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Chapter 05

Ethics in Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. ____________ can be defined as individual and personal beliefs for deciding what is right and wrong.

________________________________________

 

2. The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

________________________________________

 

3. Reasonable people will ____________ as to exactly where to draw the line between what is ethical and what is unethical for some tactics.

________________________________________

 

4. ____________ hold that the moral value and worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.

________________________________________

 

5. Social contract ethicists focus on what individuals owe to their ____________ and what they can or should expect in return.

________________________________________

 

6. Critics of personalistic ethics argue that there is no mechanism for resolving ____________ when they lead to conflicting views between individuals as to what is right or proper.

________________________________________

 

7. Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ____________.

________________________________________

 

8. Negotiation is based on information dependence—the exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator.

________________________________________

 

9. The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponent’s networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ____________.

________________________________________

 

10. There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it.

________________________________________

 

11. Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.

________________________________________

 

12. The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiator’s ______________ in the bargaining environment.

________________________________________

 

13. The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics.

________________________________________

 

14. When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic’s use.

________________________________________

 

15. A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act ______________.

________________________________________

 

16. Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for one’s own conduct.

________________________________________

 

17. Dawson’s study shows that when making decisions about ____________ issues, women were significantly more ethical than men.

________________________________________

 

18. Research subjects who rated themselves as ____________ were significantly more likely to use bluffing, misrepresentation and a variety of other dishonest tactics than subjects who rated themselves as “cooperative.”

________________________________________

 

19. Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as ____________ compared to one who had been ____________.

________________________________________

 

20. Many negotiators fail to understand the nature of negotiation and so find themselves attempting to reconcile conflicts between the requirements of negotiation the their own sense of personal ____________.

________________________________________

 

21. Norms are the ____________ social rules—the dos and don’ts—that govern social behavior.

________________________________________

 

22. Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ____________.

________________________________________

 

23. “Calling” the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ____________.

________________________________________

 

24. If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation.

________________________________________

 

25. In general, the “respond in kind” approach is best treated as a ____________________ strategy.

________________________________________

 

 

True / False Questions

26. The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

True    False

 

27. The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

True    False

 

28. The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics.

True    False

 

29. The concept of end-result ethics argues that it is deemed acceptable to break a rule or violate a procedure in the service of some greater good.

True    False

 

30. The concept of end-result ethics emphasizes that one ought to commit one’s self to a series of moral rules or standards, and make decisions based on those rules.

True    False

 

31. The social contract view would prescribe which behaviors are appropriate in a particular context in terms of what people owe one another.

True    False

 

32. Duty ethics argues that everyone ought to decide for himself or herself what is right based on his or her conscience.

True    False

 

33. Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth.

True    False

 

34. Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process.

True    False

 

35. Hiding the bottom line hurt negotiator performance in role plays.

True    False

 

36. Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common-value issue.

True    False

 

37. Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission.

True    False

 

38. Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uniformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high.

True    False

 

39. People may be more motivated to appear moral, rather than to act morally, because to act morally may have a number of costs attached to it.

True    False

 

40. Real consequences—rewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using it—should not only motivate a negotiator’s present behavior, but also affect the negotiator’s predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future.

True    False

 

41. One’s own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well.

True    False

 

42. Explanations allow the negotiator to convince others that conduct that would ordinarily be wrong in a given situation is acceptable and are looked upon as self-serving for one’s own conduct.

True    False

 

43. Research has shown that it is very clear that situational influences can predispose very ethical people to do ethically marginal things.

True    False

 

44. Eastern Europeans are significantly more likely to use bluffing in negotiations than Americans.

True    False

 

45. Machiavellianism appears to be a very weak predictor of ethical conduct.

True    False

 

46. Respondents who expected to be in a short-term relationship were more likely to see the ethically marginal tactics as appropriate than those expecting a long-term relationship.

True    False

 

47. A balance of power should lead to less stable, less ethical conduct than an imbalance.

True    False

 

48. An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality does not make an effective negotiator.

True    False

 

49. The more complex an individual’s moral reasoning capability, the more he or she perceives conflict between personal standards and typical organizational demands.

True    False

 

50. The use of silence by a negotiator creates a “verbal vacuum” that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

51. The concept of “duty ethics” states that

A. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

 

B. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

 

C. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

D. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

 

E. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

 

52. Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define

A. what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other.

 

B. what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation.

 

C. what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct.

 

D. what the law defines as acceptable practice.

 

E. All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct.

 

53. Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies?

A. End-result ethics.

 

B. Duty ethics.

 

C. Social context ethics.

 

D. Personalistic ethics.

 

E. Reasoning ethics.

 

54. A doctor facing the moral dilemma between a mandate to save lives and the mandate to relieve undue suffering for those whose lives cannot be saved is an example of:

A. end-result ethics.

 

B. duty ethics.

 

C. social contract ethics.

 

D. personalistic ethics.

 

E. utilitarian ethics.

 

55. Proponents of personalistic ethics argue that

A. the best way to achieve the greatest good is to closely follow a set of rules and principles.

 

B. the worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.

 

C. societies, organizations and cultures determine what is ethically appropriate and acceptable within that group.

 

D. everyone ought to decide for themselves what is right based on their conscience.

 

E. Rule utilitarians argue all of the above

 

56. Which of the following arguments refutes Carr’s claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy?

A. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions

 

B. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business

 

C. Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception

 

D. Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest

 

E. None of the above arguments refute Carr’s claim

 

57. What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?

A. We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.

 

B. We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their dishonesty.

 

C. We tell the other part your exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

D. We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level.

 

E. None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust.

 

58. Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?

A. Traditional Competitive Bargaining

 

B. Emotional Manipulation

 

C. Misrepresentation to Opponent’s Networks

 

D. Bluffing

 

E. All of the above

 

59. Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?

A. misrepresentation

 

B. bluffing

 

C. misrepresentation to opponent’s network

 

D. inappropriate information collection

 

E. All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics.

 

60. Per a study of ethically ambiguous tactics which of the following is true?

A. There is a significant negative relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the intention to use it.

 

B. There is no significant positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of a specific tactic and actually using that tactic, for four of the five tactics studies.

 

C. Hiding the bottom line was the tactic least frequently used, exaggerating an opening offer was the most commonly used, followed by stalling for time and misrepresenting information.

 

D. Hiding the bottom line improved negotiator performance in the role-play. Negotiators also believed that making empty promises, misrepresenting information, and exaggerating their opening offer improved their performance.

 

E. All of the above

 

61. Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common-value issue?

A. misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission

 

B. misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission

 

C. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission

 

D. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission

 

E. None of the above forms of deception are used in misrepresenting the common-value issue.

 

62. Incidences in cheating in the Boston Marathon included all but one motive. Which one was not identified as a motive for cheating in the race?

A. Some cheaters were angry or disturbed.

 

B. Some cheaters were seeking family approval.

 

C. Some cheaters were middle-aged males.

 

D. Some cheaters were after recognition.

 

E. Some cheaters were simply “caught up in the moment.”

 

63. McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when

A. they had a distant relationship with the subject.

 

B. the information at stake was unimportant.

 

C. lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship.

 

D. the victim had used deceptive tactics as well.

 

E. Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases.

 

64. When using the justification that “the tactic was unavoidable,” the negotiator is saying that

A. the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible.

 

B. what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant.

 

C. the tactic helped to avoid greater harm.

 

D. the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences.

 

E. The justification that “the tactic was unavoidable” implies all of the above.

 

65. Studies have shown that with the exception of “traditional competitive bargaining,” men were:

A. significantly less likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

B. somewhat less likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

C. somewhat more likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

D. significantly more likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

E. Studies have shown that there is no gender bias in the use of unethical tactics.

 

66. Which of the following personality traits can most strongly predict the predisposition to behave unethically?

A. cooperativeness

 

B. Machiavellianism

 

C. locus of control

 

D. moral development

 

E. None of the above can predict the predisposition to behave unethically.

 

67. Research studies have shown that individuals who are strongly Machiavellian are

A. more willing and able con artists.

 

B. more likely to lie when they need to.

 

C. better able to tell bigger lies without feeling anxious about it.

 

D. more persuasive and effective in their lies.

 

E. Individuals who are strongly Machiavellian have all of the above traits.

 

68. Research results have generally indicated that higher levels of moral development are associated with

A. less ethical decisions.

 

B. more cheating behavior.

 

C. less helping behavior.

 

D. more resistance to authority figures who are attempting to dictate unethical conduct.

 

E. Higher levels of moral development are associated with all of the above.

 

69. Which was not one of the findings of a recent study?

A. If told to “do your best,” partied reported less honestly than if they had a specific goal to meet

 

B. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their productivity than those without

 

C. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their success when their actual performance was closer to the goal

 

D. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate in those situations where they thought they “deserved” the reward based on overall productivity

 

70. Which of the following statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is true?

A. The negotiator’s past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties have been previously competitive or cooperative.

 

B. Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as cooperative compared to one who had been exploitative.

 

C. Negotiators with less power are more likely to abuse what power they have by using less ethical tactics.

 

D. An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality makes an effective negotiator.

 

E. None of the above statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is true.

 

71. The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties

A. have been previously competitive.

 

B. have been previously cooperative.

 

C. feel indebted to one another.

 

D. hold grudges toward one another.

 

E. The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior under all of the above conditions.

 

72. Which of the following statements about group and organizational norms is false?

A. Job related pressures within particular work groups, departments, or divisions may be such that marginally ethical behavior is not only tolerated, but even condoned.

 

B. The more loyalty and commitment people feel toward an organization, the less that loyalty may be abused.

 

C. Organizations may exert direct pressures on an individual to breach ethics or even break the law in the service of achieving some corporate or organizational goal.

 

D. The pressures of escalating commitment may predispose parties to commit more unethical actions.

 

E. All of the above statements about group and organizational norms are True.

 

73. When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

 

B. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

 

C. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

 

D. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic.

 

74. When using the “altered information” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie.

 

B. exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to “correct” the statement.

 

C. point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying.

 

D. indicate one’s true concern for the other’s welfare.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic.

 

75. Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks”?

A. ignoring the tactic

 

B. “calling” the tactic

 

C. responding in kind

 

D. discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors

 

E. None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party’s dirty tricks.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

76. Define ethics.

 

 

 

 

77. According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation?

 

 

 

 

78. Describe a pharmaceutical company’s dilemma about its new miracle drug that will cure some forms of cancer from an “end-results” ethics perspective.

 

 

 

 

79. Define “social contract ethics.”

 

 

 

 

80. What does a “social contract” explain?

 

 

 

 

81. How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker?

 

 

 

 

82. What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?

 

 

 

 

83. Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponent’s networks?

 

 

 

 

84. What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics?

 

 

 

 

85. When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate?

 

 

 

 

86. As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on:

 

 

 

 

87. The use of unethical tactics may provoke what response from the “victim?”

 

 

 

 

88. What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process?

 

 

 

 

89. Studies show that women make more ethical judgments, but only when the consequences of their decisions affect:

 

 

 

 

90. How does age affect the use of ethically questionable tactics?

 

 

 

 

91. What were the results of the study between district attorneys and public defenders on the use of deceptive negotiation tactics?

 

 

 

 

92. How does locus of control affect ethical behavior?

 

 

 

 

93. What is the role of incentives?

 

 

 

 

94. What two aspects of the negotiator’s relationship with the other party affect the disposition to use unethical tactics?

 

 

 

 

95. Negotiators with relatively more power are more likely to abuse that power by using:

 

 

 

 

96. What is the ethical danger of using agents in negotiation?

 

 

 

 

97. How does an organization’s cultural or ethical climate contribute to the playing a key role in legitimizing inappropriate behavior?

 

 

 

 

98. What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks?”

 

 

 

 

99. Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someone’s face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women?

 

 

 

 

100. Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic?

 

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Ethics in Negotiation Answer Key

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1.
(p. 147)
____________ can be defined as individual and personal beliefs for deciding what is right and wrong.

Morals

 

2.
(p. 147)
The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

end-result

 

3.
(p. 148)
Reasonable people will ____________ as to exactly where to draw the line between what is ethical and what is unethical for some tactics.

disagree

 

4.
(p. 152)
____________ hold that the moral value and worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.

Utilitarians

 

5.
(p. 154)
Social contract ethicists focus on what individuals owe to their ____________ and what they can or should expect in return.

community

 

6.
(p. 156)
Critics of personalistic ethics argue that there is no mechanism for resolving ____________ when they lead to conflicting views between individuals as to what is right or proper.

disputes

 

7.
(p. 157)
Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ____________.

truth telling

 

8.
(p. 159)
Negotiation is based on information dependence—the exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator.

preferences; priorities

 

9.
(p. 161)
The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponent’s networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ____________.

bluffing

 

10.
(p. 162)
There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it.

intention

 

11.
(p. 163)
Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.

omission

 

12.
(p. 166)
The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiator’s ______________ in the bargaining environment.

power

 

13.
(p. 167)
The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics.

motivation

 

14.
(p. 172)
When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic’s use.

defend

 

15.
(p. 172)
A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act ______________.

utilitarianism

 

16.
(p. 173)
Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for one’s own conduct.

rationalizations

 

17.
(p. 176)
Dawson’s study shows that when making decisions about ____________ issues, women were significantly more ethical than men.

relational

 

18.
(p. 178)
Research subjects who rated themselves as ____________ were significantly more likely to use bluffing, misrepresentation and a variety of other dishonest tactics than subjects who rated themselves as “cooperative.”

aggressive

 

19.
(p. 182)
Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as ____________ compared to one who had been ____________.

exploitative; cooperative

 

20.
(p. 184)
Many negotiators fail to understand the nature of negotiation and so find themselves attempting to reconcile conflicts between the requirements of negotiation the their own sense of personal ____________.

integrity

 

21.
(p. 184)
Norms are the ____________ social rules—the dos and don’ts—that govern social behavior.

informal

 

22.
(p. 188)
Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ____________.

undisclosed

 

23.
(p. 189)
“Calling” the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ____________.

bluffing; lying

 

24.
(p. 189)
If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation.

ignore

 

25.
(p. 190)
In general, the “respond in kind” approach is best treated as a ____________________ strategy.

“last resort”

 

 

True / False Questions

26.
(p. 145)
The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

FALSE

 

27.
(p. 147)
The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

FALSE

 

28.
(p. 147)
The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics.

FALSE

 

29.
(p. 152)
The concept of end-result ethics argues that it is deemed acceptable to break a rule or violate a procedure in the service of some greater good.

TRUE

 

30.
(p. 153)
The concept of end-result ethics emphasizes that one ought to commit one’s self to a series of moral rules or standards, and make decisions based on those rules.

FALSE

 

31.
(p. 154, 155)
The social contract view would prescribe which behaviors are appropriate in a particular context in terms of what people owe one another.

TRUE

 

32.
(p. 156)
Duty ethics argues that everyone ought to decide for himself or herself what is right based on his or her conscience.

FALSE

 

33.
(p. 157)
Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth.

TRUE

 

34.
(p. 159)
Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process.

TRUE

 

35.
(p. 162)
Hiding the bottom line hurt negotiator performance in role plays.

FALSE

 

36.
(p. 163)
Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common-value issue.

FALSE

 

37.
(p. 163)
Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission.

TRUE

 

38.
(p. 166)
Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uniformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high.

TRUE

 

39.
(p. 168)
People may be more motivated to appear moral, rather than to act morally, because to act morally may have a number of costs attached to it.

TRUE

 

40.
(p. 169)
Real consequences—rewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using it—should not only motivate a negotiator’s present behavior, but also affect the negotiator’s predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future.

TRUE

 

41.
(p. 173)
One’s own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well.

TRUE

 

42.
(p. 173)
Explanations allow the negotiator to convince others that conduct that would ordinarily be wrong in a given situation is acceptable and are looked upon as self-serving for one’s own conduct.

TRUE

 

43.
(p. 174)
Research has shown that it is very clear that situational influences can predispose very ethical people to do ethically marginal things.

TRUE

 

44.
(p. 177)
Eastern Europeans are significantly more likely to use bluffing in negotiations than Americans.

FALSE

 

45.
(p. 180)
Machiavellianism appears to be a very weak predictor of ethical conduct.

FALSE

 

46.
(p. 182)
Respondents who expected to be in a short-term relationship were more likely to see the ethically marginal tactics as appropriate than those expecting a long-term relationship.

TRUE

 

47.
(p. 183)
A balance of power should lead to less stable, less ethical conduct than an imbalance.

FALSE

 

48.
(p. 184)
An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality does not make an effective negotiator.

TRUE

 

49.
(p. 185)
The more complex an individual’s moral reasoning capability, the more he or she perceives conflict between personal standards and typical organizational demands.

TRUE

 

50.
(p. 188)
The use of silence by a negotiator creates a “verbal vacuum” that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively.

TRUE

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

51.
(p. 147)
The concept of “duty ethics” states that

A. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

 

B. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

 

C. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

D. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

 

E. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

 

52.
(p. 148)
Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define

A. what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other.

 

B. what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation.

 

C. what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct.

 

D. what the law defines as acceptable practice.

 

E. All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct.

 

53.
(p. 150)
Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies?

A. End-result ethics.

 

B. Duty ethics.

 

C. Social context ethics.

 

D. Personalistic ethics.

 

E. Reasoning ethics.

 

54.
(p. 154)
A doctor facing the moral dilemma between a mandate to save lives and the mandate to relieve undue suffering for those whose lives cannot be saved is an example of:

A. end-result ethics.

 

B. duty ethics.

 

C. social contract ethics.

 

D. personalistic ethics.

 

E. utilitarian ethics.

 

55.
(p. 156)
Proponents of personalistic ethics argue that

A. the best way to achieve the greatest good is to closely follow a set of rules and principles.

 

B. the worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.

 

C. societies, organizations and cultures determine what is ethically appropriate and acceptable within that group.

 

D. everyone ought to decide for themselves what is right based on their conscience.

 

E. Rule utilitarians argue all of the above

 

56.
(p. 158)
Which of the following arguments refutes Carr’s claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy?

A. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions

 

B. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business

 

C. Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception

 

D. Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest

 

E. None of the above arguments refute Carr’s claim

 

57.
(p. 159)
What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?

A. We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.

 

B. We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their dishonesty.

 

C. We tell the other part your exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

D. We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level.

 

E. None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust.

 

58.
(p. 161)
Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?

A. Traditional Competitive Bargaining

 

B. Emotional Manipulation

 

C. Misrepresentation to Opponent’s Networks

 

D. Bluffing

 

E. All of the above

 

59.
(p. 161)
Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?

A. misrepresentation

 

B. bluffing

 

C. misrepresentation to opponent’s network

 

D. inappropriate information collection

 

E. All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics.

 

60.
(p. 162)
Per a study of ethically ambiguous tactics which of the following is true?

A. There is a significant negative relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the intention to use it.

 

B. There is no significant positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of a specific tactic and actually using that tactic, for four of the five tactics studies.

 

C. Hiding the bottom line was the tactic least frequently used, exaggerating an opening offer was the most commonly used, followed by stalling for time and misrepresenting information.

 

D. Hiding the bottom line improved negotiator performance in the role-play. Negotiators also believed that making empty promises, misrepresenting information, and exaggerating their opening offer improved their performance.

 

E. All of the above

 

61.
(p. 163)
Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common-value issue?

A. misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission

 

B. misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission

 

C. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission

 

D. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission

 

E. None of the above forms of deception are used in misrepresenting the common-value issue.

 

62.
(p. 167)
Incidences in cheating in the Boston Marathon included all but one motive. Which one was not identified as a motive for cheating in the race?

A. Some cheaters were angry or disturbed.

 

B. Some cheaters were seeking family approval.

 

C. Some cheaters were middle-aged males.

 

D. Some cheaters were after recognition.

 

E. Some cheaters were simply “caught up in the moment.”

 

63.
(p. 170, 171)
McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when

A. they had a distant relationship with the subject.

 

B. the information at stake was unimportant.

 

C. lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship.

 

D. the victim had used deceptive tactics as well.

 

E. Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases.

 

64.
(p. 172)
When using the justification that “the tactic was unavoidable,” the negotiator is saying that

A. the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible.

 

B. what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant.

 

C. the tactic helped to avoid greater harm.

 

D. the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences.

 

E. The justification that “the tactic was unavoidable” implies all of the above.

 

65.
(p. 176)
Studies have shown that with the exception of “traditional competitive bargaining,” men were:

A. significantly less likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

B. somewhat less likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

C. somewhat more likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

D. significantly more likely to use unethical tactics than women.

 

E. Studies have shown that there is no gender bias in the use of unethical tactics.

 

66.
(p. 180)
Which of the following personality traits can most strongly predict the predisposition to behave unethically?

A. cooperativeness

 

B. Machiavellianism

 

C. locus of control

 

D. moral development

 

E. None of the above can predict the predisposition to behave unethically.

 

67.
(p. 180)
Research studies have shown that individuals who are strongly Machiavellian are

A. more willing and able con artists.

 

B. more likely to lie when they need to.

 

C. better able to tell bigger lies without feeling anxious about it.

 

D. more persuasive and effective in their lies.

 

E. Individuals who are strongly Machiavellian have all of the above traits.

 

68.
(p. 181)
Research results have generally indicated that higher levels of moral development are associated with

A. less ethical decisions.

 

B. more cheating behavior.

 

C. less helping behavior.

 

D. more resistance to authority figures who are attempting to dictate unethical conduct.

 

E. Higher levels of moral development are associated with all of the above.

 

69.
(p. 181)
Which was not one of the findings of a recent study?

A. If told to “do your best,” partied reported less honestly than if they had a specific goal to meet

 

B. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their productivity than those without

 

C. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their success when their actual performance was closer to the goal

 

D. Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate in those situations where they thought they “deserved” the reward based on overall productivity

 

70.
(p. 182)
Which of the following statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is true?

A. The negotiator’s past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties have been previously competitive or cooperative.

 

B. Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as cooperative compared to one who had been exploitative.

 

C. Negotiators with less power are more likely to abuse what power they have by using less ethical tactics.

 

D. An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality makes an effective negotiator.

 

E. None of the above statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is true.

 

71.
(p. 182)
The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties

A. have been previously competitive.

 

B. have been previously cooperative.

 

C. feel indebted to one another.

 

D. hold grudges toward one another.

 

E. The negotiators’ past relationship will affect current behavior under all of the above conditions.

 

72.
(p. 184)
Which of the following statements about group and organizational norms is false?

A. Job related pressures within particular work groups, departments, or divisions may be such that marginally ethical behavior is not only tolerated, but even condoned.

 

B. The more loyalty and commitment people feel toward an organization, the less that loyalty may be abused.

 

C. Organizations may exert direct pressures on an individual to breach ethics or even break the law in the service of achieving some corporate or organizational goal.

 

D. The pressures of escalating commitment may predispose parties to commit more unethical actions.

 

E. All of the above statements about group and organizational norms are True.

 

73.
(p. 187)
When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

 

B. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

 

C. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

 

D. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic.

 

74.
(p. 187)
When using the “altered information” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie.

 

B. exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to “correct” the statement.

 

C. point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying.

 

D. indicate one’s true concern for the other’s welfare.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic.

 

75.
(p. 190)
Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks”?

A. ignoring the tactic

 

B. “calling” the tactic

 

C. responding in kind

 

D. discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors

 

E. None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party’s dirty tricks.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

76.
(p. 147)
Define ethics.

Broadly applied social standards for what is right or wrong in a particular situation, or the process for setting those standards.

 

77.
(p. 147)
According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation?

(1) Choose a course of action on the basis of results I expect to achieve; (2) Choose a course of action on the basis of my duty to uphold appropriate rules and principles; (3) Choose a course of action on the basis of the norms, values, and strategy of my organization or community; and, (4) Choose a course of action on the basis of my personal convictions.

 

78.
(p. 152)
Describe a pharmaceutical company’s dilemma about its new miracle drug that will cure some forms of cancer from an “end-results” ethics perspective.

It cannot release the drug yet because it has to comply with government regulation that controls drug testing prior to widespread distribution, and thousands of lives may be lost before the government approves the drug. Is it unethical to keep the drug off the market while the regulatory testing goes on? Or is it unethical to release the drug before it has been thoroughly tested?

 

79.
(p. 147)
Define “social contract ethics.”

The rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

80.
(p. 150)
What does a “social contract” explain?

Within the framework of social contract ethics, a social contract explains what the individual is expected to give to the community, what the individual can get back from the community, and the social rules or norms that govern that community and which all members are expected to follow.

 

81.
(p. 158)
How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker?

He advocates that business ought to play its game as poker players do. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically – if he or she feels obligated to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth all the time – he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business and is probably at a heavy disadvantage in business dealings.

 

82.
(p. 159)
What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?

We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and it is likely that we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

83.
(p. 161)
Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponent’s networks?

Misrepresentation is distorting information or negotiation events in describing them to others, while misrepresentation to opponent’s networks is corrupting your opponent’s reputation with his peers.

 

84.
(p. 166)
What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics?

To increase the negotiator’s power in the bargaining environment.

 

85.
(p. 168)
When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate?

If they anticipated that the other would be competitive rather than cooperative.

 

86.
(p. 169)
As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on:

Whether the tactic is effective, how the other party evaluates the tactic, and how the negotiator evaluates the tactic.

 

87.
(p. 170)
The use of unethical tactics may provoke what response from the “victim?”

Victims of the use of unethical tactics are likely to seek retaliation and revenge. The victim is unlikely to trust the other party again, may seek revenge from the negotiator in future dealings, and may also generalize this experience to negotiations with others.

 

88.
(p. 174)
What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process?

The more frequently negotiators engage in this self-serving process, the more their judgments about ethical standards and values will become biased, diminishing their ability to see the truth for what it is.

 

89.
(p. 176)
Studies show that women make more ethical judgments, but only when the consequences of their decisions affect:

someone else.

 

90.
(p. 176, 177)
How does age affect the use of ethically questionable tactics?

Research has shown that both men and women make more ethical decisions as they age. Older parties tend to see bluffing as more acceptable and deception as less acceptable. Older individuals were significantly more likely to see marginally ethical tactics as inappropriate.

 

91.
(p. 177)
What were the results of the study between district attorneys and public defenders on the use of deceptive negotiation tactics?

Public defenders saw the tactics as more appropriate than district attorneys, that both groups increased their approval of the tactics when they thought the other party was likely to use them, and that public defenders increased their approval as a “defensive move” more than district attorneys.

 

92.
(p. 180)
How does locus of control affect ethical behavior?

Individuals who are high in internal control are more likely to do what they think is right, and feel that they have more control over producing the outcomes they want to achieve in a situation in which there were temptations to be less than ethical. Locus of control seems most important when individuals can also exert control over outcomes. Locus of control appears to be a moderately powerful contributor to ethical decision making.

 

93.
(p. 181)
What is the role of incentives?

A second factor that can influence a negotiator’s tendency to use ethically ambiguous tactics is the role of incentives in place in a given situation.

 

94.
(p. 182)
What two aspects of the negotiator’s relationship with the other party affect the disposition to use unethical tactics?

What the relationship has been like in the past and what the parties would like it to be in the future.

 

95.
(p. 183)
Negotiators with relatively more power are more likely to abuse that power by using:

Unethical tactics

 

96.
(p. 184)
What is the ethical danger of using agents in negotiation?

A number of authors have suggested that when we act as an agent for someone else—particularly when the goals for that agent are to get the best possible agreement—agents may be more willing to violate personal ethical standards. In essence, acting as an agent may release people from their own personal ethical standards and code and allow them to create their own standards of legitimacy—that it is appropriate to do whatever is necessary to maximize the results for the constituent.

 

97.
(p. 184)
How does an organization’s cultural or ethical climate contribute to the playing a key role in legitimizing inappropriate behavior?

Studies have shown that different companies can have distinctly different ethical climates or cultures. Companies differ in how they value and endorse ethical conduct or appear to condone and tolerate marginally ethical behavior in the service of achieving corporate objectives at any price.

 

98.
(p. 188, 189)
What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks?”

(1) Ask probing questions; (2) force the other party to lie or back off; (3) “call the tactic”; (4) discuss what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors; (5) respond in kind; and, (6) ignore the tactic.

 

99.
(p. 189)
Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someone’s face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women?

Study participants were able to correctly identify the most honest men in the group as they aged, but their assessment of women was largely inaccurate. The researchers concluded that men’s faces accurately reflected their tendency toward honesty, but women’s faces were not particularly valid indicators of their truthfulness.

 

100.
(p. 190)
Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic?

(1) Will this tactic really enhance my power and achieve my objective? (2) How will the use of these tactics affect the quality of my relationship with the other party in the future? (3) How will the use of these tactics affect my reputation as a negotiator?

 

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