Personality 9th Edition by Jerry M. Burger – Test Bank


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Chapter 5

The Psychoanalytic Approach:

Neo‑Freudian Theory, Application, and Assessment




  1. Compared to Freudian theory, neo‑Freudian theories are more likely to
  2. identify fewer differences between men and women.
  3. attribute differences in the personalities of men and women to instincts.
  4. identify more differences between men and women.
  5. attribute differences between the personalities of men and women to cultural forces.

ANS: D    REF: 96    WWW

  1. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to argue that the roots of adult personality are largely formed in childhood?
  2. Freud
  3. Erikson
  4. Horney
  5. Jung

ANS: A    REF: 96

  1. Which of the following is not a key limitation to Freud’s theory?
  2. The idea that the adult personality is formed by the time a child is five or six
  3. The idea that the ego defends against anxiety
  4. Freud’s emphasis on instinctual influences on personality
  5. Freud’s concentration on the negative parts of personality

ANS: B    REF: 96

  1. Who was the first neo-Freudian theorist to break with Freud?
  2. Carl Jung
  3. Karen Horney
  4. Erik Erikson
  5. Alfred Adler

ANS: D    REF: 96

  1. Which of the following is the name Alfred Adler gave his approach to personality?
  2. ego psychology
  3. individual psychology
  4. superior psychology
  5. analytic psychology

ANS: B    REF: 96

  1. Adler experienced each of the following in his own childhood except one. Which one?
  2. Dethroning by a younger sibling
  3. Feelings of physical inferiority to children his age
  4. Striving for academic superiority after experiencing feelings of academic inferiority
  5. Being a first-born child

ANS: D    REF: 97

  1. Which of the following is correct about Adler’s concept of striving for superiority?
  2. A strong striving for superiority is most likely to develop in children who see their superiority over others very early in life.
  3. Striving for superiority was one of many equally important motivational forces Adler used to explain achievement behavior.
  4. Weak and helpless children are unlikely to develop a strong sense of striving for superiority.
  5. Striving for superiority has its roots in a child’s perception of personal inferiority.

ANS: D    REF: 98

  1. Wanda was the hardest working student in her school. Her constant efforts were rewarded at graduation when she received an award as the university’s best math student. She confessed at that time that in elementary school she had failed math and was told by her teacher that she should pick an occupation that did not require her to work with numbers. What might Alfred Adler have said about Wanda?
  2. Wanda is the exception to the rule, in that she should have instead displayed an inferiority complex.
  3. She most likely is a first‑born child.
  4. Her striving for achievement resulted from her earlier feelings of inferiority.
  5. She achieved because she never saw herself as inferior, regardless of what happened to her in elementary school.

ANS: C    REF: 98

  1. “Parents should allow children to be independent, to make their own choices and mistakes, but without depriving the children of the parental attention they need.” Which theorist is most likely to have said this?
  2. Adler
  3. Erikson
  4. Horney
  5. Fromm

ANS: A    REF: 98    WWW

  1. According to Adler, all but one of the following parental behaviors is likely to lead to personality problems in the children. Which one?
  2. Giving the child too much attention
  3. Being overprotective
  4. Giving too little attention
  5. Allowing the child to be independent

ANS: D    REF: 99

  1. Ben is one of the hardest working people in his office. He has climbed the corporate ladder in a surprisingly short time. However, he always seems to find someone in the company who is doing a little bit better than he is and sets his mind to surpassing this person. According to Adler, Ben is probably a
  2. first‑born child.
  3. middle‑born child.
  4. last‑born child.
  5. only child.

ANS: B    REF: 99

  1. Which of the following observations did Adler make about the effects of birth order on personality?
  2. Although middle‑born children achieve the most, first‑borns are the most well- adjusted.
  3. First‑born children are the most well-adjusted and the highest achievers.
  4. Middle‑born children are the most well-adjusted and the highest achievers.
  5. Because they are neglected by their parents more than their older siblings were neglected, last‑born children often develop personality problems.

ANS: C    REF: 99

  1. Which of the following statements best summarizes research on the effects of birth order on personality?
  2. Most of the predictions derived from Adler’s theory have been supported.
  3. Birth order often does not predict how people will score on personality measures.
  4. Birth order often has a strong influence on shaping the adult personality.
  5. Most studies find middle-born children to be better adjusted than first- or last-born children.

ANS: B    REF: 100

  1. “There are images in your unconscious that you did not repress. You were born with these unconscious images.” Which theorist is most likely to have said this?
  2. Freud
  3. Adler
  4. Jung
  5. Erikson

ANS: C    REF: 101    WWW

  1. Which of the following is made up of primordial images (archetypes), according to Jung?
  2. Superego
  3. Adult personality
  4. The id
  5. Collective unconscious

ANS: D    REF: 101

  1. Which of the following neo-Freudian theorists called his approach “analytic psychology”?
  2. Adler
  3. Erikson
  4. Horney
  5. Jung

ANS: D    REF: 101

  1. According to Jung, if a man is attracted to a woman, it is because
  2. she unconsciously reminds him of his mother.
  3. marrying her represents for him an achievement that will bolster his feelings of strength and power.
  4. he has had pleasant experiences in early childhood with a woman with similar features.
  5. she matches his own unconscious feminine image.

ANS: D    REF: 102

  1. According to Jung, the objectionable characteristics we see in other people are often projections of our own
  2. anima or animus.
  3. personal unconscious.
  4. shadow.
  5. id impulses.

ANS: C    REF: 102

  1. Jung identified all but one of the following as a place in which the primordial images in our collective unconscious can surface. Which one?
  2. Choice of occupation
  3. Psychotic hallucinations
  4. Cultural symbols
  5. Our dreams

ANS: A    REF: 102-103

  1. The snake is a universal symbol of evil. This is represented symbolically in art, folklore, and religious stories throughout time and across cultures. Which theorist would consider this observation as evidence to support his theory?
  2. Freud
  3. Jung
  4. Adler
  5. Horney

ANS: B    REF: 102

  1. Evidence for the collective unconscious given by Carl Jung included
  2. folklore, art, mythology, and psychosis.
  3. data from laboratory experiments and case studies.
  4. interpretation of Freud’s central writings.
  5. an in-depth examination of the concept of ego.

ANS: A    REF: 103

  1. Which neo-Freudian theorist was the most prolific writer of the lot?
  2. Adler
  3. Jung
  4. Horney
  5. Erikson

ANS: B    REF: 105

  1. According to Erikson, the principal function of the ego is to
  2. keep unacceptable material out of awareness.
  3. establish and maintain a sense of identity.
  4. guide the development of personality through the stages of development.
  5. balance the needs of the individual against the needs of society.

ANS: B    REF: 105

  1. Erikson talked about people encountering crises in personality development. Which of the following is correct about his description of a crisis?
  2. How we resolve the crisis determines the direction our personality develops.
  3. A crisis interrupts the natural development of personality until it is resolved.
  4. People face an unlimited number of potential crises as they pass through personality development.
  5. Crises usually don’t occur until after age five.

ANS: A    REF: 106    WWW

  1. Erikson proposed eight stages of personality development through the life span, many more than Freud proposed. In terms of stages, Freud’s anal stage of development takes place roughly the same time of life as which of Erikson’s stages?
  2. Trust versus mistrust
  3. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
  4. Initiative versus guilt
  5. Industry versus inferiority

ANS: B    REF: 107

  1. A teenage boy drifts from one religion or social cause to another, in an effort to “find himself.” According to Erikson, he is probably struggling with which developmental crisis?
  2. Initiative versus guilt
  3. Industry versus inferiority
  4. Identity versus role confusion
  5. Generativity versus stagnation

ANS: C    REF: 108

  1. The last stage of personality development described by Erikson typically occurs when in the life cycle?
  2. Around age five or six
  3. Adolescence
  4. Early adulthood
  5. Late adulthood

ANS: D    REF: 109

  1. According to Erikson, a person in middle adulthood is most likely to be dealing with which of the following issues?
  2. Whether or not to commit to a romantic relationship
  3. Whether or not to take an active role in the lives of young people
  4. Whether or not to feel guilty about facing challenges
  5. Whether or not to feel satisfaction with choices made in life

ANS: B    REF: 109

  1. According to Karen Horney, a person who becomes extremely dependent on other people
  2. is psychotic.
  3. is using this interpersonal style to avoid feelings of anxiety.
  4. learned this style of interacting as an adult.
  5. could be classified as “moving against people.”

ANS: B    REF: 112

  1. Karen Horney made several important early contributions to understanding personality. One significant idea was her view that neurotics are
  2. trapped in a self-defeating way of interacting with others.
  3. insecure about their relationships.
  4. people who suffer from “womb envy.”
  5. no less adjusted to the challenges of life than normal people.

ANS: A    REF: 112    WWW

  1. Samantha is anxious about socializing with others and she acts so funny toward her peers when they invite her to go out with them that they have stopped asking. Which interaction style does Samantha display, according to Horney?
  2. Moving toward people
  3. Moving away from people
  4. Moving against people
  5. Moving without people

ANS: B    REF: 114

  1. According to Horney, which of the three interpersonal styles is likely to lead to a successful relationship?
  2. Moving toward people
  3. Moving against people
  4. Moving away from people
  5. None is more likely to lead to a successful relationship

ANS: B    REF: 114

  1. Freud introduced the idea of “penis envy” to explain the personality development of young girls. By introducing the concept of “womb envy,” Karen Horney was suggesting that
  2. men are as dissatisfied with themselves as women.
  3. men are conflicted as children over wanting a womb like mother has.
  4. women are ultimately superior to men because they can bear children.
  5. each gender has attributes that the other admires.

ANS: D    REF: 115

  1. Phil was often picked on and teased by his parents and other children when growing up. He soon learned to keep people at a distance, to spend most of his time alone. He continued this pattern as an adult, settling on a bookkeeping job that keeps him working in solitude most of the time. Which theorist might use Phil as an example to support part of his or her theory?
  2. Adler
  3. Erikson
  4. Horney
  5. Freud

ANS: C    REF: 114

  1. The neo-Freudian theorist who stimulated the most discussion about religion was
  2. Karen Horney.
  3. Alfred Adler.
  4. Carl Jung.
  5. Erich Fromm.

ANS: C    REF: 116

  1. Which of the following statements can be attributed to Jung’s view of religion?
  2. “Authoritarian religions emphasize that we are controlled by a powerful God.”
  3. “Modern psychotherapy has taken on the role once reserved for the clergy.”
  4. “Humanistic religions emphasize that there is no God.”
  5. “The religions of mankind must be classified as a mass-delusion.”

ANS: B    REF: 116

  1. According to Fromm, people who conform to what society deems to be normal behavior are
  2. the most well-adjusted.
  3. the happiest.
  4. trying to escape from the perception of powerlessness.
  5. probably struggling with an identity crisis.

ANS: C    REF: 118

  1. According to Jung, people in all cultures throughout history have believed in powerful God-like entities because of
  2. inherent feelings of helplessness and powerlessness.
  3. the God archetype.
  4. the power of organized religion to promote its views.
  5. fear and anxiety about death.

ANS: B    REF: 116

  1. “God is but an unconscious father figure generated to provide us with feelings of security.” Which theorist is most likely to have made this statement?
  2. Freud
  3. Jung
  4. Fromm
  5. Adler

ANS: A    REF: 116

  1. According to Jung, modern psychotherapists often take on the role once provided by
  2. grandparents.
  3. the clergy.
  4. physicians.
  5. faith healers.

ANS: B    REF: 116

  1. Researchers turn life stories into data by which of the following methods?
  2. Judging transcripts of interview recordings
  3. Computing scores on an inventory
  4. Judging pictures of significant life events
  5. None of the above

ANS: A    REF: 118

  1. Which of the following theoretical concepts has been given general support from research using personal narratives?
  2. Horney’s womb envy
  3. Adler’s strivings for superiority
  4. Fromm’s authoritarian religions
  5. Erikson’s generativity versus stagnation stage

ANS: D    REF: 119

  1. Compared to Freud’s theory, the neo‑Freudian theories generally are
  2. more comprehensive, in that most neo‑Freudian theorists tried to explain a wider range of behaviors than did Freud.
  3. more pessimistic about human nature.
  4. less biased in their interpretation of data.
  5. more concerned with the social aspects of personality development.

ANS: D    REF: 120

  1. Like Freud’s original theory, the neo-Freudian approach can be criticized for
  2. a lack of scientific evidence.
  3. being more descriptive than scientific.
  4. incomplete or limited accounts of personality.
  5. all of the above

ANS: D    REF: 121

  1. Briefly sketch the life of Alfred Adler, stating how his life experiences may have influenced his theory. Discuss Adler’s contribution to psychoanalytic theory and identify the main points of his approach, including the roles of inferiority, birth order, and other basic factors that influence personality development in Adler’s view.

REF: 96-100

  1. Briefly sketch the life of Carl Jung including his relationship to Freud. Discuss Jung’s contribution to psychoanalytic theory and identify the main points of his approach, including what he meant by the collective unconscious.  Give examples of the content of the collective unconscious and briefly sketch his theory of psychological types.

REF: 100-105, 115-118

  1. Briefly sketch the life of Erik Erikson and contrast his theory with Freud’s. Discuss Erikson’s contribution to psychoanalytic theory and identify the main points of his approach, including a definition of identity crisis and Erikson’s conception of the ego.  List the stages of personality development according to Erikson’s theory and for each stage give an example of the basic crisis involved.

REF: 105-110

  1. Briefly sketch the life of Karen Horney and describe her relationship to Freud. Discuss Horney’s contribution to psychoanalytic theory and identify the specific objections she had to Freud’s original theory.  Explain Horney’s conception of neurosis and discuss three general social interaction styles that neurotic people adopt.

REF: 110-115

  1. Describe the method of personality assessment known as personal narrative. What are the steps involved in their analysis?  Give one neo-Freudian theory for which personal narratives have provided support.  List and explain the problems associated with this assessment technique.

REF: 118-120

  1. Adler’s assessment of middle children was positive.

ANS: TRUE    REF: 99

  1. The neo-Freudian theorist who named his approach analytic psychology was Erik Erikson.

ANS: FALSE    REF: 101

  1. Erik Erikson observed that overly protective parents hinder the development of a sense of what he called autonomy.

ANS: TRUE    REF: 107

  1. Karen Horney’s view of personality was that it does not even exist in the absence of interpersonal relations.

ANS: FALSE    REF: 112

  1. To analyze personal narratives, judges may count the number of times certain themes are mentioned.

ANS: TRUE    REF: 118



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