Mosby’s Fundamentals of Therapeutic Massage 4th Ed By  Firtz – Test Bank

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Chapter 05: Research Literacy and Evidence-Informed Practice

Fritz: Mosby’s Fundamentals of Therapeutic Massage, 6th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Massage that focuses on physiological outcomes instead of specific methods would involve:
a. deep tissue techniques.
b. an approach that supports immune function.
c. Swedish massage.
d. muscle energy techniques.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   198

 

  1. Research strongly supports that massage therapy:
a. improves all skin diseases except impetigo and pediatric eczema.
b. promotes healing of psychiatric problems.
c. reduces undesirable stress responses.
d. decreases the effectiveness of the immune system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   197

 

  1. The best indication of the effect of massage on the body/mind is that it:
a. stimulates the secretion of certain neurotransmitters and hormones that affect the ANS.
b. stimulates proprioceptive nerve endings and stretches musculotendinous structures.
c. compresses vessels, changing blood pressure.
d. suppresses the parasympathetic division of the nervous system while increasing heart rate.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    3                    REF:   214

 

  1. A client had been feeling less pain in her healing broken shoulder, but now she comes in and says she is exhausted and her pain is back in full force. Which of the following best describes what the client is experiencing:
a. Bell’s law in action.
b. Cannon’s law of denervation.
c. Hilton’s law.
d. the law of intensity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   219

 

  1. The most likely reason a client’s nerve impingement improves after receiving massage therapy is that massage:
a. moves the location of affected structures.
b. displaces pieces of deteriorating cartilage or bone chips that can press on a nerve.
c. realigns small bones that move out of place and press on certain nerves.
d. increases pliability of soft tissue, relieving pressure on the nerve.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    3                    REF:   221

 

  1. It can be difficult to help a client pinpoint the source of pain sensation near and around the shoulder joint because:
a. when sensory impulses increase, they cause reactions in nerves attached to the higher cord segments.
b. the nerve trunk that supplies the joint also supplies the nearby muscles and the skin over the insertions of the muscles.
c. motor nerves react only on the affected side but also in similar muscles on the opposite side of the body.
d. when an impulse has passed through a certain set of neurons, it will tend to take the same course on future occasions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   219

 

  1. Which of the following systems specifically involves hormones?
a. Respiratory
b. Endocrine
c. Nervous
d. Lymphatic

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   210

 

  1. Which of the following is a result of breathing pattern disorder?
a. Falling blood levels of carbon dioxide
b. Blood is more acidotic
c. Blood is more alkaline
d. Rising blood levels of oxygen in the brain

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   224

 

  1. Tensegrity of the body form is exemplified when:
a. shortening in one tissue affects the structure and movement in other parts.
b. the structure is affected, but the energetic system remains unaffected.
c. the energetic system is affected, but the structure remains unaffected.
d. other areas are unaffected by restrictions in one part.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   199

 

  1. A client is referred by her physician to receive massage for overall chronic body pain, even though the physician states that he cannot find the cause of the pain. Which of the following is a logical explanation for massage benefit?
a. The true usefulness of massage, in this case, is psychological only.
b. Hyperstimulation should be avoided because the cause is unknown.
c. The principle of counterirritation may result in some benefit.
d. Massage on any trigger points the client has will be ineffective.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   220

 

  1. An accurate characteristic of ground substance in connective tissue is that:
a. It is a collagenous or reticular type of fiber.
b. during ANS sympathetic arousal, the ground substance thickens.
c. It responds to abrupt pressure but resists slow, sustained pressure.
d. It is unresponsive to mechanical massage methods.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   226

 

  1. Which of the following demonstrates the gate-control theory?
a. If a large-diameter fiber is stimulated, it encourages small-diameter fibers to transmit signals.
b. TENS use should be prohibited in the case of sharp pain.
c. If a stubbed toe is quickly massaged, it will hurt a lot less.
d. Stimulation of large-diameter fibers, such as through rubbing, increases the sensation of pain.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   220

 

  1. Slippery fluid secreted by the body allows structures to slide is called:
a. tensegrity.
b. collagen.
c. fascia.
d. hyaluronan

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   199

 

  1. If you were going to search for the most current meta-analysis supporting massage benefit for low back pain where would you look?
a. Trade journals
b. Textbook
c. Case reports
d. Cochrane Reviews

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   194

 

  1. Massage has benefits for many different people, ages, activities, and conditions because it:
a. restores the body by targeting the sympathetic response.
b. interacts with a specified targeted pathology.
c. is a general constitutional method that supports homeostasis.
d. reduces the adaptive capacity of the immune system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   211 | 213

 

  1. What principle is used when the massage therapist employs techniques on painful areas in the body?
a. All-or-none
b. Hyperstimulation analgesia
c. Toughening/hardening
d. Conservation withdrawal

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   220

 

  1. A man who eats at night from mild anxiety wants to lose weight. The best treatment plan would be massage in the:
a. morning before exercise to manage soreness caused by exercise.
b. evening with focus on fluid dynamics and increased dopamine.
c. evening to support serotonin levels and restorative sleep.
d. middle of the day in place of a meal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   212

 

  1. Which of the following is a complex set of behaviors that leads to overbreathing in the absence of a pathologic condition?
a. Hyperstimulation analgesia
b. Neuropleural stimulation
c. Parasympathetic pattern
d. Breathing pattern disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   223

 

  1. The ability to focus the mind by screening out sensation is called:
a. desensitizing.
b. centering.
c. controlling.
d. metacognition.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   189

 

  1. Which tissue type in the body provides support, structure, space, and stabilization, and plays a role in scar formation?
a. Epithelial
b. Muscular
c. Connective
d. Nervous

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   198

 

  1. Which of the following is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is released during long-term stress?
a. Cortisol
b. Serotonin
c. Pitocin
d. Epinephrine

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   215

 

  1. Superficial stimulation that relieves a deeper sensation describes:
a. conservation withdrawal.
b. counterirritation.
c. counterpressure.
d. cross-fiber friction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   220

 

  1. Lack of motor control, clumsiness, inability to decide what to attend to, and boredom can all result from low levels of which of the following?
a. Serotonin
b. Epinephrine
c. Dopamine
d. Pitocin

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   221 | 222

 

  1. Neurochemicals that elevate mood, support satiety, and modulate pain are called:
a. hormones.
b. neurotransmitters.
c. endocrine glands.
d. enkephalins and endorphins.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   212

 

  1. Pathologic pressure placed on a nerve or vessel by bone is called:
a. a trigger point.
b. a compression.
c. an entrapment.
d. a tender point.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   221

 

  1. Pathologic pressure placed on a nerve or vessel by soft tissue is called:
a. a trigger point.
b. an entrapment.
c. a compression.
d. a tender point.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   221

 

  1. Activation, arousal, alertness, and alarm chemicals of the sympathetic nervous system are all activated by what neurochemical?
a. Serotonin
b. Epinephrine
c. Dopamine
d. Lactosin

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   212

 

  1. A method of testing a hypothesis is called a(n):
a. test.
b. experiment.
c. treatment.
d. study.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   193

 

  1. Pain impulses passing through a mechanism at the spinal cord to reach the lateral spinothalamic system describes which of the following?
a. Nerve response theory
b. Gate-control theory
c. Reciprocal inhibition
d. Postisometric relaxation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   220

 

  1. Which of the following includes three stages of the body’s response to stress?
a. Anxiety process
b. General adaptation syndrome
c. Fight-flight-fear response
d. Stress syndrome

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   214

 

  1. The hormone that promotes cell division and in adults is implicated in the repair and regeneration of tissue is:
a. oxytocin.
b. cortisol.
c. dopamine.
d. growth hormone.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   213

 

  1. Techniques that directly affect the soft tissue by restoring connective tissue to normal involve which of the following methods?
a. Reflexive
b. Chemical
c. Involuntary
d. Mechanical

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   227

 

  1. Structures located primarily in the belly of the muscle that respond to both sudden and prolonged stretches are called:
a. muscle spindles.
b. cochlear implants.
c. Golgi apparatus.
d. Nissl bodies.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   216

 

  1. Before entering the massage room, a practitioner calms herself and begins to focus on the massage she will perform. What is she doing?
a. Centering
b. Clinical reasoning
c. Formulating the hypothesis
d. Moving beyond the science

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   189

 

  1. According to current research, a valid explanation of the benefits of massage is an increase in:
a. blood pressure.
b. cortisol levels.
c. serotonin function.
d. sympathetic dominance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   196

 

  1. If groups of massage therapists are wishing to replicate a study, they need details of the:
a. hypothesis.
b. data.
c. method.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. Which of the following would best describe why massage is valuable for relieving anxiety and chronic pain?
a. Mechanical effects
b. Neuroendocrine influences
c. Toughening
d. Placebo effects

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   210

 

  1. A client has been stressed for a long time from taking care of both a grandson and an elderly parent. Recently she has been increasingly fatigued and despondent. It is most likely that she is:
a. in the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
b. generating too many endorphins.
c. entering the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
d. stuck in the resistance reaction.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   215

 

  1. A professional football player is the backup quarterback. This means that even though he will probably not play in the game, he has to be ready constantly. The most accurate description of his physiologic state is that he:
a. has increased oxytocin levels because of the alarm reaction.
b. is in the resistance reaction phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
c. has conservation withdrawal mechanisms that are overactive.
d. is battling state-dependent memory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    3                    REF:   214

 

  1. An ex-smoker still craves cigarettes on occasion. He realizes that the cravings go away after he receives a massage. Why would this occur?
a. His dopamine levels return to normal.
b. State-dependent memories are dissipated.
c. The treatment is a placebo.
d. The treatment stimulates growth hormone.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    3                    REF:   213

 

  1. A client’s spouse is in the military and has just been deployed overseas. The client misses his spouse but finds that massage eases the longing and helps him to remain productive in spite of the loneliness. This is because the massage has what effect on him?
a. Increase in epinephrine
b. Decrease in parasympathetic dominance
c. Stimulation of oxytocin
d. Reduction of the alarm reaction

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   213

 

  1. A client has an arthritic knee and finds that rubbing a cream on it that makes it feel cool helps the aching. Which of the following best explains this response?
a. Reduction of impingement
b. Somatic reflex stimulation
c. Placebo effect
d. Counterirritation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   220

 

  1. Which of the following self-help methods most strongly interacts with the autonomic nervous system?
a. Stretching and strengthening
b. Focused breathing
c. Weight training
d. Nutrition supplements

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   216

 

  1. If a client has been referred by a chiropractor for an impingement that is causing headaches, the massage therapist should focus on the muscles associated with which of the following plexuses?
a. Palmar
b. Plantar
c. Cervical
d. Sacral

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   221

 

  1. Which of the following massage outcomes should improve a client’s cold feet?
a. Increase in arterial circulation
b. Decrease in venous circulation
c. Increase in hyperstimulation analgesia
d. Increase in lymphatic flow

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   222

 

  1. Massage can relieve chronic low back pain by:
a. influencing immunity.
b. reducing soft tissue density.
c. decreasing endorphin and serotonin responses.
d. addressing the all-or-none response.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   227

 

  1. A client has been diagnosed with breathing pattern disorder. Massage would be most beneficial in addressing this situation by increasing:
a. sympathetic influence on the breathing.
b. the mechanical effects of the tensegrity.
c. optimal functioning of the thorax.
d. tone in the gastrointestinal system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   223

 

  1. Massage addresses what aspect of connective tissue?
a. Ground substance
b. Hyaline cartilage
c. Cell membranes
d. Tendon organs

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   227

 

  1. A client has had difficulty resolving inflammation. Therefore, her doctor has advised avoidance of which of the following methods?
a. Static holding
b. Agitation of the ground substance
c. Transverse friction
d. Rhythmic rocking

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   227

 

  1. Which of the following principles relates most closely to the influence of massage and the body’s fascia network?
a. Circulation shifts
b. Spiritual influence
c. Hyperstimulation
d. Tensegrity

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   198

 

  1. The treatment plan that is best for an optimal performance outcome includes massage that:
a. targets connective tissue pliability.
b. focuses on the fluid balance.
c. optimizes nervous system balance.
d. increases digestive function.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    3                    REF:   211

 

  1. Intuition is:
a. a sensation that cannot be defined.
b. knowing something without going through a conscious thinking process.
c. an ability that defies definition.
d. incompatible with the scientific method.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   189

 

  1. Because massage affects physiology, it can be:
a. considered uninfluenced by intuition.
b. invalidated by the scientific method.
c. studied by the scientific method.
d. replaced by machine applications.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   193

 

  1. The responses by the nervous system and the effects of massage on it are:
a. mechanical.
b. nonspecific.
c. negligible.
d. reflexive.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   210

 

  1. Much of the body/mind connection takes place through:
a. somatic nervous system activity.
b. autonomic nervous system activity.
c. proprioception.
d. the general adaptation syndrome.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   215

 

  1. Biological plausibility is characterized by:
a. existence of a physiological mechanism.
b. seldom being influenced by massage.
c. being independent of external influences.
d. having little effect on homeostasis.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   189

 

  1. Entrapment:
a. occurs only with small nerves.
b. can cause muscle pain but not breathing difficulties.
c. interrupts the pain-spasm-pain cycle and initiates relaxation.
d. is commonly caused when soft tissue binds a nerve.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   221

 

  1. Excessive prolonged stress can:
a. stop the parasympathetic response from occurring.
b. be a contraindication for hyperstimulation analgesia.
c. cause the release of cortisol.
d. support immune function.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   212

 

  1. The two aspects of connective tissue most affected by massage are:
a. thixotropy and cutaneovisceral response.
b. ground substance and fibers.
c. plastic range and Meissner corpuscles.
d. piezoelectricity and Merkel disks.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   225

 

  1. One of the most widely recognized physiologic effects of massage is:
a. muscle relaxation from compression.
b. an increase in fascial adhesions.
c. normalization of the stress response.
d. release of myofascial trigger points.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   211

 

  1. An experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are receiving an experimental treatment or a placebo, and in which the researchers and the participants are unaware of which subjects receive the treatment until after the study is completed, is classified as showing:
a. a bias.
b. a blinding.
c. a hidden variable.
d. adverse effects.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. In an experimental study, the group that does not receive treatment is called the:
a. control group.
b. clinical trial.
c. placebo effect.
d. hypothesis.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. The process of allocating subjects to an experimental or a control group, with the subjects having an equal chance of ending up in either group, is called:
a. bias.
b. random assignment.
c. statistical power.
d. placebo.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. The method most appropriate for examining studies that investigate the same question and use similar methods to measure relevant variables is called:
a. cohort research.
b. hypothesis determination.
c. risk assessment.
d. meta-analysis.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   194

 

  1. The best place to find the overview of the content of a research paper is the:
a. methods section.
b. abstract.
c. results section.
d. literature review.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   207

 

  1. The section of a research report that provides a detailed account of the methodology used to carry out the study, identifies the various research procedures used at different stages, and explains them in such detail that the study can be replicated by others is called the:
a. discussion section.
b. abstract.
c. methods section.
d. conclusion section.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    1                    REF:   207

 

  1. Asserting with well-conducted scientific research that massage therapy is beneficial is what type of statement?
a. Evidence-informed
b. Expert clinical experience
c. Objective research
d. Scientific method

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   190

 

  1. The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal and professional decision making is called:
a. research literacy.
b. informed consent.
c. inquiry-based approach.
d. entrainment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   192

 

  1. A massage therapist who documents the intervention and outcome of massage therapy on a client with a knee joint replacement participates in what type of valid research design?
a. Case report
b. Cohort study
c. Case series
d. Randomized controlled trial

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. A massage therapist documented the intervention and outcome of massage therapy on a client with a specific condition. If she works with several more clients who have the same condition, she would be developing this information into which of the following research designs?
a. Case series
b. Meta-analysis
c. Randomized controlled trial
d. Literature search

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. When a group of experts search the available literature databases, retrieve copies of all the articles written on a specific topic, and then use critical thinking methods to evaluate the validity of each study and synthesize the results process, it is called:
a. systematic review.
b. case series.
c. inquiry-based approach.
d. outcome-based process.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. A client experiences a chronic pain syndrome and is asking for evidence for the value of massage. Which of the following presents the strongest level of evidence for the massage therapist?
a. Meta-analysis
b. Outcomes research
c. Scientific approach
d. Randomized controlled hypnosis

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   194

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. The quality and quantity of massage-related research is insufficient to support a full evidence-based massage practice.
b. The quantity of massage-related research is sufficient to support a full evidence-based massage practice; however, the quality of that research is substandard.
c. Massage-related research is now sufficient to support a full evidence-based massage practice.
d. The quality and quantity of massage-related research is an unreliable support for an evidence-based and evidence-informed massage practice

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   190

 

  1. Which of the following outcomes has the best evidence for massage benefit?
a. Anxiety management
b. Fascia tone reduction
c. Reduction of edema
d. Increased sport performance

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    2                    REF:   196

 

  1. The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal and professional decision making is:
a. evidence-based practice.
b. competency.
c. scientific method.
d. research literacy.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    2                    REF:   192

 

  1. A type of systematic review that uses statistical methods to combine and analyze multiple investigations is a:
a. clinical trial.
b. meta-analysis.
c. case series.
d. hypothesis.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   193

 

  1. Everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the validity of a claim made for massage benefit is called:
a. research.
b. evidence.
c. outcomes.
d. opinion.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   190

 

  1. Evidence-informed practice (EIP) avoids scientific prejudices and superstitions sometimes called:
a. pseudoscience.
b. expert opinion.
c. research facts.
d. intuition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   190

 

  1. Knowledgeable of a wide range of sources—empirical studies, case studies, and clinical insights—and use them in creative ways throughout the massage therapy process supporting a client-centered approach to care is ____.
a. PICO question
b. levels of evidence
c. claimed benefits
d. evidence informed

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   190

 

  1. The ability to find, read, and understand the research and use critical thinking to determine the validity of the information presented by the paper is____.
a. an experiment
b. research literacy
c. gate control
d. hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   192

 

  1. Which of the following is the highest level of evidence that would be supportive of a massage therapy benefit?
a. Case report
b. Survey
c. Meta-analysis
d. Clinical trial

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    2                    REF:   194

 

  1. You have a client with lupus. Which of the following will support a search on PubMed to determine massage benefit and potential adverse effects?
a. Cochrane library
b. Pico Strategy
c. Qualitative design
d. Systematic Review

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    2                    REF:   194

 

  1. The construction of an appropriate research question is supported by:
a. Google Scholar.
b. Pico Strategy.
c. Medline plus.
d. Cochrane Collaboration.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    1                    REF:   194

 

  1. PICO is an acronym for_____
a. problem, intervention, comparison, outcome c. purpose, institution, complaint, overview
b. pathology, indication, contraindication, outcome d. patient, idea, contraindication, ongoing

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    1                    REF:   194

 

  1. The body-mind link is best understood as:
a. having no physiological basis. c. being separate from hormone interplay.
b. participating in cerebral spinal fluid movement. d. associating with the autonomic nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    1                    REF:   215

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