Organizational Behavior A Critical Thinking Approach 1st Edition by Christopher P. Neck – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Motivation: Concepts and Theoretical Perspectives

 

Test Bank

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. What term below is defined as forces from within individuals that stimulate and drive them to achieve goals?

*a.Motivation

  1. Content theory
  2. Drives
  3. Tension

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which item below is not an element of the motivation process?
  2. Directed
  3. Maintained

*c. Activated

  1. Energized

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. What element of the motivation process is explained by willing to work hard?
  2. Directed
  3. Maintained
  4. Activated

*d. Energized

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. What term below of the motivation process means that we have chosen what to work at?

*a. Directed

  1. Maintained
  2. Activated
  3. Energized

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. What element of the motivation process is explained by intending to work for some period of time to achieve objectives?
  2. Directed

*b. Maintained

  1. Activated
  2. Energized

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The motivation process is most closely related to

*a. Reduction of tension

  1. Process theories
  2. Intensify tension
  3. Performance goals

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level:  Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Needs motivation theories are generally divided into two categories
  2. Component theories and Procedure theories
  3. Component theories and Process theories
  4. Content theories and Procedure theories

*d. Content theories and Process theories

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which categories listed below explain why people have different needs at different times and how these needs motivate behavior?
  2. Process theories
  3. Procedure theories

*c. Content theories

  1. Component theories

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory below is not considered a content theory?
  2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

*b. Heinrich’s goal setting theory

  1. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  2. McClelland’s need theory

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which category describes the cognitive processes through which needs are translated into behavior?
  2. Component theories
  3. Content theories

*c. Process theories

  1. Procedure theories

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory listed below is not one of the process theories discussed in Chapter 5?
  2. Equity theory
  3. Expectancy theory
  4. Goal-setting theory

*d. Need theory

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Tracy wants to be a great public speaker. However, he is not making much progress toward this goal.  Tracy knows what he needs to read and watch in order to learn how to be a great speaker, and is willing to work toward this goal over a period of years, but is not willing each day to watch good speakers on YouTube, practice writing his own speeches, and give frequent practice talks.   According to this scenario, what element of motivation is Tracy missing?

*a. Energy

  1. Direction
  2. Maintenance
  3. Leadership

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level:  Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Kenneth wants to be a master chess player.  However, something is impeding his progress toward this goal.  Kenneth works hard when he sits down to practice at the chessboard, and is willing to practice for months or years, however long it takes to become a master chess player.  The problem seems to be he does not really know what and how to practice to achieve his goal.   According to this scenario, what element of motivation is Kenneth missing?
  2. Energy

*b. Direction

  1. Maintenance
  2. Leadership

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level:  Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Liz has a dream to be an accomplished piano player.  However, something is impeding her progress toward this goal.   Liz works hard when she sits down at the piano, and she knows exactly what and how to practice the piano.  The problem seems to be she does not practice consistently and on a set schedule.  She only practices when she feels like it.   According to this scenario, what element of motivation is Liz missing?
  2. Energy
  3. Direction

*c. Maintenance

  1. Leadership

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level:  Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Jack signed up to run a 26.1 mile marathon even though he had never run such a distance in his life.  Thus, for a total of 6 months he summoned the forces inside of him.  He woke up at 5:00 am every morning and ran at least six miles. Then on the weekends, he went on a long run of anywhere between 10 to 18 miles. He also changed his diet to include healthier options.  Race day came and he completed the marathon despite record heat and strong head winds.   Jack’s accomplishment best illustrates which Organizational Behavior Concept?

*a. Motivation

  1. Communication
  2. Leadership
  3. Strategic management

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level:  Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which popular needs theory is defined as a pyramid of five levels of individual needs with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization needs at the top?

*a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  1. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  3. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Compare the various needs theories of motivation

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which needs theory is based on the belief that successfully accomplishing the lower-level needs leads to the achievement of higher-level needs, such as gaining confidence, self-esteem, and finally self-actualization?

*a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  1. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  3. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Compare the various needs theories of motivation.

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which step in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes friends and family?
  2. Esteem

*b. Love/belonging

  1. Safety
  2. Physiological

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Compare the various needs theories of motivation

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Deandra has a very healthy social life. She spends her days volunteering at her kid’s school, working out, and taking care of her family. She feels good about herself, enjoys her life, and feels that she is respected in her community.  This excerpt of Deandra’s life falls into what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

*a. Esteem

  1. Love/belonging
  2. Safety
  3. Physiological

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Compare the various needs theories of motivation

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which needs theory suggests that people are motivated by three categories of needs arranged in the form of a hierarchy?
  2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

*b. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

  1. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  2. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: ERG theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element below is not part of the ERG theory?
  2. Existence needs

*b. Interconnectedness needs

  1. Relatedness needs
  2. Growth needs

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: ERG theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which need of the ERG theory bears similarities to both Maslow’s esteem needs and self-actualization needs?
  2. Existence needs
  3. Interconnectedness needs
  4. Relatedness needs

*d. Growth needs

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: ERG theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which ERG theory need is similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs?

*a. Existence needs

  1. Interconnectedness needs
  2. Relatedness needs
  3. Growth needs

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: ERG theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which needs theory explores the impact of motivational influences on job satisfaction?
  2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

*c. Herzberg’s two-factor theory

  1. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Herzberg’s two factor theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. The element of increasing job satisfaction is most closely related to which factor in Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
  2. Influence factors

*b. Motivators

  1. Dissatisfaction
  2. Hygiene factors

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Herzberg’s two-factor theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What are the two factors called in Herzberg’s two factor theory?
  2. Influence factors and Motivators
  3. Dissatisfaction and Influence factors

*c. Hygiene factors and Motivators

  1. Hygiene factors and Influence factors

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Herzberg’s two-factor theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Herzberg’s two -actor theory states that achievement, recognition, and responsibility are all examples of
  2. Influence factors

*b. Motivators

  1. Dissatisfaction
  2. Hygiene factors

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Herzberg’s two factor theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which needs theory holds that our needs are shaped over time and formed by our experiences and cultural background?
  2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  4. Herzberg’s two-factor theory

*d. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: McClelland’s acquired needs theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What category below is not part of the Acquired needs theory?
  2. Need for achievement
  3. Need for affiliation

*c. Need for authority

  1. Need for power

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: McClelland’s acquired needs theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. As stated in the textbook, focus on higher level needs, such as belongingness, esteem, self-actualization according to Maslow, relatedness and growth for Alderfer, and Hertzberg’s motivator factors are more important than

*a. Money

  1. Happiness
  2. Affiliation
  3. Needs

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Money as a motivator

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory holds that motivation is based on our perception of how fairly we are being treated in comparison with others?
  2. Correlation theory
  3. Comparison theory
  4. Balance theory

*d. Equity theory

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Dwight and Pam work in the same department at Nostalgia Department Store. Dwight is unhappy with his job because he feels that Pam is getting better hours. He did not realize that she is working the morning shift because she needs to be available at home in the evenings for her family.  Dwight, a single guy, has been getting the closing shift more often than not.  He thinks this is the slowest time of day and therefore has a direct correlation to his low sales commissions.  Dwight is experiencing an

*a. Inequality of his own perceived ratio to the perception of the ratio of Pam

  1. Inequality of his perception ratio of his outcomes to Pam’s inputs
  2. Equality of his inputs and Pam’s outputs
  3. Equality of his own perceived ratio to the perception of the ratio of Pam

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Lucille and Michael work together. Lucille goes into work earlier and sometimes works through lunch. She does not notice that Michael stays late many evenings producing about the same completed projects.  If Lucille feels that Michael’s outcomes and inputs ratio is greater than her own ratio, Lucille will feel a
  2. Perceived equity
  3. Perceived inequality
  4. Uncontrolled inequality

*d. Perceived inequity

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. As stated in the equity theory, people whose situation is comparable to their own are a/an
  2. Authority
  3. Inequality figure

*c. Referent other

  1. Designator

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Equity theory says we perceive the fairness of rewards as a ratio of
  2. Input to perceived inequity

*b. Input to outcome

  1. Perceived inequity to outcome
  2. Outcome to input

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Equity theory says we compare our ratio to

*a. Referent others

  1. Authorities
  2. Inequality figures
  3. Perceived inequity

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which behavior below is not adopted, as explained in the textbook, when someone feels a perceived inequity?
  2. Attempt to change outcomes

*b. Attempt to change hierarchy

  1. Pick another other
  2. Leave the field

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Mabry has a perceived inequity with Tabatha. Mabry thinks that the only way to fix this inequity is to move to another company. Of the six behaviors stated in the textbook that change perceived inequity, Mabry has decided to

*a. Leave the field

  1. Change inputs
  2. Pick another other
  3. Attempt to change outcomes

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Beatrice has a perceived inequity with Tobias. She decided that Tobias might work a little harder than she does, therefore she picks someone else who matches her own work ethic, Jeanine. Once Beatrice has done this, she perceives an equity of fairness and feels better about her own work situation.  Beatrice decided to do which of the six behaviors stated in the textbook that changes perceived inequity?
  2. Change equity theory person
  3. Change inputs

*c. Pick another other

  1. Attempt to change outcomes

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. ______________ is feeling under rewarded or over rewarded in comparison with others.
  2. Valence
  3. Feedback
  4. Perceived inequality

*d. Perceived inequity

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the six behaviors stated in the textbook that change perceived inequity is explained by workers who may change their perspective on the other person?

*a. Carrying out cognitive reevaluation

  1. Attempt to change outcomes
  2. Attempt to get to change inputs or outcomes
  3. Pick another other

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. What element below focuses on what people perceive as fairness in workplace practices?

*a. Organizational justice

  1. Compositional morality
  2. Compositional justice
  3. Organizational morality

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What are the two main kinds of organizational justice?
  2. Operational and Procedural

*b. Distributive and Procedural

  1. Distributive and Operational
  2. Operational and Mechanical

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. __________ is the degree to which people perceive outcomes to be fairly allocated.

*a. Distributive justice

  1. Operational justice
  2. Mechanical justice
  3. Procedural justice

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element below is defined as the degree to which people perceive the implementation of company policies and procedures to be fair?
  2. Operational justice
  3. Distributive justice

*c. Procedural justice

  1. Mechanical justice

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. When equal work does not produce equal outcomes, or when one employee is paid disproportionately to another for doing the same job, then there is a lack of
  2. Operational justice

*b. Distributive justice

  1. Procedural justice
  2. Mechanical justice

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Blogfix has a strict policy regarding tardiness and disciplines those who are consistently late for work. Blogfix employees are likely to accept this as fair because the policy applies to all staff at every level. Blogfix is an example of
  2. Operational justice
  3. Distributive justice

*c. Procedural justice

  1. Mechanical justice

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Hard

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory below suggests that human performance is directed by conscious goals and intentions?

*a. Goal setting theory

  1. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  3. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Studies of the effects in the workplace of which element below showed that employees are motivated by clear goals accompanied by appropriate feedback.
  2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
  3. McClelland’s acquired needs theory

*c. Goal setting theory

  1. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of goal setting theory encourages us to use cognitive skills, such as planning and strategizing to attain goals?
  2. Direct effects
  3. Absolute effects

*c. Indirect effects

  1. Unintended effects

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of goal setting theory motivate and energize us to help achieve objectives?

*a. Direct effects

  1. Absolute effects
  2. Indirect effects
  3. Unintended effects

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Cosmo has just made his dream come true of buying the property that his restaurant occupies. His excitement is short lived however. He now realizes that he needs to come up with the extra money for the mortgage.  Cosmo decides to rent out the store front next to the restaurant for added income.  After acquiring the property, Cosmo shifted his focus onto which aspect of goal setting theory
  2. Direct effects
  3. Absolute effects

*c. Indirect effects

  1. Unintended effects

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which item below was not one of the four characteristics of goal setting theory?
  2. Specific goals

*b. Simple goals

  1. Goal acceptance and commitment
  2. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Claire needs to motivate Phil to reach a higher sales goal. She decides to make a clear and easy to understand plan for Phil to use to help the sales process. Phil can refer to this plan to see how much he should sell and when he should accomplish each sales goal.  Claire focused on which characteristic of goal setting theory?

*a. Specific goals

  1. Difficult goals
  2. Goal acceptance and commitment
  3. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Specific goals

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. By making a goal easy to understand, ensuring they are challenging but attainable, making them measurable, and setting them within a distinct timeframe is focusing on what characteristic of goal setting theory?

*a. Specific goals

  1. Difficult goals
  2. Goal acceptance and commitment
  3. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Specific goals

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which characteristic of goal setting theory states that in general, employees who participate with their managers with setting goals will have higher levels of performance and be more motivated to achieve the objectives.
  2. Specific goals
  3. Difficult goals

*c. Goal acceptance and commitment

  1. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Goal acceptance and commitment

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Alex has set a goal for Haley to sell 25 gym memberships this month. Alex realizes that Haley may feel apprehensive about trying to sell such a large amount of memberships in one month, but she believes the challenge will motivate her into achieving the goal. This scenario reflects which characteristic of goal setting theory?
  2. Specific goals

*b. Difficult goals

  1. Goal acceptance and commitment
  2. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Difficult goals

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Researchers found that goals set at a high, but not unreasonable level of difficulty produce better results than less challenging or easier goals. This definition applies to which characteristic of goal setting theory?
  2. Specific goals

*b. Difficult goals

  1. Goal acceptance and commitment
  2. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Difficult goals

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Cameron is trying to motivate his team to sell the most air conditioning units within his company. He decides to develop a spreadsheet to show the amount of orders each member of his sales team made within the quarter compared to the other sales teams. Cameron has focused on which characteristic of goal setting theory?
  2. Specific goals
  3. Difficult goals
  4. Goal acceptance and commitment

*d. Feedback

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Difficult goals

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Short-term goals that provide employees with frequent feedback about their performance are called
  2. Implementation goals
  3. Performance goals

*c. Behavioral goals

  1. Operational goals

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Feedback

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: MC

 

  1. What goals are long-term goals set into the future?
  2. Behavioral
  3. Operational
  4. Implementation

*d. Performance

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Feedback

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. After leaving the doctor’s office, Jerry has decided to join the gym. His doctor explained that his blood sugars are high and that he needs to lose weight in order to avoid acquiring diabetes. His doctor suggested that he take a year to lose the weight because it is dangerous to lose weight quickly.  Jerry’s goal of lowering his blood sugar is an example of what element of goal setting theory?
  2. Behavioral goals
  3. Immediate goals

*c. Performance goals

  1. Operational goals

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Feedback

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Elaine is planning to go to med school, however she is only a freshman in college and is entirely focused on preparing for her big chemistry test as well as stressing about the MCAT. Elaine is focused on what element of goal setting theory?

*a. Behavioral goals

  1. Immediate goals
  2. Performance goals
  3. Operational goals

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Feedback

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory holds that people will choose certain behaviors over others with the expectation of a certain outcome?
  2. Goal setting theory
  3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  4. Herzberg’s two-factor theory

*d. Expectancy theory

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which theory describes motivation as a function of an individual’s beliefs concerning effort-to-performance relationships, work outcome relationships, and the desirability of various work outcomes?
  2. Goal setting theory
  3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  4. Herzberg’s two-factor theory

*d. Expectancy theory

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of expectancy theory is the probability that the amount of work effort invested by an individual will result in a high level of performance?

*a. Expectancy

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Effort
  3. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of expectancy theory could be phrased as the question, “What’s the probability that, if I work very hard, I’ll be able to do a good job?”

*a. Expectancy

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Effort
  3. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Looking at expectancy theory, the probability that good performance will lead to various work outcomes is considered
  2. Expectancy

*b. Instrumentality

  1. Effort
  2. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of expectancy theory could be phrased as the question, “What’s the probability that, if I do a good job, that there will be some kind of outcome in it for me”?
  2. Expectancy

*b.  Instrumentality

  1. Effort
  2. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Bella is working with Edward to complete a project proposal. Edward promised her that she would get credit for the part of the proposal that she completes. Bella is trying to do everything to move up the corporate ladder, but she wonders if Edward will keep his promise and give her the credit that she deserves.   Bella is struggling with which element of expectancy theory?
  2. Expectancy

*b.  Instrumentality

  1. Effort
  2. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of expectancy theory is stated as the value individuals place on work outcomes?
  2. Expectancy
  3. Instrumentality
  4. Effort

*d. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of expectancy theory could be phrased as the question, “Is the outcome I get of any value to me”?
  2. Expectancy
  3. Instrumentality
  4. Effort

*d. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Yolanda is not very motivated at her car sales job. She knows the probability is high that if she works hard, she will meet her weekly quota of selling five cars. Yet ,upon reflection Yolanda realizes that reaching her sales quota does not give her much satisfaction and it is really not that important to her.  According to this scenario, Yolanda is lacking
  2. Expectancy
  3. Instrumentality
  4. Leadership potential

*d. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location:  Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which two elements of the expectancy theory are measured in a range from -1 to +1?
  2. Effort and Valence
  3. Instrumentality and Expectancy

*c. Instrumentality and Valence

  1. Valence and Expectancy

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which element of the expectancy theory is measured in a range from zero to +1?

*a. Expectancy

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Effort
  3. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What measurement of expectancy theory would +1 apply to people who believe that their performance would make an outcome likely?
  2. Expectancy

*b. Instrumentality

  1. Effort
  2. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What measurement of expectancy theory is +1 when a person believes good effort will lead to high performance?

*a. Expectancy

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Effort
  3. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. What measurement of expectancy theory would be -1, or a feeling of negativity for the outcome?
  2. Expectancy
  3. Instrumentality
  4. Effort

*d. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

  1. Rosalie does not like to speak publically. She has a big report to give next week and knows that she needs to practice every day to get better. However, in her heart she does not think that even with the extra practice she will do very well.  This scenario is relating to which element of expectancy theory?

*a. Expectancy

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Effort
  3. Valence

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location:  Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

 

True/False

 

 

  1. The motivation process is shaped by unsatisfied needs and the resulting tension. It includes tension, drives, and goal-oriented behaviors.

*a. True

  1. False

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Medium
Question Type: TF

 

  1. Needs motivation theories are generally divided into two categories: content theories and procedure theories.
  2. True

*b. False

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories of motivation theories

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level:  Easy
Question Type: TF

 

  1. Alderfer’s ERG theory proposed that instead of satisfying needs one step at a time, we can satisfy different levels in any order or even at the same time depending on the circumstances.

*a. True

  1. False

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: ERG Theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behavior

Difficulty Level:  Easy

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The need for affiliation within McClelland’s acquired needs theory is the desire to control and influence the behavior of others.
  2. True

*b. False

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: McClelland’s acquired needs theory

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behavior

Difficulty Level:  Medium

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Of the six behaviors stated in the textbook that change perceived inequity, an attempt to get to change inputs or outcomes means that employees might try and convince others to reduce or give up other outcomes.

*a. True

  1. False

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Medium

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Within equity theory, there are two main kinds of organizational justice, distributive and operational.
  2. True

*b. False

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Looking at goal setting theory, in general, employees who accept and commit to goals set by or developed in participation with their managers will have higher levels of performance and be more motivated to achieve the objectives.

*a. True

  1. False

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Goal acceptance and commitment

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: TF

 

  1. Performance goals are short-term goals that provide employees with frequent feedback about their performance and are positioned further up the hierarchy.
  2. True

*b. False

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Feedback

AACSB Standard: Group and individual behaviors

Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: TF

 

 

  1. Looking at expectancy theory, if someone believes strong effort will not result in a higher performance level, his or her expectancy is +1; however, if the person believes a good effort will lead to high performance, expectancy is zero.
  2. True

*b. False

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: TF

 

  1. Expectancy theory describes motivation as a function of an individual’s beliefs concerning effort to performance relationships, work outcome relationships, and desirability of various outcomes.

*a. True

  1. False

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: TF

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

  1. The demand to satisfy a need and relieve discomfort, which helps to attain goals, reduces __________.

*a. Tension

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. _____________ explain why people have different needs at different times and how these needs motivate behavior while ______________ describe the cognitive processes through which needs are translated into behavior.

*a. Content theories and Process theories

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Reflective thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. Charlie loves being part of her team. She considers the people in her office as her friends. However, when it comes to making hard decisions, she usually takes the easy way out and chooses to do the popular thing instead of what is best for the company.  Charlie’s need for _____________ is her most dominant motivator of McClelland’s acquired needs theory.

*a. Affiliation

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: McClelland’s acquired needs theory

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. Sayid’s future goal is focused on making a lot of money so that he can buy whatever he wants and have the freedom to travel. He decided that the quickest way to do this is to make promises that he does not intend to keep and to make sure that his employees do not catch wind of his ultimate goal to “get in and get out fast.” Sayid is a good example of which need of McClelland’s acquired needs theory and what type?
  2. Need for power and Personal power

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: McClelland’s acquired needs theory

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. How would one classify our perception of how fairly we are being treated in comparison with others?

*a. Equity theory

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Examine equity theory in the context of organizational justice and distinguish among the predictable outcomes of perceived inequity

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. Within goal setting theory, ____________ motivate and energize us, helping to achieve objectives, and ____________ encourage us to use cognitive skills such as planning and strategizing to attain goals.

*a. Direct effects and indirect effects

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: SA

 

  1. ______________ are short-term goals that provide employees with frequent feedback about their performance and ______________ are long-term goals set into the future.

*a. Behavioral goals and Performance goals

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location:  Feedback

AACSB Standard:  Group and individual behavior

Difficulty Level:  Medium
Question Type: SA

 

  1. If Chandra believes that good effort will lead to high performance, and that her performance will make an outcome likely, but does not have a positive feeling about the nature of the outcome, then Chandra’s motivation equation looks like

*+1+1-1=+1

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level:  Hard
Question Type: SA

 

Essay

 

  1. Relate the motivation process to a situation in your own life using the three elements described in the textbook.

*Energized, meaning we are willing to work hard

*Directed, meaning we’ve chosen what to work at

*Maintained, meaning we intend to work for some period of time to achieve objectives

Example

*I want to learn to swim = Energized

*I need to practice holding my breath and strokes in the pool = Directed

*I am going to practice everyday after school until I have learned to do it = Maintained

Learning Objective: 5.1

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Explain the basic motivation process

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: ESS

 

  1. Mac realizes that he needs to do something to increase Dennis’s job satisfaction. Mac decides to give Dennis a raise. Using Herzberg’s two factor theory, did Mac do the right thing to increase job satisfaction? Explain.

*No

*Mac only reduced job dissatisfaction rather than increasing job satisfaction

*Mac focused on Hygiene factors instead of motivators

*Motivators increase job satisfaction

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Herzberg’s two factor theory

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: ESS

 

  1. Even though money is one of the primary mechanisms managers use for motivating people in the workplace, why wouldn’t money be ranked high on any of the four theories of motivation?

*Generally, money sits with lower-level needs: safety and physiological for Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, existence for Alderfer’s ERG Theory, and hygiene factors for Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

*Money provides us with food, housing, clothing, and all the necessities of life

*Most people who live in modern societies and work in contemporary organizations receive a paycheck that affords them a certain standard of living. This means their lower-level needs are already being satisfied

*Instead, the theories state that people focus on higher-level needs, such as belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization according to Maslow, relatedness and growth for Alderfer, and Hertzberg’s motivator factors.

*Money is not as important here according to these theorists

Learning Objective: 5.2

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Money as a motivator

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: ESS

 

  1. Give an example of the two main kinds of organizational justice.

*Distributive justice is the degree to which people perceive outcomes to be fairly allocated

*For example, employees doing the same job as others expect to be compensated equally.  When equal work does not produce equal outcomes, or when one employee is paid disproportionately to another for doing the same job, then there is a lack of distributive justice

*Procedural justice is the degree to which people perceive the implementation of company policies and procedures to be fair

*For example, a company might have a strict policy regarding tardiness and disciplines those who are consistently late for work. If the policy applies to all staff at every level, then employees will be more likely to accept it as fair; whereas, if others are exempt, then employees may not believe they are being treated equally

Learning Objective: 5.3

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizational justice

AACSB Standard: Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: ESS

 

  1. Emmett has always wanted a sports car. He has finally graduated from college and is working at his first job. He realizes to make his dream come true, he needs to save up for a down payment and then work out how he will pay the monthly loan amount.  Using goal setting theory, give the direct and indirect effects of Emmett’s scenario?

*Direct effects motivate and energize us, helping to achieve objectives

*Indirect effects encourage us to use cognitive skills, such as planning and strategizing to attain goals

*Direct effect of buying the sports car is owning it

*Indirect effect would be how he will work out paying the monthly loan payment

Learning Objective: 5.4

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Apply goal setting theory in organizational contexts

AACSB Standard: Analytical thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

Question Type: ESS

 

  1. Fez is trying to motivate his sales staff. He holds a staff meeting to explain his plan. He realized that in order for the plan to work, he needs to make sure that his team expects that their hard work will result in an increase in sales; he needs to reassure the team that meeting their sales targets will result in their receiving a percentage of their sales; and he hopes that the team will value the opportunity to make more money and see the advantages of working closely as a team.  Relate Fez’s experience to the three elements of expectancy theory and explain.

*Expectancy is the probability that the amount of work effort invested by an individual will result in a high level of performance

*When Fez talks to his staff, he made sure that his team expects that their hard work will result in an increase in sales

*Instrumentality is the probability that good performance will lead to various work outcomes

*Fez also reassured his team that if the sales targets are met then they will receive a percentage of sales  They would get rewarded

*Valence is the value individuals place on work outcomes

*In order for the plan to work, then the sales team needs to value making more money.  Then they will work hard for that end result

Learning Objective: 5.5

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Describe the expectancy theory of motivation and its practical implications

AACSB Standard:  Application of knowledge

Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: ESS

 

 

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