Nutrition Concepts And Controversies 2nd Edition by Ellie Whitney Frances Sizer – Test Bank

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Chapter 5-The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the name for a family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but NOT in water?
a. fats
b. lipids
c. triglycerides
d. oils

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. About 95 percent of the lipids in foods and in the human body come from what family of compounds?
a. cholesterol
b. phospholipids
c. sterols
d. triglycerides

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. Lecithin is the best-known type of what?
a. lipids
b. phospholipids
c. triglycerides
d. sterols

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. What is the main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol?
a. high food fat intake
b. high saturated fat and trans fat intake
c. high polyunsaturated fat intake
d. high cholesterol intake

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 153

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a food with hidden fat?
a. coconuts
b. fruit salad
c. fresh tomato salsa
d. marbling on a steak

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 172

 

  1. Which of the following vitamins is a fat-soluble?
a. vitamin F
b. vitamin C
c. vitamin A
d. vitamin B12

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 151

 

  1. Which of the following is among the functions of fat in the human body?
a. It carries the water-soluble nutrients.
b. It cushions the internal organs from physical shock.
c. It protects the body from hemophilia.
d. It provides the major material from which bones and teeth are made.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. In which of the following ways do fatty acids differ from one another?
a. chain size
b. shape and composition
c. number of calories
d. degree of saturation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 152

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an excellent emulsifier?
a. oil and vinegar salad dressing
b. mayonnaise
c. Dijon mustard
d. vinegar

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 156

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the essential fatty acids?
a. They can be made from the substances in the body.
b. Most must be supplied by the diet.
c. They are a type of hydrogenated fatty acid.
d. They are harmful to heart health.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 165

 

  1. To help achieve the right balance between omega-3 and omega-6 intakes, how many meals per week should include fish?
a. 1–2
b. 2–3
c. 3–4
d. 4–5

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 166

 

  1. Why should cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers?
a. to prevent them from losing fat-soluble vitamins
b. to hasten the oxidation process
c. to prevent them from becoming rancid
d. to prevent discolouration

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 169

 

  1. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are added to foods as an alternative to what?
a. antioxidation
b. hydrogenation
c. saturation
d. contamination

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 170

 

  1. How many meals of fatty fish each week may help reduce dealth and illness from heart disease?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 5
d. 7

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 166

 

  1. What chemical change occurs when spreadable margarines are made from polyunsaturated oils?
a. The oil changes colour after the hydrogen is added.
b. Hydrogen is forced into the oil, and some of the unsaturated fatty acids accept it.
c. The margarine becomes more nutritious than butter.
d. The margarine becomes LESS saturated than the original oil.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 169

 

  1. What type of margarine is the most heart healthy?
a. margarine that has received the most hydrogenation
b. margarine that is the most resistant to rancidity
c. margarine that is the most expensive
d. margarine that lists liquid oil as the first ingredient

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 187

 

  1. As compared to unsaturated fat, saturated fat melts at what temperature?
a. higher or lower temperatures, depending on the cooking method
b. a higher temperature
c. a lower temperature
d. the same temperature

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 154

 

  1. What is lecithin’s most important function?
a. It has a special ability to promote health.
b. It is an emulsifier.
c. It has the ability to lower blood cholesterol.
d. It plays a key role in the structure of bones.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 156

 

  1. Which of the following is a dietary reference intake (DRI) committee recommendation concerning intake of fats?
a. Keep saturated fat intake as low as possible.
b. Consume up to 40 percent of calories as fat.
c. Consume LESS than 3 percent of total calories from trans fats.
d. Keep cholesterol intake at 100 mg.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 160

 

  1. What is the name for the biologically active compounds that regulate body functions?
a. actosanoids
b. dietary antioxidants
c. chylomicrons
d. eicosanoids

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 165

 

  1. In order to be called “extra lean,” ground beef must contain NO MORE than what percentage of fat?
a. 10%
b. 12%
c. 14%
d. 15%

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 177

 

  1. What is the best way to increase consumption of linoleic acid?
a. Increase intake of milk.
b. Consume legumes more often.
c. Consume 2 to 3 fish meals per week.
d. Increase intake of leafy greens.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 168

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the artificial fat olestra?
a. It is approved for use in Canada.
b. It passes through the digestive tract unabsorbed.
c. It is fortified with vitamin B.
d. It has no undesirable side effects.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 174

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of an “atherogenic” diet?
a. It is high in trans fats.
b. It is high in vegetables and fruits.
c. It is low in saturated fats.
d. It is high in whole grains and legumes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 162

 

  1. Which of the following is a desirable blood lipid value?
a. high total cholesterol
b. high LDL
c. high blood triglycerides
d. high HDL

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 161

 

  1. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an example of which of the following?
a. an additive
b. an emulsifier
c. a steroid
d. an antioxidant

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 170

 

  1. You are talking with someone who is trying to decrease his intake of saturated and trans fats. Which of the following items would you recommend as a coffee whitener?
a. cream
b. skim milk
c. non-dairy creamer
d. half and half

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 178

 

  1. Health Canada recommends the consumption of monounsaturated fat in place of saturated fat. Which of the following oils is high in monounsaturated fat?
a. canola oil
b. coconut oil
c. safflower oil
d. cottonseed oil

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 155

 

  1. Which of the following would be an appropriate margarine to protect against heart disease?
a. one that contains palm oil
b. one that is sold in a stick
c. one that lists liquid oil as the first ingredient
d. one that is labeled “vegetable oil”

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 187

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?
a. 44%
b. 50%
c. 67%
d. 72%

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 152

 

  1. Which of the following substitutions would help to lower LDL?
a. using vegetable shortening in the place of lard
b. using corn oil in the place of vegetable shortening
c. using palm kernel oil in the place of saturated fat
d. using mayonnaise in place of an oil vinaigrette

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 155

 

  1. Which of the following substances does the body require for the digestion of fat?
a. insulin
b. saliva
c. water
d. bile

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 156

 

  1. What is the name of the process that makes unsaturated fats more solid and resistant to the chemical changes caused by oxidation?
a. transamination
b. hydrogenation
c. saturation
d. deamination

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 169

 

 

  1. A 26-year-old male works in a high stress sales position, has a family history of premature heart disease, and is physically inactive. How many risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) does he have?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 162

 

  1. Which of the following provides about 5 grams of pure fat?
a. 2 tablespoons sour cream
b. 2 teaspoons oil
c. 1 1/2 teaspoons margarine
d. 2 teaspoons salad dressing

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 173

 

  1. Which of the following fats is the most saturated?
a. chicken fat
b. safflower oil
c. peanut oil
d. beef fat

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 153

 

  1. What is the main function of cholesterol?
a. It assists in blood circulation.
b. It forms a part of the bones and teeth.
c. It is important in the structure of cell membranes.
d. It is an essential nutrient.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 156

 

  1. What is the dietary consequence of having your gallbladder removed?
a. Bile is NOT delivered into the small intestine.
b. You can NOT digest food.
c. You must reduce your fat intake.
d. The liver stops producing bile.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 157

 

  1. Which of the following has the most trans fatty acid?
a. shortening
b. sesame oil
c. peanut oil
d. liquid corn oil

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 188

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of low-fat diets?
a. They are low-calorie diets.
b. They may EXCLUDE nutritious foods.
c. They do NOT result in nutrient deficiencies.
d. They are simple to maintain over time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 185

 

  1. Which of the following is characteristic of the Mediterranean diet?
a. It is high in complex carbohydrates and fibre.
b. It is high in trans fat.
c. It is high in saturated fat.
d. It is high in animal protein.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 186

 

  1. In which of the following categories does the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid classify legumes?
a. a separate category along with nuts
b. meats
c. vegetables
d. starches

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 189

 

  1. Which of the following nutrient characteristics of nuts may result in lower risk for heart disease?
a. They contain vitamin E, an antioxidant.
b. They contain minimal amounts of dietary fibre.
c. They are low in vegetable protein.
d. They are low in total fat.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 187

 

  1. Which of the following is the best dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)?
a. olive oil
b. margarine
c. fish
d. nuts

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 166

 

  1. Which of the following foods is rich in both calcium and protein?
a. butter
b. cream cheese
c. yogurt
d. cheese

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 179

 

  1. What food is the single greatest contributor of saturated fat in the diet?
a. cheeses
b. sour cream
c. butter
d. chicken wings

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 179

 

  1. When applied to meats, the term “lean” means what?
a. no more than 10% fat content
b. no more than 15% fat content
c. no more than 17% fat content
d. no more than 20% fat content

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 177

 

  1. Which of the following provides most of the trans fats found in the diets of North Americans?
a. processed meats
b. vegetable oils
c. baked goods
d. salad dressings

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 171

 

  1. Which of the following is a source of omega-3 fats?
a. corn oil
b. fatty fish
c. coconut oil
d. poultry fat

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 168

 

  1. What type of lipoprotein is responsible for transporting food fats through watery body fluids to the liver and other tissues?
a. micelles
b. chylomicrons
c. monoglycerides
d. cholesterol

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 158–159

 

  1. Lipids need a transport carrier for which of the following reasons?
a. because lipids are water soluble
b. in case they are not absorbed in the stomach
c. because they are heavy
d. to move them through the bloodstream

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 158–159

 

 

  1. Which of the following factors does NOT increase a person’s risk for heart disease?
a. having diet high in food cholesterol
b. having high blood pressure (hypertension)
c. being male
d. having a family history of heart disease

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 162

 

  1. Which of the following must be available whenever body fat is broken down to provide energy?
a. protein
b. calcium
c. vitamin A
d. carbohydrate

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 159

 

  1. Which of the following antioxidants may slow the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
a. selenium and vitamin B
b. selenium and vitamin C
c. magnesium and vitamin E
d. magnesium and vitamin A

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 164

 

  1. Fat substitutes were developed for what purpose?
a. to add texture to foods
b. to make foods taste better
c. to reduce fat and calories
d. to reduce costs

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 174

 

  1. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada recommends that the amount of fat women consume per day should be in what range?
a. 60–70 grams
b. 45–75 grams
c. 35–70 grams
d. 50–65 grams

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 160

 

  1. What is the fat substitute Simplesse made out of?
a. whipped egg whites
b. sugar with a fatty acid
c. blended sugars
d. protein particles

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 175

 

  1. What is the name for a lipoprotein that transports triglycerides to the body’s cells?
a. very high-density lipoprotein
b. very low-density lipoprotein
c. chylomicron
d. microchylon

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 161

 

  1. When body fat is broken down to provide energy, carbohydrate must be available as well. Without carbohydrate, the products of incomplete fat breakdown build up in the blood and urine. What is the name for these products?
a. acidones
b. ketones
c. uric acid
d. ammonia

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 159

 

  1. What is the name for the lipoprotein that is responsible for picking up cholesterol from the tissues and transporting it back to the liver for dismantling and disposal?
a. high-density lipoprotein
b. very low-density lipoprotein
c. low-density lipoprotein
d. phospholipid

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 161

 

  1. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada recommends that the percentage of total calories from fat per day in the diet of Canadians should be in what range?
a. 15–25%
b. 20–35%
c. 25–40%
d. 35–45%

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 160

 

  1. Which of the following types of fat in the diet is best for optimum health?
a. saturated fat
b. polyunsaturated fat
c. monounsaturated fat
d. trans fat

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 155

 

  1. According to the World Health Organization, total calories from saturated fat should be in what range?
a. less than 10%
b. 10% or more
c. 12% to 14%
d. less than 30%

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 160

 

  1. How can a person reduce fat their diet?
a. Choose yogurt instead of ice cream.
b. Consume Caesar salad instead of avocado salad.
c. Eat cheddar cheese instead of ricotta cheese.
d. Select prime rib instead of beef loin.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 181

 

  1. Suzanne wants to include nuts in her diet, but she has heard that they are high in fat. Which of the following nuts would you recommend that Suzanne consume?
a. cashews
b. peanuts
c. walnuts
d. pine nuts

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 186

 

  1. Which of the following is characteristic of foods that contain mostly saturated fatty acids?
a. They are foul-smelling.
b. They are liquid at room temperature.
c. They are rancid.
d. They are solid at room temperature.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 153

 

  1. Why must people with existing heart disease monitor their consumption of fish?
a. Fish contains toxic amounts of fat-soluble vitamins.
b. The mercury found in fish may worsen heart disease.
c. Most fish contains industrial contaminants.
d. Fish contains large amounts of pesticides.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 168

 

  1. Which of the following food choices is the foundation of a Mediterranean diet?
a. red meat and fatty fish
b. fruits and vegetables as the base
c. canola oil as the primary fat
d. very little, if any, grains and breads

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 189

 

  1. What effect does long-term consumption of a Mediterranean diet typically have on people?
a. They suffer less from cardiovascular disease.
b. They suffer from obesity.
c. They show signs of type 2 diabetes.
d. They have a reduced risk for lung cancer.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 189

 

  1. Which of the following diets seems to result in lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and some cancers?
a. American diet
b. Mediterranean diet
c. Mexican diet
d. Far East diet

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 186

 

  1. What health effect do olive oil and seafood have?
a. They increase the risk for obesity.
b. They increase the risk for type 2 diabetes.
c. They decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease.
d. They decrease the risk for skin cancer.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 189

 

  1. What is the name for the three-carbon structure to which fatty acids are attached in a triglyceride?
a. glucagon
b. galactose
c. glycerol
d. glycogen

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 152

 

  1. Which of the following could you substitute for milk and butter in order to reduce the fat and kilocalories in mashed potatoes?
a. skim milk and cream cheese
b. water and butter
c. plain yogurt and herbs
d. milk and margarine

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 181

 

  1. The World Health Organization recommends that people consume what percentage of total calories from trans fatty acids?
a. 1%
b. 2%
c. 3%
d. 4%

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 160

 

  1. Joey wants to lower the total fat content in his stir fry. What suggestion would you give him to achieve his goal?
a. Use peanuts to garnish the stir-fry.
b. Use chicken gravy to flavour the stir-fry.
c. Use palm kernel oil for stir-frying.
d. Use lemon pepper and garlic to flavour the stir-fry.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 180

 

  1. What effect does trans fat have on cholesterol levels?
a. It raises HDL cholesterol.
b. It reduces HDL cholesterol.
c. It raises LDL cholesterol.
d. It reduces total cholesterol.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 171

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Fatty acids in foods influence the composition of fats in the body.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 152

 

  1. Pork loin is an example of a lean cut of meat from which the fat can be trimmed.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 176

 

  1. Some ground turkey and chicken products into which the skin has been ground are much higher in fats than lean beef.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 177

 

  1. The Mediterranean diet is an eating style famous for supporting the health of the heart while including foods high in fat.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 186

 

 

MATCHING

Instructions: Match the fat-related terms to their appropriate definitions.

a. cholesterol
b. phospholipid
c. sterol
d. fat
e. triglyceride
f. lecithin
g. oil

 

  1. one of the sterols manufactured in the body

 

  1. a lipid that is liquid at room temperature

 

  1. one of the three main classes of dietary lipids; the chief form of fat in foods

 

  1. a phospholipid that is a major constituent of cell membranes

 

  1. one of the three main classes of lipids; has a structure similar to cholesterol

 

  1. one of the three main classes of lipids; similar to a triglyceride

 

  1. a lipid that is solid at room temperature

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the process of hydrogenation used to prevent spoilage of oils containing unsaturated fatty acids, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

 

ANS:

Hydrogenation is the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make fat more solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation. Hydrogenation of fats makes them stay fresher longer and also changes their physical properties. Hydrogenated oils are easy to handle, easy to spread, and store well. Hydrogenated oil has a high smoking point, so it is suitable for purposes such as frying. However, once fully hydrogenated, oils lose their unsaturated character and the health benefits that go with it. Hydrogenation may affect not only the fatty acids in oils but also vitamins, such as vitamin K, decreasing their activity in the body.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 169–170

 

 

  1. Discuss arguments you would use in trying to convince someone not to take fish oil supplements.

 

ANS:

Taking fish oil supplements is not recommended, although many claims are made for their power to cure diseases. High levels of vitamin A in some fish oil products available in Canadian jurisdictions may not be safe for females planning a family. In addition, supplements of fish oil may raise LDL cholesterol. High intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may increase bleeding time, interfere with wound healing, and suppress immune function. Excessive amounts of either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids can interfere with normal functions that depend on a proper balance between the two. Supplements also lack the other beneficial nutrients that fish provides, such as the minerals iodine and selenium and fish protein. Fish oil supplements are made from fish skins and livers, which may have accumulated toxic concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals such as mercury, and other industrial contaminants. Unless the oils are refined to eliminate them, such contaminants can become further concentrated in the pills. Fish oils naturally contain high levels of the two most potentially toxic vitamins, A and D. And supplements of fish oil are expensive. Since little is known about the long-term effects of fish oils, taking them is risky.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 167–168

 

  1. What are trans fatty acids and what is their role in the promotion of heart disease?

 

ANS:

When polyunsaturated oils are hardened by hydrogenation, some of the unsaturated fatty acids end up changing their shapes instead of becoming saturated. This change in chemical structure creates unusual unsaturated fatty acids that are similar in shape to saturated fatty acids. They are not made by the body but occur naturally in tiny amounts, mainly in dairy foods and beef. These changed fatty acids, or trans fatty acids, affect the body’s health. Consuming these fatty acids poses a risk to the heart and arteries by raising LDL and lowering HDL cholesterol and by producing inflammation. When processing changes essential fatty acids into their trans counterparts, the consumer derives none of the original health benefits of the oil and runs risks similar to those posed by saturated fats. The DRI committee concludes that people should consume as little trans fat as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. Trans fats contribute to total fat intake.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 170–171

 

  1. Differentiate between LDL and HDL and explain why elevated LDL concentrations in the blood are a sign of high heart attack risk.

 

ANS:

LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) are lipoproteins that transport lipids from the liver to other tissues such as muscle and fat, and they contain a large proportion of cholesterol. HDLs (high-density lipoproteins) are lipoproteins that return cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for dismantling and disposal, and they contain a large proportion of protein. Both LDL and HDL carry cholesterol, but elevation LDL concentrations in the blood are a sign of high risk of heart attack, whereas elevated HDL concentrations are usually associated with a low risk.High blood cholesterol is an indicator of risk for CVD. The main dietary factors associated with elevated blood cholesterol are high saturated fat and trans fat intakes. LDL cholesterol indicates a risk of heart disease because the LDLs are carrying cholesterol, made mostly from saturated fat in the diet, to be deposited in the body tissues.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 161–162

 

  1. Describe olestra’s side effects and discuss its potential impact on nutrition status.

 

ANS:

Olestra is a non-caloric artificial fat made from sucrose and fatty acids. It is currently not allowed to be added to foods in Canada. Chemically, olestra bears some resemblance to ordinary fat. Human enzymes of the digestive tract do not recognize molecules of olestra and so cannot split its fatty acids from its sucrose. All of the olestra eaten in a food passes through the digestive tract and exits intact. More than two decades of research have revealed that olestra is safe in most regards, but when consumed in large quantities, it can cause digestive distress, nutrient losses, and losses of phytochemicals. The presence of indigestible olestra in the large intestine can theoretically cause diarrhea, gas, cramping, and an urgent need for defecation. Oily olestra can creep through the feces and leak uncontrollably from the anus, producing smelly, dark yellow stains on underwear.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 174

 

  1. Describe the useful functions of fats in the body.

 

ANS:

The useful functions of fats in the body include the following:

  1. Energy stores: Fats are the body’s chief form of stored energy.2. Muscle fuel: Fats provide most of the energy to fuel muscular work.3.     Emergency reserve: Fats serve as an emergency fuel supply in times of illness and diminished food intake.4.    Padding: Fats protect the internal organs from shock through fat pads inside the body cavity.5.     Insulation: Fats insulate against temperature extremes through a fat layer under the skin.6.           Cell membranes: Fats form the major material of cell membranes.7.         Raw materials: Fats are converted to other compounds, such as hormones, bile, and vitamin D, as needed.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 150

 

  1. Define the term emulsification and describe how the process of emulsification is used by food processors.

 

ANS:

Emulsification is the process of mixing lipid with water by adding an emulsifier. Food processors will blend fat with watery ingredients. One of the most common emulsifiers is lecithin. Other phospholipids act as emulsifiers as well. Because phospholipids are emulsifiers, they have both water-loving and fat-loving characteristics, which enable them to help fats travel back and forth across the lipid-containing membranes of cells into the watery fluids on both sides. An excellent example of a food that contains an emulsifier is mayonnaise. Egg yolks contain lecithin – a phospholipid – that blends the vinegar with the oil to form stable, spreadable mayonnaise.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 156

 

  1. Compare and contrast the recommendations of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid with Canada’s Food Guide recommendations.

 

ANS:

The Mediterranean diet differs from the Canada Food Guide in many ways, including the amounts and types of meat, nuts, vegetables, fruit, and sweets. Although each of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea has its own culture and dietary traditions, researchers have identified some common characteristics. Most traditional Mediterranean people focus their diets on crusty breads, whole grains, nuts, potatoes, and pastas; a variety of vegetables (including wild greens) and legumes; feta and mozzarella cheeses and yogurt; nuts; and fruit (especially grapes and figs). They eat some fish, other seafood, poultry, a few eggs, and a little meat. Along with olives and olive oil, their principal sources of fat are nuts and fish; they rarely use butter or encounter hydrogenated fats. Consequently, traditional Mediterranean diets are low in saturated fat; very low in trans fat; rich in unsaturated fat; rich in starch and fibre; and rich in nutrients and phytochemicals that support good health.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 186

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