ORGB 2nd Canadian Edition By Armstrong – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5—MOTIVATION AT WORK

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Derek’s manager considered him lazy and self-centred. What theory is this an example of?
a. Theory X
b. Theory Y
c. Theory Z
d. motivation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Who is credited with creating the Protestant ethic?
a. Adam Smith
b. Sigmund Freud
c. John Calvin
d. Max Weber

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 76               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which statement best exemplifies current motivation theories?
a. The reinforcement approach to motivation has been found to be superior to other motivational models.
b. The motivational models that make strong economic assumptions regarding human motivation have received the most universal acceptance.
c. There are several approaches to motivation, and one or another may be useful in specific organizational contexts, with specific individuals or groups, at different times.
d. Freud’s psychodynamic theory of motivation has generally been supported with the strongest empirical evidence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 76               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which statement best summarizes Maslow’s progression hypothesis?
a. Needs are ordered.
b. Individuals will move down the hierarchy as well as up the hierarchy.
c. Only ungratified needs motivate behaviour.
d. Higher order needs are more important than lower order needs.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. In what way are the motivation theories of Maslow and Alderfer similar?
a. Maslow’s belongingness falls into Alderfer’s growth.
b. Maslow’s five classifications align to Alderfer’s three classifications.
c. Maslow progression theory aligns to Alderfer’s regression hypothesis.
d. Maslow’s self-actualization falls into Alderfer’s existence classification.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What are the first and last needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model?
a. achievement, power
b. security, social
c. power, affiliation
d. physiological, self-actualization

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. You own and operate a small business that employs 25 people. You are considering cancelling extended health and hospitalization insurance for your employees because of increasing costs. If you do cancel these benefits, which need will become of greater concern to your employees?
a. safety and security
b. self-esteem
c. affiliation
d. self-actualization

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Suppose you asked your employees to create stories based on pictures and then analyzed them to determine their motivation. Which theory represents this concept?
a. ERG theory
b. Maslow’s theory
c. McClelland’s need theory
d. Alderfer’s theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is a relationship between Alderfer’s growth category and Maslow’s need hierarchy?
a. safety and security
b. self-esteem and self-actualization
c. interpersonal esteem
d. social

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-78         OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. You have accepted a job offer and will shortly begin working in your first professional job. Your company provides a very competitive salary and benefit package. Your attention is now directed to learning and advancement opportunities. What would Alderfer and McGregor call your new concerns?
a. relatedness and Theory X
b. existence and Theory Y
c. growth and Theory Y
d. growth and Theory X

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75, 78         OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Your manager has a strong desire to control others. Which learned need does this manager subconsciously exhibit?
a. power
b. achievement
c. affiliation
d. safety and security

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What need applies to wanting to be successful in your job?
a. security
b. achievement
c. affiliation
d. power and dominance

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 79               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Nora, as a manager, has a high concern for others and is interested in pursuing organizational goals as part of the larger group. What does Nora demonstrate?
a. high need for personal power
b. high need for socialized power
c. high need for affiliation
d. high need for achievement

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 79               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which statement applies to Herzberg’s beliefs?
a. People have the need for affiliation.
b. People want to avoid pain and have the need for affiliation.
c. People want autonomy and a desire to psychologically grow.
d. People want to avoid pain and have a desire to psychologically grow.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is a major difference between motivation factors and hygiene factors?
a. Motivation factors concern negative aspects of the job environment; hygiene factors concern personal appearance.
b. Motivation factors are controlled by supervisors; hygiene factors are contained within the job.
c. Motivation factors can be activated only when pay and benefits are acceptable; hygiene factors allow self-actualization whenever present.
d. Motivation factors deal with job characteristics that are intrinsic to the job; hygiene factors deal with characteristics of the work environment or factors extrinsic to the job.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. After working as a sales associate in an appliance store for six months, you become dissatisfied with various rules and regulations. What explains your dissatisfaction?
a. relatedness concerns
b. motivation factors
c. hygiene factors
d. Theory Y assumptions

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80-81         OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to research done on Herzberg’s two-factor theory, what is both a hygiene factor and a motivational factor?
a. achievement
b. pay
c. advancement
d. coworker relations

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80-81         OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is a valid conclusion regarding Herzberg’s two-factor theory and an employee’s desire to excel on the job?
a. Hygiene factors are of critical value.
b. Motivation factors are not necessarily essential.
c. Both motivational and hygiene factors are essential.
d. Hygiene factors are of some importance up to a threshold level.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80-81         OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is based on the needs related to the avoidance of pain and the desire for psychological growth?
a. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
b. McClelland’s need theory
c. Maslow’s need hierarchy
d. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. If hygiene factors are poor or absent, what is most likely to result?
a. A dissatisfied employee will work harder to try to change a poor situation.
b. A dissatisfied employee will complain about whatever is poor.
c. A satisfied employee will complain about their work environment.
d. A satisfied employee will remain loyal to the organization.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Which statement best exemplifies the relationship between hygiene and motivation factors?
a. They are independent.
b. They are interdependent.
c. They are additive.
d. They are positively related.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which statement best summarizes equity theory?
a. There is a high need for power, affiliation, and achievement.
b. Motivation is a function of perceived fairness in a social exchange.
c. It is based on motivation and hygiene factors.
d. The theory is based on a hierarchy of needs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. An important revision to Adams’s original equity theory involves individual preferences for equity. Which of the following applies to an equity-sensitive individual?
a. uncomfortable with an equity ratio less than that of a comparison other
b. uncomfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of a comparison other
c. comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of a comparison other
d. comfortable with an equity ratio equal to that of a comparison other

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82-83         OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which statement would best express your feelings if you did not receive the same recognition as your colleague, for the same amount of effort and work, in a project you had completed together?
a. benevolence
b. negative inequity
c. positive inequity
d. distributive justice

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Josh is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than Dan, even though they perform the same job, work the same hours, and their work effort is very similar. According to revisions in equity theory, which statement exemplifies Josh?
a. Josh is an Entitled.
b. Josh is a Giver.
c. Josh is a Benevolent.
d. Josh lacks loyalty.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What type of individual is an employee who does not show concern over a colleague’s larger bonus?
a. an equitable individual
b. an entitled individual
c. an equity-sensitive individual
d. a Benevolent

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which theory includes the factors of effort, performance, and outcomes?
a. goal-setting
b. two-factor
c. ERG
d. expectancy

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is a defining characteristic of equity theory?
a. It focuses on distributive justice.
b. It focuses on procedural justice.
c. It focuses on interactional justice.
d. It focuses on equation justice.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the term for the importance and value placed on a reward in expectancy theory?
a. instrumentality
b. valence
c. need satisfaction
d. likelihood

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to expectancy theory, what do individuals base their behaviour on?
a. dissatisfaction
b. unfulfilled needs
c. feelings of equity
d. anticipated outcomes

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is one of the limitations of expectancy theory?
a. It cannot explain why people work to maximize their personal outcomes.
b. It cannot explain altruistic behaviour for the benefit of others.
c. It cannot explain the consistent results of the research.
d. It is the valence of an outcome.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to expectancy theory, what is the probable employee reaction in the case of repeated failure when the likelihood of reward has dropped?
a. reducing effort
b. increasing input
c. increasing effort
d. raising outcome valence

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What has research indicated is a result of assigning goals to negotiators, which are specific and challenging?
a. The negotiator consistently achieved on average goals.
b. The negotiator consistently achieved lesser profits.
c. The negotiator consistently achieved more profits.
d. The negotiator consistently achieved goals based on past experience.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO6

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which factor would be an element of a goal that states sales must increase by three percent?
a. time bound
b. measurable
c. achievable
d. realistic

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO6

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to the expectancy theory of motivation, what can employees most easily adjust?
a. reward
b. expectancy
c. reward distribution
d. effort

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What factor is commonly used to motivate Olympic athletes?
a. extra training rewards
b. recognition rewards
c. cash rewards
d. patriotism rewards

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO7

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What does the statement, “What are my chances of getting the rewards I value if I satisfactorily complete my job” exemplify?
a. valence
b. instrumentality
c. expectancy
d. equity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is one way that North American motivation theories differ from that of other cultures?
a. Other cultures do not value Maslow’s hierarchy of need as much.
b. Other cultures do not value achievement as much.
c. Other cultures do not value motivation as much.
d. Other cultures do not value goal setting as much.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO7

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What motivational theory uses the terms specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound?
a. goal-setting
b. need
c. ERG
d. expectancy

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO6

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the textbook, what is a requirement for goal-setting theory?
a. extrinsic rewards
b. moral maturity
c. autonomous workforce
d. employee commitment

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO6

BLM:  Remember

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Managers often make assumptions about what motivates employees.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75               OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. McGregor’s Theory Y states that people are by nature resistant to change.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-76         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Process theories identify internal factors, typically deficiencies that influence motivation.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 76               OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. A distinguishing feature of Maslow’s need hierarchy is the progression hypothesis that says only ungratified needs motivate behaviour.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77               OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. ERG theory explains both progression need and gratification up the hierarchy and regression when people are faced with frustration.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78               OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Alderfer’s growth need, McClelland’s need for achievement, and Maslow’s self-actualization are similar.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78               OBJ:   LO1 | LO2

 

  1. Motivation factors relate to job satisfaction and hygiene factors relate to job dissatisfaction in Herzberg’s model.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. The work an employee does is considered as job satisfaction in Hertzberg’s theory.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 80               OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. According to McClelland, personalized power benefits many.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 79               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Inequity exists when one person’s ratio of inputs to outputs is different than the ratio of a comparison person.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. As organizations become increasingly international, pay inequities will become less prevalent.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. When an employee’s knowledge and skills match job task demands, an acceptable individual–organizational match will take place.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Treating employees fairly in who gets what is known as interactional justice.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Workplace injustice can trigger aggressive reactions that harm both individuals and the organization.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO4

 

 

  1. The key constructs in the expectancy theory of motivation are the valence of an outcome, expectancy, and equity.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Instrumentality is the value of a reward.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Expectancy theory contends that employees must see a strong link between their efforts and results.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Needs of workers are similar across cultures.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO7

 

  1. A ‘to-do’ list is an example of a goal setting activity that focuses you on what is important.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Hygiene factors are key motivators in New Zealand.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86-87         OBJ:   LO7

 

  1. Collectivistic cultures often reject individual-based incentive plans.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO7

 

MATCHING

 

Match the following:

a. Arousal and activation of goal-directed behaviour
b. Work conditions related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
c. Factors and conditions outside the person that may explain and predict a person’s behaviour
d. What is most appropriate and beneficial to the individual
e. Attributes and characteristics inside the individual that determine behaviour

 

 

  1. Self-Interest

 

  1. Motivation

 

  1. Internal

 

  1. Hygiene Factors

 

  1. External

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO2 | LO3

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO2 | LO3

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO2 | LO3

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO2 | LO3

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO2 | LO3

 

Match the following:

a. Basic needs for food and water
b. The assumption that people naturally resist change
c. Fulfillment of potential
d. Feeling of self-worth
e. Assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs

 

 

  1. Theory Y

 

  1. Self-Actualization

 

  1. Physiological Needs

 

  1. Self-Esteem

 

  1. Theory X

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-77         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-77         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-77         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-77         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-77         OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

Match the following:

a. A projective test used extensively by David McClelland
b. Desire to accomplish goals and perform at a high level
c. Desire to dominate others
d. Company policy and working conditions in the two-factor theory
e. Interest in being around others and developing meaningful relationships

 

 

  1. Need for Affiliation

 

  1. Need for Achievement

 

  1. Hygiene Factor

 

  1. TAT

 

  1. Need for Power

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78-80         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78-80         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78-80         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78-80         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 78-80         OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

Match the following:

a. Needs hierarchy theory
b. Two-factor theory
c. Expectancy theory
d. Equity theory
e. Needs theory

 

 

  1. Herzberg

 

  1. McClelland

 

  1. Maslow

 

  1. Adams

 

  1. Vroom

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-85         OBJ:   LO1-LO5

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-85         OBJ:   LO1-LO5

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-85         OBJ:   LO1-LO5

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-85         OBJ:   LO1-LO5

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77-85         OBJ:   LO1-LO5

 

 

 

Match the following:

a. The likelihood that one’s efforts will lead to reward
b. A person’s feeling of fairness
c. Uses the SMART acronym
d. The belief that performance is linked to rewards
e. Evaluated work behaviour

 

 

  1. Equity

 

  1. Performance

 

  1. Instrumentality

 

  1. Goal-setting

 

  1. Expectancy

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-86         OBJ:   LO5 | LO6

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-86         OBJ:   LO5 | LO6

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-86         OBJ:   LO5 | LO6

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-86         OBJ:   LO5 | LO6

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-86         OBJ:   LO5 | LO6

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Is McGregor’s Theory Y more appropriate given today’s issues of managing organizational behaviour? Explain.

 

ANS:

Yes. Employee empowerment, participative management, teamwork, total quality management, and other modern management approaches and techniques can be facilitated more easily under a Theory Y set of assumptions about employees. Theory Y recognizes employee initiative, employee interest in self-improvement, and employee willingness to assume greater responsibilities. The interests and abilities of employees can be more fully utilized under a Theory Y approach.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 75-76         OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Maslow and Herzberg approach the study of motivation somewhat differently, but there are also similarities in their ideas. Compare and contrast their views of motivation.

 

ANS:

Maslow’s theory of motivation is based on a five-level need hierarchy with needs arranged as follows: physiological, safety and security, social, esteem, and self-actualization. As lower-level needs become satisfied, higher-level needs become activated and are of greater importance. A satisfied need is no longer a motivator.

 

Herzberg identified factors of the work environment as hygienic in nature. When these factors are inadequate, the worker experiences dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include pay, supervision, company policy, salary, and other working conditions. If these factors were present, this didn’t necessarily produce job satisfaction. Factors within (or intrinsic to) the job were labelled by Herzberg as motivators. These include responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, and the task itself. When these factors are present, they are motivational and satisfying. Somewhat contrary to Maslow, a satisfying situation can be motivational.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 77, 80         OBJ:   LO1 | LO3

 

  1. What are some of the characteristics of high achievers?

 

ANS:

High achievers prefer to be in situations where they fully use their talents and apply their knowledge. They set moderate goals, or ones that are achievable. They like to receive feedback concerning how well they are performing. The feedback should be given fairly quickly and should be reflective of progress toward goal achievement. Finally, high achievers do not like having external events or other people interfere with progress toward goals.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 79              OBJ:   LO2

 

 

  1. Equity theory can be used to explain consequences stemming from differences in pay. Assume many employees in a department feel underpaid. What do you predict their behaviour and performance to be?

 

ANS:

Some may reduce their contributions or performance. Others may leave the organization. The other or comparison person can be changed. Or, the inequity can be rationalized and eventually accepted. A few workers may even try to alter the comparison person’s inputs and outputs.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83              OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. How can expectancy theory be used to understand behaviour and predict performance?

 

ANS:

If a person’s valued outcomes are known, if the likelihood of achieving these outcomes is realistic, and if one’s efforts lead to high performance which in turn results in receipt of valued outcomes, the work situation can be adjusted by the supervisors to enhance employee success.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84              OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Briefly identify and explain the goal-setting theory.

 

ANS:

It is the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behaviour. According to this theory, people with specific, challenging goals will outperform those with general, “do your best goals” or no goals at all. The higher the goal, the better the performance; that is, people work harder to reach difficult goals, as long as they are committed to the goal and have the skills to achieve it. Goal setting is most effective when there is feedback regarding progress.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86              OBJ:   LO6

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