ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGING PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS 12TH EDITION By RICKY W – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

1. Performance depends upon ability and motivation, but not on the environment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

2. Supervisors can more easily manage employees’ motivation than they can their ability or the environment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

3. Historical perspectives on motivation are important because these ideas provide a background for current understanding of motivation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

4. Frederick Taylor (the father of scientific management) believed people were motivated by the opportunity to contribute to the workplace.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

5. Esteem needs involve realizing our full potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

6. The most basic needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are security needs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

7. The top two sets of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are referred to as growth needs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

8. Herzberg viewed satisfaction and dissatisfaction as two different factors that exist along different dimensions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

9. The dual-structure theory identifies motivation factors, which prevent dissatisfaction, and hygiene factors, which enhance satisfaction.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

10. Hygiene factors include the quality of supervision, working conditions, and interpersonal relationships.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

11. Motivation factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

12. The need for affiliation is the desire to control one’s environment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

13. High-need achievers often do not get promoted into high-level managerial positions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

14. Equity is achieved when an individual perceives that he or she is being treated fairly in relation to others.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

15. Individuals might adjust their inputs or outcomes in order to mitigate concerns about inequity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

16. The desirability of outcomes received for performing work is referred to as valence.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

17. The performance-to-outcome expectancy is a person’s perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

18. Porter and Lawler suggested that, under the right conditions, high levels of performance might lead to satisfaction, rather than the other way around.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

19. Classical conditioning is a simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

20. According to reinforcement theory, if rewards are removed from behaviors that were previously reinforced, the behaviors are likely to decrease in frequency and eventually disappear.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

21. Variable-interval reinforcement varies the amount of time between reinforcements.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

22. Fixed-interval reinforcement provides reinforcement on a fixed time schedule.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

23. Positive reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior by providing a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

24. Punishment and extinction both tend to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors and conduct.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

25. Social learning suggests that individual behavior is determined by a person’s cognitions and social environment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

26. Equity theory is concerned with differences in pay and is not applicable to intangible rewards in the workplace.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

27. ​People have to be rewarded identically in order to perceive the rewards to be fair.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

28. ​Equality and equity are the same thing.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

29. ​High performance requires both ability and motivation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

30. There is a lot of empirical evidence to support Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

Multiple Choice

 

31. ____ is the set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior.

  a. Autonomy
  b. Task identity
  c. Motivation
  d. Activity
  e. Equilibrium.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

32. The most difficult performance factor to manage is often

  a. environment.
  b. mastery.
  c. activity.
  d. motivation.
  e. equilibrium.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

33. Motivated behavior begins with one or more

  a. motives.
  b. people.
  c. wants.
  d. needs.
  e. behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. The scientific management view of motivation includes all of the following EXCEPT

  a. employees are motivated by money.
  b. work is inherently unpleasant.
  c. employees want to feel useful and important.
  d. advocates incentive pay systems.
  e. the nature of the work is not important.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

35. The human relations approach to motivation includes all of the following EXCEPT

  a. employees want to feel useful.
  b. employees want to feel important.
  c. employees have strong social needs.
  d. employees are motivated by only money.
  e. allow employees a modicum of self-direction.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

36. The human resource approach to motivation assumes that

  a. employees are economically motivated.
  b. employees will achieve their security needs.
  c. meaningful employee contributions are valuable to both the individuals and the organization.
  d. illusory employee contributions are valuable to both the individuals and the organization.
  e. none of these

 

ANSWER:   c

 

37. According to Maslow, if a previously satisfied lower-level need becomes deficient,

  a. the individual returns to the level just below the deficient level.
  b. the individual returns to the lowest level that is now deficient.
  c. the individual becomes demotivated.
  d. the individual advances a level.
  e. the individual begins again at the bottom of the hierarchy.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

38. Based on Maslow’s hierarchy, ____ needs are the most basic requirements that people possess.

  a. growth
  b. security
  c. physiological
  d. self-actualization
  e. esteem

 

ANSWER:   c

 

39. John has satisfied his basic needs and has many friends. He is now trying to learn new skills and advance his career. According to Alderfer, John’s activities are explained by which component of ERG theory?

  a. Satisfaction-progression
  b. Frustration-regression
  c. Importance-satisfaction
  d. Satisfaction-regression
  e. Frustration-progression

 

ANSWER:   a

 

40. For various reasons, Anne is unable to move ahead into a higher position at work. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, which of the following sets of needs will become more important to Anne?

  a. Existence
  b. Growth
  c. Relatedness
  d. Security
  e. Belongingness

 

ANSWER:   c

 

41. Herzberg’s dual-structure theory was a response to the prevailing thinking that

  a. job loyalty ranged from loyalty to disloyalty.
  b. job satisfaction ranged from satisfaction to dissatisfaction.
  c. job motivation ranged from motivation to demotivation.
  d. job ability ranged from ability to disability.
  e. job motivation ranged from progression to regression.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

42. According to Herzberg’s dual-structure theory, motivation factors were often cited as the primary causes of

  a. job enrichment and motivation.
  b. satisfaction and motivation.
  c. dissatisfaction and lack of motivation.
  d. loyalty and commitment.
  e. higher performance and pay.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

43. According to Herzberg, once a state of no dissatisfaction has been reached,

  a. the manager should strive to create a feeling of equity.
  b. the employee will naturally be satisfied.
  c. further attempts to enhance motivation via the hygiene factors will be a waste of time.
  d. the employee will be motivated to achieve.
  e. increased attention to motivation factors is pointless.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. High-need achievers tend not to make good top managers because

  a. top managers are required to have too much formal education.
  b. high-need achievers tend to make decisions that are too risky.
  c. top managers seldom receive immediate feedback.
  d. high-need achievers delegate too many responsibilities.
  e. top managers have too high a need for affiliation.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

45. People with a strong need for affiliation most often work in jobs with

  a. high technical skill demands.
  b. many opportunities to control one’s environment.
  c. a high degree of immediate feedback.
  d. a lot of interpersonal contact.
  e. little opportunity to accomplish tasks more effectively than in the past.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

46. People with a high need for power can be successful managers if they

  a. curb their desires when they might interfere with organizational relationships.
  b. lessen alienation with other employees.
  c. have a high need for affiliation.
  d. seek power to increase their standing in the organization.
  e. strive to get along with others.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

47. According to equity theory, people

  a. have the motivation to improve their standard of living.
  b. have the motivation to develop satisfying relationships.
  c. want to be treated fairly.
  d. want everything to be equal.
  e. compare what they get from a job with what they want from a job.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

48. All of the following are steps in an individual’s formation of equity perceptions EXCEPT

  a. evaluating how they are being treated.
  b. forming perceptions of how a comparison other is being treated.
  c. comparing their own circumstances with those of a comparison other.
  d. confronting the comparison other with any inequity.
  e. making a choice to pursue equity-restoring options.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

49. Doug is an employee of McDowell Instruments. Doug takes longer breaks than his coworkers, and often rationalizes his behavior because the organization does not pay him enough for the level of work that he does. Doug is reducing his perceived inequity by

  a. altering his perception of self.
  b. altering his perception of the situation.
  c. changing his inputs.
  d. changing his outcomes.
  e. changing the object of comparison.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

50. According to the equity theory, inputs include all of the following EXCEPT

  a. education
  b. experience
  c. effort
  d. loyalty
  e. all of these are inputs

 

ANSWER:   e

 

51. Equity theory provides several insights for managerial applications to everyday situations in the workplace. Which of the following statements is NOT true in this regard?

  a. People tend to take a multifaceted view of the rewards they receive from the organization.
  b. The basis for organizational rewards should be clearly communicated to employees.
  c. People base their experience of equity on their perceptions, which don’t necessarily match reality.
  d. Formal and informal organizational rewards are equally observable to individuals when formulating equity perceptions.
  e. Employees’ perceptions may differ from the manager’s perceptions.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ____ theory assumes that people are motivated to work toward a goal if they want that goal and think they can achieve it.

  a. Perception
  b. Equity
  c. Attribution
  d. Reinforcement
  e. Expectancy

 

ANSWER:   e

 

53. Aria has been performing successfully at work for several months. Aria believes that she will get a pay raise if she maintains this high level of performance. This belief is an example of the ____ expectancy.

  a. effort-to-performance
  b. performance-to-benefit
  c. performance-to-outcome
  d. performance-to-valence
  e. effort-to-outcome

 

ANSWER:   c

 

54. The basic expectancy framework suggests that for motivated behavior to occur,

  a. the performance-to-outcome expectancies should approach zero.
  b. the sum of all the valences for the relevant potential outcomes must be negative.
  c. none of the valences for the relevant potential outcomes should be negative.
  d. the effort-to-performance ratio should be well above 10.
  e. the positive valences should outweigh the negative valences of potential outcomes.

 

ANSWER:   e

 

55. Porter and Lawler’s extension of the expectancy model argues that

  a. only extrinsic rewards are important.
  b. reward equity replaces valence.
  c. ability, traits, and role perceptions are removed from the original model.
  d. rewards are less important than originally thought.
  e. high levels of performance may lead to satisfaction.

 

ANSWER:   e

 

56. In its simplest form, reinforcement theory suggests that behavior is a function of

  a. equity perceptions.
  b. emotional states.
  c. attitudes.
  d. subconscious perceptions.
  e. consequences.

 

ANSWER:   e

 

57. Which two types of reinforcement are generally accepted as means for increasing the frequency of desired behavior?

  a. positive reinforcement and extinction
  b. negative reinforcement and punishment
  c. negative reinforcement extinction
  d. extinction and punishment
  e. positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement

 

ANSWER:   e

 

58. Sara tries to always be on time for work because she once saw her boss give someone an award for good attendance. Sara is exhibiting learning through

  a. avoidance.
  b. positive reinforcement.
  c. punishment.
  d. extinction.
  e. a stimulus-response mechanism.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

59. Which of the following statements is NOT true about continuous reinforcement?

  a. Extinction sets in quickly when reinforcement is removed.
  b. It is frequently used by managers in organizational settings.
  c. It is the process of reinforcing behavior every time it occurs.
  d. It is an effective means for increasing the frequency of desired behavior.
  e. It requires that managers monitor every behavior of an employee and provide effective reinforcement.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

60. Which type of reinforcement schedule is effective at motivating desirable behaviors, especially in the early stages of learning?

  a. Variable interval
  b. Fixed ratio
  c. Fixed interval
  d. Variable ratio
  e. Continuous

 

ANSWER:   e

 

61. A $10 bonus for every fifth sale would be an example of which schedule of reinforcement?

  a. Fixed-ratio
  b. Variable interval
  c. Fixed interval
  d. Variable ratio
  e. Continuous

 

ANSWER:   c

 

62. In order for social learning to take place,

  a. tasks must be complex, so as to motivate the employee.
  b. the behavior being modeled must be intangible in nature.
  c. the employee must possess the physical attributes needed to perform the job.
  d. the employee need not perceive a direct cause-and-effect linkage.
  e. the employee must be physically present at the time of the demonstration.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

63. A person’s confidence in his or her ability to organize and execute the courses of action necessary to accomplish a specific task is called ____________.

  a. self-righteousness
  b. self-sufficiency
  c. self-esteem
  d. self-efficacy
  e. self-determination

 

ANSWER:   d

 

64. Which dimension of self-efficacy refers to beliefs about how difficult a task can be accomplished?

  a. strength
  b. magnitude
  c. power
  d. generality
  e. corporality

 

ANSWER:   b

 

65. Which dimension of self-efficacy refers to beliefs about how confident the person is that the task can be accomplished?

  a. strength
  b. magnitude
  c. power
  d. generality
  e. corporality

 

ANSWER:   a

 

66. Which dimension of self-efficacy refers to beliefs about the degree to which similar tasks can be accomplished?

  a. strength
  b. magnitude
  c. power
  d. generality
  e. corporality

 

ANSWER:   d

 

67. In the expectancy model of motivation, which term refers to the perceived value of a given reward or outcome?

  a. perception
  b. expectancy
  c. valence
  d. strength
  e. generality

 

ANSWER:   c

 

68. Instrumentality refers to a person’s perception of the probability that

  a. motivation will lead to effort.
  b. performance will lead to effort.
  c. effort will lead to performance.
  d. performance will lead to certain outcomes.
  e. certain outcomes will lead to performance.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

69. A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience is called

  a. trauma.
  b. training.
  c. growth.
  d. intelligence.
  e. learning.

 

ANSWER:   e

 

70. A performance bonus is an example of _____________.

  a. positive reinforcement
  b. negative reinforcement
  c. punishment
  d. extinction
  e. classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   a

 

71. Removal of current or future unpleasant consequences to increase the likelihood that someone will repeat a behavior is called _____________.

  a. positive reinforcement
  b. negative reinforcement
  c. punishment
  d. extinction
  e. classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   b

 

72. Cutting the work hours of low performing employees is an example of __________.

  a. positive reinforcement
  b. negative reinforcement
  c. punishment
  d. extinction
  e. classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   c

 

73. No longer laughing at a coworker’s inappropriate jokes so that he will stop telling them is an example of ____________.

  a. positive reinforcement
  b. negative reinforcement
  c. punishment
  d. extinction
  e. classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   d

 

74. Which of the following is most appropriate when a manager realizes he or she has been rewarding the wrong thing and wants to stop the behavior?

  a. positive reinforcement
  b. negative reinforcement
  c. punishment
  d. extinction
  e. classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   d

 

75. A _________ reinforcement schedule is one in which the desired behavior is reinforced each time that it occurs.

  a. variable-interval
  b. variable-ratio
  c. fixed-interval
  d. fixed-ratio
  e. continuous

 

ANSWER:   e

 

76. A _________ reinforcement schedule is one in which the desired behavior is reinforced after a specified number of instances.

  a. variable-interval
  b. variable-ratio
  c. fixed-interval
  d. fixed-ratio
  e. continuous

 

ANSWER:   d

 

77. A _________ reinforcement schedule is one in which the desired behavior is reinforced after a certain amount of time has passed.

  a. variable-interval
  b. variable-ratio
  c. fixed-interval
  d. fixed-ratio
  e. continuous

 

ANSWER:   c

 

78. A _________ reinforcement schedule is one in which the desired behavior is reinforced after an unpredictable number of instances.

  a. variable-interval
  b. variable-ratio
  c. fixed-interval
  d. fixed-ratio
  e. continuous

 

ANSWER:   b

 

79. A _________ reinforcement schedule is one in which the desired behavior is reinforced after an unpredictable amount of time has elapsed.

  a. variable-interval
  b. variable-ratio
  c. fixed-interval
  d. fixed-ratio
  e. continuous

 

ANSWER:   a

 

80. According to Herzberg, _____________ happiness includes things such as pay, status, and working conditions that produce an acceptable work environment and whose absence leads to dissatisfaction.

  a. hygiene
  b. motivation
  c. acceptability
  d. happiness
  e. engagement

 

ANSWER:   a

 

81. According to Herzberg, _________ factors are intrinsic to the job and increase satisfaction.

  a. hygiene
  b. motivation
  c. acceptability
  d. happiness
  e. engagement

 

ANSWER:   b

 

82. A shortage of ______ factors will lower satisfaction and cause employees to focus on _______ factors, which will produce feelings of dissatisfaction if they are missing.

  a. negative, positive
  b. positive, negative
  c. hygiene, motivation
  d. motivation, hygiene
  e. lower, indifference

 

ANSWER:   d

 

83. ​According to David McClelland, the desire to master complex tasks or to do things better or more efficiently is called a need for _______.

  a. empowerment
  b. affiliation
  c. power
  d. achievement
  e. status

 

ANSWER:   d

 

84. ​According to David McClelland, the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for others is called a need for _______.

  a. empowerment
  b. affiliation
  c. power
  d. achievement
  e. status

 

ANSWER:   c

 

85. ​According to David McClelland, the desire for human companionship is called a need for _______.

  a. empowerment
  b. affiliation
  c. power
  d. achievement
  e. status

 

ANSWER:   b

 

86. Which of the following is NOT a way to restore feelings of equity?

  a. try to convince the comparison-other to reduce her inputs
  b. reduce our own inputs
  c. increase our own outcomes
  d. choose a different comparison-other who gives a better ratio
  e. leave the situation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

87. Whose theory is the Hierarchy of Needs?​

  a. David McClelland
  b. Douglas McGregor
  c. Clay Alderfer
  d. Abraham Maslow
  e. Frederick Herzberg

 

ANSWER:   d

 

88. Who developed the Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) Theory?

  a. David McClelland
  b. Douglas McGregor
  c. Clay Alderfer
  d. Abraham Maslow
  e. Frederick Herzberg

 

ANSWER:   c

 

89. ​Alderfer’s relatedness needs parallel Maslow’s _________ needs.

  a. security and esteem
  b. self-actualization and belongingness
  c. self-actualization and esteem
  d. physiological and security
  e. belongingness and esteem

 

ANSWER:   e

 

90. Who developed the Two-Factor Theory?

  a. David McClelland
  b. Douglas McGregor
  c. Clay Alderfer
  d. Abraham Maslow
  e. Frederick Herzberg

 

ANSWER:   e

 

91. Performance is a function of motivation, ability, and ______.

  a. management
  b. the environment
  c. goals
  d. power
  e. nothing else

 

ANSWER:   b

 

92. According to the human resource approach, offering employees _____________ is the best way to enhance motivation in the workplace.

  a. self-direction
  b. the illusion of self-direction
  c. opportunities for advancement
  d. increased compensation
  e. longer vacations

 

ANSWER:   a

 

93. A key component of equity theory is that employees compare their own input/output ratios with the input/outcome ratios of other employees. What is the term for this phenomenon?

  a. psychological contract
  b. equity theory
  c. social contract
  d. social comparison
  e. social loafing

 

ANSWER:   d

 

94. Who developed scientific management?

  a. Frederick Taylor
  b. David McClelland
  c. Abraham Maslow
  d. Clay Alderfer
  e. Frederick Herzberg

 

ANSWER:   a

 

95. ​A person who feels equitably treated is motivated to ________.

  a. look harder for signs of inequity
  b. work harder
  c. change the way things are
  d. keep things the way they are
  e. work less hard

 

ANSWER:   d

 

96. The most significant shortcoming of the scientific management approach was that it

  a. overstated the importance of money
  b. understated the importance of money
  c. was funded by large corporations
  d. was not actually scientific
  e. did not produce any positive results

 

ANSWER:   a

 

97. According to the human relations approach, offering employees _____________ is the best way to enhance motivation in the workplace.

  a. self-direction
  b. the illusion of self-direction
  c. opportunities for advancement
  d. increased compensation
  e. longer vacations

 

ANSWER:   b

 

98. According to equity theory, which of the following ratios do people consider when deciding whether they are being treated equitably?

  a. inputs : outcomes
  b. performance : rewards
  c. effort : probability of success
  d. status : competence
  e. motivation : ability

 

ANSWER:   a

 

99. What psychologist’s work laid the foundation for the study of behavior modification?

  a. David McClelland
  b. Douglas McGregor
  c. Clay Alderfer
  d. Abraham Maslow
  e. B.F. Skinner

 

ANSWER:   e

 

Completion

 

100. __________ is the set of forces that cause people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior.

ANSWER:   Motivation

 

101. The scientific management perspective assumed that all workers were motivated solely by ____________________.

ANSWER:   money

 

102. Abraham Maslow framed his need theory of motivation in what is termed the _________________.

ANSWER:   hierarchy of needs

 

103. The highest need in Maslow’s hierarchy is the need for ___________________________________.

ANSWER:   self-actualization

 

104. In Maslow’s hierarchy, _________ needs are things such as adequate housing and clothing and freedom from worry and anxiety.

ANSWER:   security

 

105. In Maslow’s hierarchy, friendships developed in a work group would most likely satisfy ____________________ needs.

ANSWER:   belongingness

 

106. Requesting a pay raise is an attempt to reduce inequity by changing one’s own ____________________.

ANSWER:   outcomes

 

107. ____________________ is the belief that a person is being treated fairly in relation to others.

ANSWER:   Equity

 

108. At its most elementary level, reinforcement theory suggests that behavior is a function of its ____________________.

ANSWER:   consequences

 

109. ____________________ involves the presentation of adverse consequences after an undesired behavior has occurred.

ANSWER:   Punishment

 

Matching

 

​Match each of the following descriptions with the dimension of self-efficacy it most clearly illustrates.

a. Because you scored in the 80th percentile on the SAT, you believe that you can score at least as well on the GRE, which is similar.
b. ​​You believe that you can score in the 80th percentile on the GRE, but not in the 90th.
c. ​You are very confident that you can score in the 80th percentile on the GRE.

 

110. ​magnitude

ANSWER:   b

 

111. generality​

ANSWER:   a

 

112. ​strength

ANSWER:   c

 

Match each of the following scenarios with the type of reinforcement it most clearly illustrates.

a. Not enough customers are enrolling in your department store’s rewards program, so you offer a monthly $50 bonus to the employee who signs up the most customers.
b. To encourage your employees to sign up customers in the department store rewards program, you announce that whoever signs up the most customers this month will be exempt from cleaning duties for a week.
c. Gary signed up a grand total of 0 customers in the department store’s reward program last month. He clearly isn’t trying at all, so you threaten to fire him if he doesn’t sign up at least one customer on his next shift.
d. Your efforts to enroll customers in your department store’s rewards program are so successful that the store actually starts losing money on it. You withdraw all of the incentives you’ve been using to encourage your employees to enroll more customers in the program.

 

113. punishment

ANSWER:   c

 

114. positive reinforcement

ANSWER:   a

 

115. extinction

ANSWER:   d

 

116. ​negative reinforcement

ANSWER:   b

 

Performance is related to three factors by the equation P = M + A + E. Match each of the following descriptions with the term in the equation it most clearly embodies.

a. Although Fabio wants to do well as an accountant, he’s just not very good with numbers.
b. Fabio has a strong desire to do well as an accountant.
c. Although Fabio wants to do well as an accountant, he doesn’t get very much support from his coworkers or manager.

 

117. M

ANSWER:   b

 

118. E

ANSWER:   c

 

119. A

ANSWER:   a

 

Ordering

 

120. Arrange the needs of Maslow’s hierarchy from most to least basic.

         a. ​physiological
         b. ​esteem
         c. ​belongingness
         d. ​self-actualization
         e. ​security

 

ANSWER:   a, e, c, b, d

 

Essay

 

121. Define the relationship between motivation and performance using the formula presented in your text. What happens if one of the factors becomes deficient?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.

 

122. Define, discuss, and provide examples of the major ideas of scientific management, human relations, and the human resources views of motivation.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.

 

123. What are Maslow’s five levels of needs, and how do they relate to motivation? How do they relate to each other?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.

 

124. Discuss four of the six common ways in which individuals respond to perceived inequity and provide an example of each. How do you think individuals might respond to overpayment inequity?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.

 

125. Discuss the four types of reinforcement, giving examples of each.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.

 

 

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