Marketing Research An Applied Orientation 6th Edition by Naresh K Malhotraw folder – Test Bank

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Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 6e (Malhotra)

Chapter 5   Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

 

1) Qualitative research is an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem setting.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 139

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

2) Quantitative research seeks to quantify the data and, typically, applies some form of statistical analysis.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 139

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

3) The findings of qualitative research should be regarded as conclusive and used to make generalizations to the population of interest.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 139

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

4) Qualitative research procedures are classified as either descriptive or causal.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 139

LO :  2

 

5) Projective techniques are different from focus groups and depth interview techniques in that projective techniques attempt to disguise the purpose of the research.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140-141

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  2

 

6) The main purpose of focus groups is to gain insights by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talk about issues of interest to the researcher.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140-141

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  2

 

 

7) An indirect qualitative projective technique is best to use when conducting research to determine what milk drinkers prefer to eat with their milk.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140-141

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  2

8) A focus group generally includes 10 to 16 members.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 142

LO :  3

 

9) A focus group should be homogeneous in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 142

LO :  3

 

10) Typical information obtained from the screening questionnaire includes product familiarity and knowledge, usage behavior, attitudes toward and participation in focus groups, and standard demographic characteristics.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 142

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

11) Use of a moderator’s outline reduces some of the validity problems inherent in focus groups, such as those caused by different moderators not covering the same content areas in comparable ways.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 144

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

12) The number of focus groups that should be conducted on a single subject depends upon (1) the nature of the issue, (2) the number of distinct market segments, (3) the number of new ideas generated by each successive group, and (4) time and cost.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 147-148

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

13) Resources permitting, one should conduct additional focus groups until the participants can anticipate what will be said.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 147-148

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

14) Telesession groups are focus group sessions by Internet using chat rooms.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

15) Synergism, snowballing, simulation, and security are some of the advantages of focus groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

16) One advantage of focus groups is synergism which results because the participants’ feelings are similar to those of other group members; they feel comfortable and therefore willing to express their ideas and feelings.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

17) One advantage of focus groups is serendipity because ideas are more likely to arise out of the blue in a group than in an individual interview.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

18) Focus groups can be misused and abused by considering the results as conclusive.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

19) The quality of focus group results depends heavily on the skills of the moderator.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

20) A disadvantage of focus groups is that the unstructured nature of the responses makes coding, analysis, and interpretation difficult.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 149

LO :  3

 

21) Focus groups can be used to address substantive issues such as deciding on alternative courses of action.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 150-151

LO :  3

 

 

22) Unlike traditional focus groups, online focus group participation is by invitation only.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-151

LO :  3

 

23) Participants in online focus groups receive a time, a URL, a room name, and a password via e-mail.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 150-151

LO :  3

 

24) The cost of online focus groups is much less than for traditional focus groups.  Firms are able to keep costs between one-fifth and one-half the cost of traditional focus groups.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 152

LO :  3

25) Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested via online focus groups.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 152

LO :  3

 

26) Online focus group participants don’t have the potential to be distracted by external stimuli.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 152

LO :  3

 

27) Online focus groups are appropriate for every research situation.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 152

LO :  3

 

28) There are fewer people in an online focus group than in a traditional focus group (Table 5.3 in the text).

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 152

LO :  3

 

29) During depth interviews, probing is of critical importance in obtaining meaningful responses and uncovering hidden issues.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 153-155

LO :  4

 

 

30) Laddering requires interviewers to be trained in specific probing techniques in order to develop a meaningful “mental map” of the consumer’s view toward a target product.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

31) Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

32) Depth interviews uncover less depth of insights than focus groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 156

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

 

33) In role playing, the researcher assumes that the respondents will project their own feelings into the role.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 161

LO :  5

34) Projective techniques generally require personal interviews with highly trained interviewers.  This is an advantage of projective techniques.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 162-163

LO :  5

 

35) Data determination is one of the three general steps that should be followed when analyzing qualitative data.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 164

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  1

 

36) Qualitative research may reveal the differences between the foreign and domestic markets.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 166

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

LO :  6

 

 

37) To minimize negative effects that may arise from disguising the purpose of the qualitative research, the respondents should be informed up front that the true purpose of the research is being disguised so as not to bias the responses.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 167-168

AACSB:  Ethical Reasoning

LO :  7

 

38) Focus groups, depth interviews, and projective techniques can be implemented over the Internet.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 170

AACSB:  Use of IT

LO :  8

 

39) Baby boomers are a large consumer target for many products and “show and tell” focus groups are being used by consumer researchers.  Which of the following statements is not true about “show and tell” focus groups?

  1. A) Respondents’ attitudes are uncovered by analyzing their responses to scenarios that are deliberately unstructured, vague, and ambiguous.
  2. B) They provide the needed insight into the core values boomers hold close to their hearts.
  3. C) Participants bring in three or four items that represent their ideal environment.
  4. D) Group discussion is centered on the items brought in for “show and tell.”

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 137

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

40) Whenever a new marketing research problem is being addressed, ________ research must be preceded by appropriate ________ research.

  1. A) qualitative; quantitative
  2. B) observational; experimental
  3. C) quantitative; qualitative
  4. D) experimental; observational

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 139

LO :  1

 

41) According to Table 5.1 in the text, which of the following does not apply to qualitative research?

  1. A) a small number of nonrepresentative cases
  2. B) non-statistical data analysis
  3. C) unstructured form of data collection
  4. D) outcome is used to recommend a final course of action

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 139

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

42) There are several reasons to use qualitative research.  Which of the following is not a reason to use qualitative research?

  1. A) It is not always possible, or desirable, to use fully structured or formal methods to obtain information from respondents.
  2. B) People may be unwilling or unable to answer certain questions.
  3. C) People are unwilling to give truthful answers to questions that invade their privacy, embarrass them, or have a negative impact on their ego or status.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

43) The ________ is one type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disclosed to the respondent or are obvious, given the nature of the interview.

  1. A) indirect approach
  2. B) direct approach
  3. C) focus group approach
  4. D) descriptive approach

Answer:  B

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 140-141

LO :  2

44) An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner is a(n) ________.

  1. A) depth interview
  2. B) projective technique
  3. C) association technique
  4. D) focus group

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140-141

LO :  2

 

45) Focus groups are a(n) ________ research procedure and projective techniques are a(n) ________ research procedure.

  1. A) experimental; direct
  2. B) indirect; direct
  3. C) direct; experimental
  4. D) direct; indirect

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 140-141

LO :  2

 

 

46) ________ are the most important qualitative research procedure.

  1. A) Focus groups
  2. B) Depth interviews
  3. C) Projective techniques
  4. D) Association techniques

Answer:  A

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 141

LO :  3

 

47) Which of the following is not one of the key qualifications of focus group moderators?

  1. A) joviality
  2. B) kindness with firmness
  3. C) flexibility
  4. D) sensitivity

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 142-143

LO :  3

 

48) The procedure for planning and conducting focus groups is described in Figure 5.3 in the text. Planning begins with ________.

  1. A) specifying the objectives of qualitative research
  2. B) writing a screening questionnaire
  3. C) developing a moderator’s guide
  4. D) determining objectives of the marketing research project and defining the problem

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 143

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

49) Constructing a detailed moderator’s outline for use during the focus group interviews involves extensive discussions among the ________, ________, and ________.

  1. A) researcher; moderator; and respondents.
  2. B) researcher; client; moderator.
  3. C) researcher; client; respondent.
  4. D) client; respondent; moderator.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 144

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

 

50) The Real Research Mall of Atlanta focus group example in the text used focus groups to uncover ________.

  1. A) information on the mall visit experience
  2. B) information on mall brand identity versus other malls
  3. C) information on the brand value of the mall
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 146-147

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

51) It is recommended that at least ________ focus groups be conducted.

  1. A) two
  2. B) three
  3. C) four
  4. D) five

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 153

LO :  3

 

52) A focus group interview conducted by two moderators where one moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session, and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed is called a ________.

  1. A) two-way focus group
  2. B) dueling-moderator group
  3. C) dual-moderator group
  4. D) respondent-moderator group

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 148-149

LO :  3

 

53) Focus groups can use several variations of the standard procedure.  Which of the following is not one of the variations mentioned in your text?

  1. A) respondent-moderator group
  2. B) client-participant group
  3. C) tag-team moderator group
  4. D) mini-group

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 148-149

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

54) A focus group interview conducted by two moderators where the moderators deliberately take opposite positions on the issues to be discussed is called a ________.

  1. A) dueling-moderator group
  2. B) two-way focus group
  3. C) dual-moderator group
  4. D) respondent-moderator group

Answer:  A

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 148-149

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

55) One of the findings of the Mall of Atlanta focus group research mentioned in the text was that respondents who go to the mall for entertainment try to hold costs to under $30, except for special occasions.  The client reviewed this information and decided to design a mall experience package that would cost $29.95 The client has fallen victim to which disadvantage of focus groups?

  1. A) misuse
  2. B) misrepresentation
  3. C) messy
  4. D) Both A and B are correct.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 146-147

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

56) Which of the following is a methodological application of focus groups?

  1. A) obtaining impressions of new product concepts
  2. B) generating alternative courses of action
  3. C) Both B and D are correct.
  4. D) generating hypotheses that can be tested quantitatively

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 150

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

57) Focus groups can be used to address substantive issues such as ________.

  1. A) defining a problem more precisely
  2. B) generating new ideas about older products
  3. C) developing an approach to a problem
  4. D) interpreting previously obtained quantitative results

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 150

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

58) Which statement is not true about online focus groups?

  1. A) The group interaction lasts for about an hour.
  2. B) The general practice is for moderators to pose their questions in all capital letters and the respondents to respond using upper and lower case.
  3. C) The whole process is much faster than the traditional method.
  4. D) To enter the online focus group, participants must supply the room name, user name, and password to the moderator via email.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-152

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

59) Which of the following statements is not an advantage of online focus groups?

  1. A) The researcher can reach segments that are usually hard to survey.
  2. B) Researchers can re-contact group participants at a later date.
  3. C) The cost of the online focus group is much less.
  4. D) Only people that have and know how to use a computer can participate.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-152

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

60) Which of the following statements is not a disadvantage of online focus groups?

  1. A) Moderators may also be able to carry on side conversations with individual respondents, probing deeper into interesting areas.
  2. B) It can be difficult to verify that a respondent is a member of a target group.
  3. C) Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested.
  4. D) Only people that have and know how to use a computer can participate.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-152

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

61) Which of the situations mentioned below is not suitable for online focus groups?

  1. A) highly emotional issues
  2. B) companies that use the Internet to sell products or services and want to either gain market share or gather intelligence
  3. C) corporations that want to gather feedback on workplace issues like downsizing, job changes, and diversity
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-152

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

62) A ________ is an unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic.

  1. A) focus group
  2. B) qualitative interview
  3. C) projective interview
  4. D) depth interview

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 153-154

LO :  4

 

63) Depth interviews are like focus group in all of the following ways except________.

  1. A) both are unstructured interviews
  2. B) both are direct ways of obtaining information
  3. C) both are qualitative research methods
  4. D) both are one-on-one interviews

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 153-154

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

64) “Why do you say that?”, “That’s interesting, can you tell me more?” or, “Would you like to add anything else?” are examples of ________.

  1. A) focusing
  2. B) projecting
  3. C) probing
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 153-154

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

 

65) ________ is a technique for conducting depth interviews in which a line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics.

  1. A) Hidden issue questioning
  2. B) Symbolic analysis
  3. C) Laddering
  4. D) None of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

66) In a study the researcher was investigating attitudes toward airlines among male middle managers.  Each airline attribute, such as wide-body aircrafts, was probed (why do you like to travel in wide-body aircrafts?) to determine why it was important (I can get more work done) and then that reason was probed (I accomplish more), and so on (I feel good about myself).  The depth interview techniques used in the study is called ________.

  1. A) hidden issue questioning
  2. B) symbolic analysis
  3. C) laddering
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

67) In a study the researcher was investigating attitudes toward airlines among male middle managers.  Questions asked included, “What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?”  Responses like, “Without planes, I would have to rely on e-mail, letters, and telephone calls” were received.  This suggests that what airlines sell to the managers is face-to-face communication.  The depth interview techniques used in the study is called ________.

  1. A) hidden issue questioning
  2. B) symbolic analysis
  3. C) laddering
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

68) ________ is a type of depth interview that attempts to locate personal sore spots related to deeply felt personal concerns.

  1. A) Hidden issue questioning
  2. B) Symbolic analysis
  3. C) Laddering
  4. D) None of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

 

 

69) ________ is a technique for conducting depth interviews in which the symbolic meaning of objects is analyzed by comparing them with their opposites.

  1. A) Hidden issue questioning
  2. B) Symbolic analysis
  3. C) Laddering
  4. D) None of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 154-155

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  4

70) In a depth interview, the interviewer should ________.

  1. A) avoid appearing superior and put the respondent at ease
  2. B) be detached and objective, yet personable
  3. C) probe the respondent
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 153-156

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

 

71) In a depth interview, the interviewer should ________.

  1. A) not accept brief “yes” or “no” answers
  2. B) not probe the respondent
  3. C) ask questions in an informative manner
  4. D) A and C are both correct

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 153-156

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

 

72) Depth interviews suffer from many of the disadvantages of focus groups and often to a greater extent.  Which of the following disadvantages is not shared with focus groups?

  1. A) Skilled interviewers capable of conducting depth interviews are expensive and difficult to find.
  2. B) The lack of structure makes the results susceptible to the interviewer’s influence.
  3. C) The data obtained are difficult to analyze and interpret.
  4. D) All of the above are shared with focus groups.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 156

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

 

 

73) A(n) ________ is an unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern.

  1. A) projective technique
  2. B) focus group
  3. C) association technique
  4. D) depth interview

Answer:  A

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 158

LO :  5

 

74) In ________, an individual is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind.

  1. A) completion techniques
  2. B) focus groups
  3. C) association techniques
  4. D) depth interviews

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 158

LO :  5

75) Word association is the best known of the ________ techniques.

  1. A) expressive
  2. B) association
  3. C) completion
  4. D) construction

Answer:  B

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 158

LO :  5

 

76) With ________ respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time. After each word, they are asked to give the first word that comes to mind.

  1. A) word association
  2. B) sentence completion
  3. C) story completion
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 158

LO :  5

 

 

77) In word association, responses are analyzed by calculating ________.

  1. A) the frequency with which any word is given as a response
  2. B) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given
  3. C) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 158

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  5

 

78) ________ is a projective technique that requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation.

  1. A) Association technique
  2. B) Expressive technique
  3. C) Construction technique
  4. D) Completion technique

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 159

LO :  5

 

79) ________ is a projective technique in which respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them.

  1. A) Word association
  2. B) Sentence completion
  3. C) Story completion
  4. D) Expression completion

Answer:  B

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 159

LO :  5

80) ________ is a projective technique in which the respondents are provided with part of a story and required to give the conclusion in their own words.

  1. A) Word association
  2. B) Sentence completion
  3. C) Story completion
  4. D) Expression completion

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 159

LO :  5

 

 

81) ________ require the respondent to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue, or description.

  1. A) Association techniques
  2. B) Expressive techniques
  3. C) Construction techniques
  4. D) Impression techniques

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 160

LO :  5

 

82) In ________, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character.

  1. A) picture response techniques
  2. B) cartoon tests
  3. C) third-person techniques
  4. D) role playing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 161

LO :  5

 

83) The two main expressive techniques are ________ and ________.

  1. A) role playing; word association
  2. B) role playing; third-person technique
  3. C) word association; sentence completion
  4. D) third-person technique; word association

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 161

LO :  5

 

84) ________ is a projective technique in which the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation.

  1. A) Role playing
  2. B) Sentence completion
  3. C) Cartoon test
  4. D) Third-person technique

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 162

LO :  5

85) In ________, respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else.

  1. A) role playing
  2. B) sentence completion
  3. C) cartoon test
  4. D) third-party technique

Answer:  A

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 161

LO :  5

 

86) Projective techniques are used less frequently than unstructured direct methods (focus groups and depth interviews). A possible exception may be ________, which is used commonly to test brand names and occasionally to measure attitudes about particular products, brands, packages, or advertisements.

  1. A) story completion
  2. B) word association
  3. C) sentence completion
  4. D) cartoon tests

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 163

LO :  5

 

87) Which of the following guidelines does not enhance the usefulness of projective techniques?

  1. A) Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods.
  2. B) Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding.
  3. C) Given their complexity, projective techniques should not be used naively.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 163

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  5

 

88) ________ is one of the three general steps that should be followed when analyzing qualitative data.  In this step, the researcher chooses which aspects of the data are emphasized, minimized, or set aside for the project at hand.

  1. A) Data display
  2. B) Data reduction
  3. C) Data determination
  4. D) Conclusion drawing and verification

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 164

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  1

89) ________ is one of the three general steps that should be followed when analyzing qualitative data.  In this step, the researcher develops a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram, chart or matrix.

  1. A) Data display
  2. B) Data reduction
  3. C) Data determination
  4. D) Conclusion drawing and verification

Answer:  A

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 164

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  1

 

90) ________ is one of the three general steps that should be followed when analyzing qualitative data.  In this step, the researcher considers the meaning of analyzed data and assesses its implications for the research question at hand.

  1. A) Data display
  2. B) Data reduction
  3. C) Data determination
  4. D) Conclusion drawing and verification

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 164

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  1

 

91) When conducting international marketing research, focus group moderators should not only be trained in focus group methodology but should also be familiar with the ________ of the country.

  1. A) language
  2. B) culture
  3. C) patterns of social interaction
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 166

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

LO :  6

 

92) Which of the following is not an ethical issue of concern to the researcher?

  1. A) disguising the purpose of the research and the use of deceptive procedures
  2. B) videotaping and recording the proceedings
  3. C) comfort level of the respondents
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 167

AACSB:  Ethical Reasoning

LO :  7

93) The 2000, 2004 and 2008 presidential elections were cited in your text for negative attacks by both the Republican and Democratic parties.  The negative attacks were based on qualitative marketing research used to help design the messages.  Which ethical concern is this use of marketing research related to?

  1. A) disguising the purpose of the research and the use of deceptive procedures
  2. B) using qualitative research for questionable purposes
  3. C) comfort level of the respondents
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 167-168

AACSB:  Ethical Reasoning

LO :  7

 

94) Discuss the five themes qualitative research has uncovered about baby boomers.  Why is this type of research important?

Answer:

  1. Quality family life is a major concern.
  2. Keeping in touch with friends is an integral element of the boomer lifestyle.
  3. Taking time to get away from the hassles of everyday life in the form of “getaway vacations” with family and friends helps to maintain firm understanding of what is important in life and recharge dying batteries.
  4. Spiritual and physical fitness are important in leading a full, well-balanced life.
  5. No such thing as a mid-life. Life is too short to dwell on successes or failures.

 

This type of research is invaluable in designing advertising and promotional campaigns.  It provides the necessary foundation for appealing to those values that are most important to the boomer and to those values that are most likely to stimulate their buying behavior.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 137

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  1

 

95) Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research (Table 5.1 in the text)

Answer:  The differences in the two methodologies are summarized in Table 5.1 in the text.

The objective of qualitative research is to gain qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations while the objective of quantitative research is to quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest.

 

Samples used in qualitative research consist of small and nonrepresentative cases while those used in quantitative research consist of large and representative cases.

The data collection for qualitative research is unstructured while quantitative research is structured.

 

Qualitative research utilizes nonstatistical data analysis and quantitative research utilizes statistical data analysis.  The outcome for qualitative research is to develop an initial understanding.  The outcome for quantitative research is to recommend a final course of action.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 139

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  1

96) You are deciding which approach would be best to use to determine what milk drinkers consider the best food to accompany a glass of milk.  Which qualitative technique would you choose and why?

Answer:  The student should choose a direct approach such as focus groups or depth interviews.  There is no need to disguise the purpose of the project.  There is also no reason that most people would be unwilling or unable to respond to questions on what they eat with milk.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 140-141, 163

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  2

 

 

97) Discuss the characteristics of focus groups (Table 5.2 in the text).  List at least four (4) characteristics and explain why it is important to consider each characteristic.

Answer:  Characteristics of focus groups are summarized in Table 5.2 in the text.

1)   Group size 8 to 12 – groups of fewer than eight are unlikely to generate the momentum and group dynamics necessary for a successful session.  Groups of more than 12 may be too crowded and may not be conducive to a cohesive and natural discussion.

2)   Group composition – Homogeneous; respondents prescreened – commonality among group members avoids interactions and conflicts among group members on side issues.

3)   Physical setting – Relaxed, informal atmosphere – encourages spontaneous comments.

4)   Time duration – 1 to 3 hours – needed to establish rapport with the participants and explore, in depth, their beliefs, feelings, ideas, attitudes, and insights regarding the topic of concern.

5)   Recording – Use of audiocassettes and videotapes – videotaping has the advantage of recording facial expressions and body movements, but it can increase the costs significantly. Video transmission technology enables the clients to observe focus group sessions live from a remote location.

6)   Moderator – Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator – moderator must establish rapport with the participants, keep the discussion moving forward, and probe the respondents to elicit insights.  In addition the moderator may have a central role in the analysis and interpretation of the data.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 142-143

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

LO :  3

 

98) Why is the online focus group process faster to analyze than the traditional method?

Answer:  The online focus group process is faster to analyze than the traditional focus group method because respondents are asked to always start their response with the question number, so the moderator can quickly tie the response to the proper question. This makes it fast and easy to transcribe a focus group session. The group interaction lasts for about an hour. A raw transcript is available as soon as the group is completed, and a formatted transcript is available within 48 hours.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 150-151

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

99) Discuss the advantages of online focus groups.

Answer:  People all over the country and the world can participate and the client can observe the group from the convenience of the home or office.  Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened.  You have the unique opportunity to contact group participants again at a later date, to revisit issues, or introduce them to modifications in material presented in the original focus group.  The Internet enables the researcher to reach segments that are usually hard to survey: doctors, lawyers, professionals, working mothers, and others who lead busy lives and are not interested in taking part in traditional focus groups.  Moderators may also be able to carry on side conversations with individual respondents, probing deeper into interesting areas.  Because there is no travel videotaping, or facilities to arrange, the cost is much lower than for traditional focus groups.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 151

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

100) Discuss the disadvantages of online focus groups.

Answer:  Only people that have and know how to use a computer can be surveyed online. Because the name of an individual on the Internet is often private, actually verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. To overcome this limitation, other traditional methods such as telephone calls are used for recruitment and verification of respondents.

 

Another factor that must be considered is the lack of general control over the respondent’s environment and their potential exposure to distracting external stimuli. Because online focus groups could potentially have respondents scattered all over the world, the researchers and moderator(s) have no idea what else the respondents may be doing while participating in the group. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products cannot be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes).

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 151

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  3

 

101) List at least five (5) applications of depth interviews.  Give a specific example of each.

Answer:  Depth interview applications include all of the following:

  1. Detailed probing of the respondent (automobile purchase)
  2. Discussion of confidential, sensitive, or embarrassing topics (personal finances, loose dentures)
  3. Situations where strong social norms exist and the respondent may be easily swayed by group response (attitude of college students toward sports)
  4. Detailed understanding of complicated behavior (department store shopping)
  5. Interviews with professional people (industrial marketing research)
  6. Interviews with competitors, who are unlikely to reveal the information in a group setting (travel agents’ perceptions of airline package travel programs)
  7. Situations where the product consumption experience is sensory in nature, affecting mood states and emotions (perfumes, bath soap)

Students should provide their own examples.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 156-157

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  4

102) Discuss the major advantage of projective techniques over the unstructured direct techniques (focus groups and depth interviews).

Answer:  Projective techniques have a major advantage over the unstructured direct techniques (focus groups and depth interviews): they may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. At times, in direct questioning, the respondent may intentionally or unintentionally misunderstand, misinterpret, or mislead the researcher. In these cases, projective techniques can increase the validity of responses by disguising the purpose. This is particularly true when the issues to be addressed are personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 162-163

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

LO :  5

 

103) Because the researcher is often not familiar with the foreign product market to be examined, qualitative research is crucial in international marketing research. Discuss the issues a company should consider before using projective techniques in international marketing research.

Answer:  Because the researcher is often not familiar with the foreign product market to be examined, qualitative research is crucial in international marketing research.  The use of projective techniques in international marketing research should be carefully considered. Association techniques, completion techniques, and expressive techniques involve the use of verbal cues. Construction techniques employ nonverbal stimuli (pictures). Whether verbal or nonverbal stimuli are used, the equivalence of meaning across the cultures should be established. This can be a difficult task if the socio-cultural environments in which the research is conducted vary greatly. Establishing the equivalence of pictures can be particularly problematic. Line drawings are subject to fewer problems of interpretation than photographs. The specific techniques that are used and how the results are communicated should take into account the cultural aspects and the nature of the problem being addressed.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 166-167

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

LO :  6

 

104) Identify and discuss the ethical issues related to the respondents and the general public that may be of concern in qualitative research.

Answer:  Ethical issues related to the respondents and the general public are of primary concern. These issues include:

  1. Disguising the purpose of the research and the use of deceptive procedures – All indirect procedures require disguising the purpose of the research, at least to some extent. Often, a cover story is used to camouflage the true purpose. This can not only violate the respondent’s right to know but also result in psychological harm. To minimize such negative effects, the respondents should be informed up front that the true purpose of the research is being disguised so as not to bias the responses. After completing the research tasks, debriefing sessions should be held in which the respondents are informed about the true purpose and given opportunities to make comments or ask questions. Deceptive procedures that violate respondents’ right to privacy and informed consent should be avoided.
  2. Videotaping or audio-taping the respondents without their prior knowledge or consent – Ethical guidelines suggest that respondents should be informed and their consent obtained prior to the start of the proceedings, preferably at the time of recruitment. Furthermore, at the end of the meeting, participants should be asked to sign a written statement conveying their permission to use the recording. This statement should disclose the true purpose of the research and all people who will have access to the recording. Participants should be given an opportunity to refuse signing. The tapes should be edited to completely omit the identity and comments of the respondents who have refused.
  3. Comfort level of the respondents – During qualitative research, particularly during in-depth interviews, respondents should not be pushed beyond a point so as to make them uncomfortable. Respect for the respondent’s welfare should warrant restraint on the part of the moderator or interviewer. If a respondent feels uncomfortable and does not wish to answer more questions on a particular topic, the interviewer should not aggressively probe further.
  4. A final issue relates to the general public and deals with the ethics of using qualitative research results for questionable purposes or misusing the findings of qualitative research.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 167-168

AACSB:  Ethical Reasoning

LO :  7

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