intuitively about themselves the brain regions that become active are those that are relatively more connected to emotional life, including an area of the temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the _____.
    1. amygdala
    2. fornix
    3. hippocampus
    4. hypothalamus

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Research by D’Argembeau et al. (2010) confirmed the Rogerian prediction that the actual self and _____ self are distinct structures of personality
    1. aggrandized
    2. unwanted
    3. feared
    4. ideal

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. In research by D’Argembeau et al. (2010), the medial prefrontal cortex of participants’ brains became more active when they thought about their _____selves, relative to when they thought of their _____selves.
    1. present actual; future ideal
    2. present actual; future feared
    3. future ideal; present actual
    4. future ideal; present feared

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was not employed by phenomenologists?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. semantic differential.
  3. adjective checklist.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a phenomenological method?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. Thematic Apperception Test.
  3. adjective checklist.
  4. semantic differential.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort can be used as a quantitative measure of
  1. the difference in meaning between two concepts.
  2. the independence of various motives.
  3. anxiety associated with incongruence.
  4. depression associated with incongruence.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the direction of our movement basically is toward
  1. self-actualization.
  2. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of Rogers’ phenomenological theory?
  1. Reactions to the environment are based on individual perceptions.
  2. Subjective self-reports can be treated objectively.
  3. There is an orderly process of change.
  4. Structure and fixity are more important than process and change.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic Rogerian emphasis?
  1. objective tests.
  2. unstructured tests.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was developed as a measure of attitudes and the meaning of concepts?
  1. Q-data.
  2. Q-sort.
  3. adjective checklist.
  4. semantic differential.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Unconscious is to projective, as _______     is to the Q-sort.
  1. phenomenal field.
  2. self-actualization.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of the phenomenal field?
  1. conscious perceptions.
  2. unconscious perceptions.
  3. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the source of most concepts is (are)
  1. psychological tests.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to the phenomenological position
  1. the normal individual perceives the world in ways corresponding to other individuals.
  2. for normals, the phenomenological field contains chiefly conscious perceptions.
  3. the most important determinants of behavior are the unconscious ones.
  4. study of the subjective phenomena cannot be “scientific.”

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Within the framework of the Rogerian theory of personality, the “self” is the most important structural concept.  In short, the “self” is
  1. those particular parts of an individual’s phenomenal field which relate to the individual.
  2. the total system of events which make up the individual’s life.
  3. the perceptions and meanings which are potentially relevant to the individual and which are highly valued by the individual.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. As Rogers conceptualizes it, a number of meaningful statements can be made about the “self.”  Which of the following statements would Rogers agree with?
  1. In general, the complex of meanings and perceptions which make up the “self” are unsymbolized by the individual.
  2. The “self” is not structural in nature–being instead, an amorphous unit.
  3. The “self” represents an organized set of perceptions.
  4. The concept of the “self” as conceptualized by Rogers does not fit into what traditionally has been a topic of study in psychology.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The self as Rogers has conceptualized it and as related to his client-centered therapy can be thought of as
  1. self-as-progress.
  2. self-as-object.
  3. self-as-doer.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. A measure of the self-concept used frequently by Rogers in his research is called
  1. REP test.
  2. Q technique.
  3. Rorschach test.
  4. self-as-object.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the self is made up of                         `
  1. an organization of parts.
  2. stimulus-response units.
  3. parts that basically are stable and unchanging.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to current research, recognition of the self
  1. is limited to humans.
  2. is limited to humans and chimps.
  3. is present in humans and dolphins.
  4. is present in dogs if they are given practice.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. One measure of recognition of the self is
  1. self-directed mirror behavior.
  2. startle response at one’s mirror image.
  3. reflected appraisals.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. An outstanding feature of the Q-sort is that
  1. it is an objective measure of the phenomenal field.
  2. it provides for comparisons of concepts.
  3. it does not require a verbal response.
  4. it can be used with all age groups.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. On the Q-sort, the subject distributes the statements according to
  1. a random distribution.
  2. a normal distribution.
  3. a binomial distribution.
  4. whichever distribution is chosen by the experimenter.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not typically a measure of the self-concept?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. adjective checklist.
  3. semantic differential.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Compared to people with high self-esteem, research shows that people with low self-esteem
    1. are more motivated to improve their negative moods
    2. are less motivated to improve their negative moods
    3. are equally motivated to improve their negative moods

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. With which of the following statements would Rogers be most likely to disagree?
  1. There is no one self but many selves.
  2. Most tests of the self only get at a conscious aspect.
  3. Most tests used are subject to defensive distortion.
  4. No one test provides a satisfactory measure of the self concept.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Stephenson developed the
  1. Q-sort technique.
  2. adjective checklist.
  3. semantic differential.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. In the Q-sort, the subject
  1. sorts statements into categories following a normal distribution.
  2. sorts statements into categories following a binomial distribution.
  3. sorts statements into self and ideal self categories.
  4. sorts statements into desired self and undesired self categories.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self-actualization most differs from
  1. a tension-reduction model.
  2. an existential model.
  3. an ego model.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self-actualization
  1. can be measured in terms of projective tests.
  2. is too concrete to be of scientific utility.
  3. has yet to be tied to an objective measure.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The psychoanalytic concept most relevant to that of self-actualization is
  1. competence motivation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Freud is to drives as Rogers is to
  1. tension reduction.
  2. self actualization.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the basic tendency for humans is to strive for
  1. satisfaction of biological needs.
  2. meeting security needs.
  3. self-actualization.
  4. psychosocial maturation.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Research on the variability of self suggests that
  1. high variability expresses flexibility.
  2. high variability expresses instability.
  3. variability is not a personality characteristic.
  4. none of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Within the Rogerian framework of personality, anxiety is the result of
  1. the need for positive regard from others.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The process of subception refers to
  1. cases in which an individual can experience a stimulus without bringing it into awareness.
  2. self-consistency.
  3. the process whereby a therapist understands the emotional experience of a client.
  4. the need for positive regard from others.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ view of self-actualization includes
  1. a concept similar to competence motivation.
  2. a concept like tension-reduction.
  3. one of three motives relevant to process.
  4. both (a) and (b).

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The view that one should be true to oneself is violated in
  1. self-ideal self discrepancy.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the response to incongruence is
  1. self-actualization.
  2. none of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Efforts to maintain self-consistency have been demonstrated in relation to
  1. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Relative to nondefensive subjects, defensive subjects are likely to
  1. be more self-actualizing.
  2. recall more stimuli inconsistent with the self.
  3. recall fewer stimuli inconsistent with the self.
  4. show no difference in recall of stimuli inconsistent with the self.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self consistency was originally developed by

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Lecky,
  1. the individual seeks to maintain the self structure.
  2. rewards determine the elements of the self.
  3. the individual seeks self enhancement.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Cartwright found subjects were better able to recall
  1. adjectives consistent with the self.
  2. adjectives inconsistent with the self.
  3. There was no difference.
  4. It depended on the situation.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Congruence is a synonym for
  1. moral integrity.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, vulnerability to anxiety is due to
  1. aggressive thoughts.
  2. unconscious wishes.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, a discrepancy between perceived self and experience leads to a state of

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. A discrepancy between self and experience leads to the state of
  1. reflected appraisal.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ concept for the experiencing of a stimulus without bringing it into awareness is
  1. self-actualization.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Subception is the process through which experiences unavailable to awareness can lead to

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Two major defensive processes described by Rogers are
  1. distortion and denial.
  2. distortion and subception.
  3. denial and subception.
  4. distortion and repression.

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Through the defense mechanism of denial we
  1. allow an experience into awareness, but in a form consistent with the self.
  2. preserve the self structure from threat.
  3. experience a stimulus without bringing it into awareness.
  4. none of the above.

 

    1. Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The basis for the denial of experience is
  1. imposition of conditions of worth.
  2. early trauma.
  3. fixation and regression.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, an organism may react to threatening stimuli with
  1. neither (a) nor (b).
  2. both (a) and (b).

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Freud’s concept of the superego might be related to Rogers’ concept of
  1. self-actualization.
  2. need for positive regard.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, defense occurs due to the threat of
  1. loss of positive regard.
  2. reflected appraisal.
  3. the ideal self.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. One way in which people maintain a self-concept is through
  1. being hostile to others.
  2. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  3. manipulating others through guilt.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Parents who communicate negative appraisals may be suspected of
  1. having low self-regard.
  2. being hostile.
  3. enforcing strict standards.
  4. being zealous in the enforcement of rules.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The development of self-esteem is associated with
  1. freedom within boundaries.
  2. freedom without boundaries.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. 67. Rogerian theory holds that the dissociation of experiences and the rift between organism and self in children are the results of
    1. unconditional positive regard given to the child by the parents.
    2. conditional positive regard.
    3. the imposition of conditions of worth on the child.
    4. both (b) and (c).

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. With regard to the interaction of parent and child during the child’s development, it has been found that
  1. there appears to be an inverse relationship between the types of evaluations a parent makes of himself and the types of evaluations he makes of the child.
  2. the most critical determinant of what a child feels about himself is his perception of his parents’ feeling about him.
  3. children of authoritarian parents tend to have greater intellectual development.
  4. children of democratic parents tend to be more aggressive in filling their needs.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Parental attitudes and practices are very important factors in the development of self-esteem in children.  The research on the subject to date indicates that
  1. parental permissiveness allows the child to develop confidence in his own decisions and enhances self-esteem.
  2. parents of high self-esteem children tend to set behavioral guidelines and enforce them consistently.
  3. parents of high self-esteem children tend to set few behavioral guidelines and are consistent in their enforcement of those rules.
  4. low self-esteem children are given a wide latitude for individual action within the limited rules which are established.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The development of creative potential is associated with conditions of
  1. psychological safety and freedom.
  2. psychological safety and no guidelines.
  3. guidelines and intermittent reinforcement.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The utilization of the views of others to define the self is expressed in the concept of
  1. reflected appraisals.
  2. self-directedness.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following does not have a significant effect on the development of self-esteem in children?
  1. degree of acceptance.
  2. amount of education.
  3. permissiveness and punishments.
  4. democratic practices.

 

Ans: b

 

 

  1. Parents with high self-esteem were found to
  1. give little guidance.
  2. set ambiguous limits.
  3. make clear demands.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not suggested as an important aspect of parent-child interaction?
  1. degree of acceptance.
  2. degree of narcissism.
  3. democratic processes.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Research suggests that the following parental attitudes most facilitate psychological growth in children:
  1. acceptant, authoritarian.
  2. acceptant, democratic.
  3. strict, democratic.
  4. authoritarian, kind.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the imposition of conditions of worth on children causes
  1. a lack of self-efficacy.
  2. demands on the ego.
  3. a rift between organism and self.
  4. a rift between self and negative self.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The evaluation an individual makes and maintains with regard to the self is
  1. self-efficacy.
  2. reflected appraisal.
  3. positive regard.
  4. self-esteem.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to Coopersmith, which of the following is not a building block for high self-esteem in children?
  1. loving mother.
  2. democratic parenting.
  3. varying enforcement of rules.
  4. they all are building blocks.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Parents of children with high self-esteem
  1. set clearly defined limits which are enforced.
  2. use punishments rather than awards for behaviors.
  3. are autocratic.
  4. don’t compromise their methods of control.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was not true of Rogers?
  1. emphasized change.
  2. used few structural concepts.
  3. emphasized the defensive processes present in the person.
  4. emphasized self-report.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenal approach emphasizes how
  1. people view themselves.
  2. people view the world around them.
  3. both a and b.
  4. neither a nor b.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. According to the research by Block and Robins, during adolescence self-esteem
  1. increases in males and decreases in females.
  2. increases in males and in females.
  3. decreases in males and females.
  4. decreases in males and increases in females.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Congruence involves bringing together
  1. feelings and ideal self.
  2. behavior and ideal self.
  3. feelings and self concept.
  4. none of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. A criticism of Rogers’s concept of self-esteem is that it is
  1. too global.
  2. too specific.
  3. too vague.
  4. too concrete.

 

Ans: a

 

 

True/False Questions

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenological approach stresses that people should be understood in terms of how they view themselves and the world around them.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenal field is limited to conscious perceptions and experiences.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the phenomenal field of the individual includes both conscious and unconscious perceptions.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Rogers preferred the use of structured questionnaires to less structured self-report measures.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the core of our nature is essentially positive.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. As was true for Freud, Rogers felt that the most important determinants of behavior are unconscious.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers agreed with Freud that personality is relatively fixed.

 

    1. Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers attempted to integrate humanism and empiricism.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, major parts of the self are unconscious.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Rogerian self is analogous to a little person inside of us.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Children are like members of other species in their lack of mirror self-recognition.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort is used to assess the phenomenal field.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort was developed by Rogers.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort can be used to get at unconscious attitudes and beliefs.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort and semantic differential both measure consistency between self and experience.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers recognized the importance of motives-drives in human behavior.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Self-actualization involves the process of reducing tension while actualizing the self.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, individuals tend to behave in ways consistent with the self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Cartwright found that individuals recall self-consistent information better than information inconsistent with the self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, distortion protects the self structure from threat by allowing experiences into awareness in an acceptable form.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, distortion and denial are defenses against incongruence.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The ultimate goal for Rogers is a state of congruence between experience and self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Denial allows experience into awareness in a form consistent with the self.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Subception is the experiencing of the effects of a stimulus without being aware of it.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. In Rogerian theory, a stimulus experienced without being brought into awareness is described under the concept of subception.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. People with low self-esteem are more likely to cheat than are those with high self-esteem.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Research on self-esteem change during adolescence suggests an increase for males and decrease for females.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, states of incongruence generate defensive processes.

 

    1. Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Congruence involves consistency between self and feeling.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Research suggests that variability in self in different situations is expressive of positive mental health.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

 

 

  1. Compare the views of Freud and Rogers on the nature of the person and science.

 

  1. Discuss Rogers’ views of the self, self processes, and their measurement.

 

  1. How is Rogers’s theory about the nature of self-concept linked to his use of the Q-sort technique as a method of personality assessment?

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Personality Theory and Research 13th Edition By by Daniel Cervone – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.