Natural Hazards and Disasters 5th Edition By Hyndman – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

1. Tsunami are caused by any large, rapid displacement of water.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. In coastal subduction zones, the oceanic plate can rise suddenly, triggering a tsunami.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Tsunami generated by asteroid impact are common.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

4. Tsunami wave motion drags on the bottom of shallow water, decreasing the wave height.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. Tsunami wave velocity is constant with depth, and remains the same in deep ocean and shallow water.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. The effects of tsunami are amplified in bays and river mouths.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. The first wave of a tsunami is rarely the highest.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. Structures can mitigate tsunami damage, but vegetation cannot.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. Someone fleeing a tsunami should be safe once they reach a point 100 m from shore and 10 m above water level.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. Major tsunami from Pacific subduction zones can occur as often as every few hundred years.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Future Giant Tsunami
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

11. ​____ faults do NOT typically cause tsunami waves.

  a. ​Normal
  b. ​Reverse
  c. ​Blind
  d. ​Thrust
  e. ​Strike-slip

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. ​Tsunamis cannot be caused by ____.

  a. ​hurricanes
  b. ​landslides
  c. ​volcanoes
  d. ​earthquakes
  e. ​asteroids

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​Which type of event is a source of tsunami danger for the northeastern U.S.?

  a. ​A subduction-zone earthquake along the coast of Africa.
  b. ​A subduction-zone earthquake off the coast of the northeastern U.S.
  c. ​A transform-fault earthquake on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  d. ​Flank collapse of a volcano in Sardinia.
  e. ​Flank collapse of a volcano in the Canary Islands.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​____ caused a major tsunami wave in Alaskan coastal fjords.

  a. ​A stratovolcano eruption
  b. ​An undersea landslide caused by liquefaction of beach sediment
  c. ​A massive rockfall at one end of the fjord
  d. ​Calving of the ice at the end of a glacier
  e. ​A submarine landslide within the fjords

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. ​The largest displacement of water from an undersea earthquake would have an amplitude of about ____ m.

  a. ​1
  b. ​3
  c. ​5
  d. ​10
  e. ​15

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. ​A major tsunami forms somewhere in the Pacific about once every ____ years.

  a. ​10
  b. ​2
  c. ​100
  d. ​20
  e. ​50

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. ​Tsunami from oceanic volcanoes are most likely to be caused by ____.

  a. ​rising upward suddenly
  b. ​sinking downward suddenly
  c. ​creating heat that boils seawater
  d. ​ejecting large amounts of gas
  e. ​submarine volcanic explosions

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. ​The strength of a tsunami created by a landslide depends most heavily on the ____.

  a. ​type of rock contained in the landslide
  b. ​volume of material in the landslide
  c. ​height of fall of the landslide
  d. ​strength of the earthquake causing the landslide
  e. ​volume of water under the landslide

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. ​In the deep ocean, tsunami waves will travel at speeds approaching ____ km/hr.

  a. ​1
  b. ​25
  c. ​100
  d. ​900
  e. ​5,000

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. ​Compared to wind-driven waves, tsunami waves have ____.

  a. ​shorter periods and higher wave speeds
  b. ​shorter periods and lower wave speeds
  c. ​longer periods and lower wave speeds
  d. ​generally similar periods and wave speeds
  e. ​longer periods and higher wave speeds

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. ​As a tsunami enters shallow water, ____.

  a. ​the wave speed will increase, and the height will increase
  b. ​the wave speed will increase, and the height will decrease
  c. ​the wave speed will decrease, and the height will decrease
  d. ​the wave speed will decrease, and the height will increase
  e. ​the wave speed remains the same as the height increases

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​As a tsunami enters a bay or fjord, wave height ____.

  a. ​increases because the water depth deepens
  b. ​increases because water is warmer
  c. ​decreases because the water depth decreases near shore
  d. ​increases because the wave is forced into a narrower space
  e. ​decreases only if bay water is shallower, increases if it is deeper

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. ​When a tsunami wave passes an island surrounded by shallow water, ____.

  a. ​the effect of the tsunami will be greatest on the near side of the island, but will affect the whole island
  b. ​the effect of the tsunami will be greatest on the far side of the island, but will affect the whole island
  c. ​the tsunami will affect the half of the island facing the wave, but leave other areas untouched
  d. ​the tsunami will affect the half of the island facing away from the wave, but leave other areas untouched
  e. ​the effect of the tsunami will be spread evenly around the island

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. ​As the first wave of a tsunami retreats from the shore, bystanders should expect a second wave within approximately ____.

  a. ​15 minutes
  b. ​two minutes
  c. ​one hour
  d. ​twelve hours
  e. ​two days

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. ​The series of tsunami generated in a single offshore event will impact the coastline for a period of several ____.

  a. ​minutes
  b. ​seconds
  c. ​days
  d. ​weeks
  e. ​hours

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. ​A ship at sea will not generally notice the passage of a tsunami wave because they ____ in the deep ocean.

  a. ​have long periods and small wave heights
  b. ​have long periods and high wave heights
  c. ​have short periods and small wave heights
  d. ​have short periods and high wave heights
  e. ​are very similar to normal ocean waves

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​Tsunami effects are increased by ____.

  a. ​increasing water depth
  b. ​the funneling effect of bays
  c. ​changes in water temperature and density
  d. ​sandbars near shore
  e. ​hot weather

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​Tsunami detection networks are ____.

  a. ​accurate at predicting the arrival of a nearby tsunami, but not a far-field tsunami
  b. ​rapid enough to predict the arrival of a tsunami generated nearby in time for people to evacuate
  c. ​inaccurate at predicting arrival times of tsunamis generated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
  d. ​accurate at predicting the arrival of a distant tsunami, but rarely provide sufficient warning of tsunami generated by a nearby earthquake
  e. ​available in the Atlantic but not the Pacific Ocean

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ​Vegetation mitigates tsunami effects except when ____.

  a. ​it is the form of trees, not grasses and shrubs
  b. ​trees become uprooted and become dangerous projectiles
  c. ​the vegetation is too close to the shore
  d. ​it is in the form of grasses, not trees and shrubs
  e. ​trees are not present

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. ​A tsunami in Japan would affect ____.

  a. ​all coastal areas of the Pacific
  b. ​areas within 1000 km of the epicenter
  c. ​areas in Asia only
  d. ​areas in Asia and the Pacific islands only
  e. ​areas in the northern hemisphere only

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​The difference between tsunami watches and tsunami warnings is that ____.

  a. ​tsunami warnings are issued when an earthquake occurs, and watches are issued when there is less than one hour before the arrival of the tsunami
  b. ​tsunami watches are issued when an earthquake occurs, and warnings are issued when there is less than one hour before the arrival of the tsunami
  c. ​warnings are issued when a major earthquake happens, and watches are issued when tsunami waves are detected
  d. watches are issued when a major earthquake happens, and warnings are issued when tsunami waves are detected​
  e. ​tsunami watches are issued when the effects will not affect populations, and warnings indicate hazards to life and property

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​If you are alerted that a tsunami is approaching, your first reaction should be to ____.

  a. ​immediately seek protection in groves of vegetation
  b. ​immediately head for a location as far inland as possible
  c. ​immediately head for a location as high above sea level as possible
  d. ​travel in an orderly safe fashion to a location as far inland as possible
  e. ​wait for instructions from emergency personnel

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. ​Upon landfall, a tsunami will move ____.

  a. ​at walking speed
  b. ​faster than it traveled in the open ocean
  c. ​at the speed of a helicopter or small airplane
  d. ​much too fast for a person to outrun
  e. ​at the speed of a commercial jet

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ​Giant tsunami are usually the result of _____.

  a. ​earthquakes only
  b. ​landslides only
  c. ​volcanic eruptions only
  d. ​earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides
  e. ​earthquakes or landslides, but not volcanic eruptions

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Future Giant Tsunami
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. ​Direct evidence of giant tsunami is found in ____.

  a. ​volcanic slump zones around Hawaiian volcanoes
  b. ​beach erosion on Pacific islands
  c. ​alternating layers of peat, sand, and mud containing saltwater plants
  d. ​reverse faults along subduction zones
  e. ​magnetic field patterns in sedimentary rock

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Future Giant Tsunami
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. The word _______________ is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave.

ANSWER:   tsunami​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. In a subduction zone, the descending oceanic plate may deform the continental plate, creating a(n) _______________. (two words)

ANSWER:   coastal bulge​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. A(n) _______________ landslide occurs underwater and may cause a tsunami.

ANSWER:   submarine
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

39. The _______________ of a volcano can collapse and slump, triggering a tsunami as a debris avalanche distributes material along the seafloor.

ANSWER:   flank
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

40. The linear distance between two wave crests is the _______________ of the tsunami.

ANSWER:   wavelength​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

41. The time that it takes one complete wave to pass a fixed point is the _______________ of the wave.

ANSWER:   period​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Movement
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

42. The _______________ is the height that a tsunami reaches as it rushes onshore.

ANSWER:   run-up, run up, runup​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

43. Evidence of past tsunami can be seen in the _______________, a line across a mountainside separating taller and shorter trees.

ANSWER:   trimline, trim line
REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

44. A tsunami _______________ is issued when an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater is detected somewhere around the Pacific Ocean.

ANSWER:   watch​
REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

45. Atlantic coastal regions are at risk of a giant tsunami generated by landslides in the _______________ Islands.

ANSWER:   Canary​
REFERENCES:   Future Giant Tsunami
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. Discuss the process of tsunami creation from an earthquake in an offshore region of a subduction zone. What are the key factors affecting the strength of the tsunami?

ANSWER:   An earthquake on the subduction zone triggers a rapid vertical movement of one side of the fault. The motion can either be a rise or fall of the surface. The seawater above the earthquake is displaced upward or downward. Water flows in order to re-establish sea level, and the disturbance moves outward in all directions.

The effect of the tsunami will be affected by the magnitude of the earthquake, the area of the rupture zone, the rate and volume of water displaced, and the depth of water above the rupture.

REFERENCES:   Tsunami Generation
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

47. Explain several conditions that will change the shape and force of a tsunami as it contacts the shoreline, and the effect that each condition will potentially have.

ANSWER:   A successful answer will include the cause and effect of at least three of the following:

– if the tsunami enters a bay or river mouth, the height of the wave will increase as the opening narrows

– tsunami waves change direction as they pass over shallow water and affect all sides of an island as a result

– as tsunami waves cross into shallow water they will react with the bottom and slow down, creating shorter waves

– shorter wavelengths in shallow water will result in increased wave height​

REFERENCES:   Tsunami on Shore
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. You are vacationing on a beach in Thailand. List and describe four natural warning signs you might think of as evidence for a potential tsunami.

ANSWER:   A successful answer will list and describe four of the following:

– The jolt and shaking of an earthquake lasting longer than 15 seconds may indicate the occurrence of a large earthquake offshore.

– A sudden rise or drop in sea level may indicate that water is accumulating into a tsunami.

– A loud, roaring noise from offshore may be caused by the sound of the tsunami itself.

– You hear a report of a major earthquake in the Pacific Ocean.

– You see a large landslide into a nearby body of water.​

REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. Cowell’s Cove is a beach in Santa Cruz, California noted for good surfing. The Santa Cruz coastal area is in the form of a broad (5 km) short (1.5 km) bay, facing south.

On the west side of the beach is a long (1 km) raised peninsula with a steep rocky cliff edge. The top is about 5 m above the water level. Behind the peninsula, the ground rises in a neighborhood of twisty, one-lane streets to a level 15 m above sea level. The nearest stairway is about 100 m away. To the east, the beach is flat leading to a popular tourist boardwalk. Your car is parked behind the boardwalk about 200 m away. Behind this area a straight two-lane road goes through the downtown area for about 5 km before reaching Highway 101 and hilly country.

The sea is calm and flat except for a regular line of clean surf breaks surf breaks about 1 m high along the peninsula. You feel a slight jolt. Some rocks tumble from the cliffs, and you can hear car horns honking at areas along the beachfront. After looking around for a few minutes, you notice that the edge of the water is receding quickly, and hear sirens from emergency vehicles in some directions.

Assume that you are physically fit, and that your car is in good working order. What do you do? Explain your reasoning.

ANSWER:   Here is a sample response:

I would want to get higher and further away from the coast immediately, because I think a tsunami is coming. It might be easier to get far away from the beach if I got my car, but that will take a while and there may be traffic on all of the streets. The boardwalk is bound to be crowded and traffic will be bad on that side, even if I have a straight road inland. I don’t have time to drive. I aim to get above the waterline first, then worry about distance. I leave my stuff on the beach and run for the stairway on the cliff. Once I’m at the top, I will run for the hill on that side of town. Once I get there, it would probably be a good idea to see if I can get to a high floor in a building or onto somebody’s roof.

A successful answer will –

– identify the importance of gaining both height and distance.

– emphasize an immediate, speedy response, e.g. running, leaving possessions behind, choosing the quickest route.

– must select foot travel at the west side of the beach as the best immediate escape route due to the height and location and other complications

– must include travel beyond the cliff to maximize safety

Creative responses that involve illegal activity (e.g. stealing a bicycle, motorcycle, or emergency vehicle) should be graded on their avoidance of danger, not legality.

REFERENCES:   Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

50. You have taken a job in Boston, Massachusetts, a large metropolitan city at a fairly high northern latitude. The metropolitan area surrounding a wide, deep harbor facing northeast.

Describe what you should think about in terms of tsunami danger. Discuss the danger in terms of likelihood, strength, and comparison to other hazards you will experience in this area.

ANSWER:   There is relatively little chance for a tsunami in this area, unless a catastrophic landslide in the Canary Islands due to collapse of the Tenerife Volcano’s flank occurs. An event like this is extremely unlikely, but possible.

Boston would be a dangerous place to be in a tsunami. The harbor would increase the effects of the wave, and evacuation would be very difficult.

Boston is pretty far north. The danger of winter weather is much, much more important than tsunami danger. Windstorms and hurricanes can reach that far north, so they would be more important to think about also.

REFERENCES:   Future Giant Tsunami
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

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