Marketing 13th Edition by Roger Kerin – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Understanding Consumer Behavior

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Women make what percentage of new-car buying decisions?

A. 15 percent

 

B. 30 percent

 

C. 45 percent

 

D. 60 percent

 

E. 80 percent

 

2. Women influence what percentage of new-car buying decisions?

A. 15 percent

 

B. 20 percent

 

C. 40 percent

 

D. 60 percent

 

E. 80 percent

 

3. Enlightened carmakers have hired women designers, engineers, and marketing executives to better understand the way women decide to buy new cars. They have learned that

A. meeting the expectations of men during the new-car purchasing process is more difficult than meeting those of women.

 

B. men make the majority of new-car purchasing decisions.

 

C. women and men think differently about the new-car buying experience.

 

D. women care more about quality than men.

 

E. men care more about price than women.

 

4. Which of the following statements about how women buy new cars today is most accurate?

A. Women have definite likes or dislikes when buying a new car, but they don’t feel comfortable expressing their opinions.

 

B. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process.

 

C. The issue of “speed” is an important factor to men but not really important to women.

 

D. Women are more likely to make their new-car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative than from promotional information.

 

E. Women care more about exterior styles and lines and men are more concerned with cargo space and gas mileage.

 

5. Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is most accurate?

A. For women, safety is about features that would help survive an accident.

 

B. Women have definite likes or dislikes when buying a car, but they don’t feel comfortable expressing their opinions.

 

C. When it comes to the actual purchase process, women are more adept negotiators than men.

 

D. Women care more about exterior styles and lines and men are more concerned with cargo space and gas mileage.

 

E. Women usually shop one dealership before making a decision and men usually shop three.

 

6. Many automobile dealerships employ a nonnegotiable or no-haggle price strategy to sell their cars. A customer who wants to buy a new or used car would pay the posted price. These dealers probably adopted this pricing policy because

A. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices.

 

B. women have an intense dislike of price negotiation, yet still want to buy a car.

 

C. many recent immigrants into the United States are not accustomed to negotiation.

 

D. women distrust men in general and car salesmen in particular.

 

E. a sluggish economy guarantees that negotiations would produce negative profit per vehicle.

 

7. The actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions, are referred to as

A. purchase intentions.

 

B. market research.

 

C. consumer behavior.

 

D. consumer conduct.

 

E. purchase protocols.

 

8. Consumer behavior refers to

A. the aspects of a consumer’s decision making processes that cannot be measured.

 

B. the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.

 

C. the five stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which product and service to investigate, purchase, and consume.

 

D. the mental and social processes related to purchasing that are innate in a person from birth.

 

E. those purchasing behaviors that result from (1) repeated experience and (2) reasoning.

 

9. Consumer behavior includes the actions a person takes in purchasing services and using products and services, including

A. the physical effort spent on these actions.

 

B. the financial limitations one must overcome to accomplish these actions.

 

C. the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.

 

D. the emotional processes that occur during these actions.

 

E. the cognitive and attitudinal processes that must be learned to complete these actions.

 

10. The five stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the

A. information decision process.

 

B. purchase decision process.

 

C. alternative evaluation process.

 

D. postpurchase behavior process.

 

E. problem recognition process.

 

11. The initial stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

 

12. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The first stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity identification.

 

E. problem recognition.

 

13. The second stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves searching for information, which may include an internal search and/or an external search. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

 

14. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The second stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity identification.

 

E. problem recognition.

 

15. The third stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves evaluating brands in the consideration set based on the evaluative criteria (both objective and subjective) identified during the information search step for the ultimate decision. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

 

16. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The third stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity testing.

 

E. problem recognition.

 

17. The fourth stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves deciding from whom to buy and when to buy so that the purchase decision can be made. What is this stage called?

A. purchase indecision

 

B. prepurchase evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

 

18. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The fourth stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. option testing.

 

E. problem recognition.

 

19. The fifth stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves comparing the product or service purchased by buyers with their expectations to determine whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

 

20. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The fifth stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. postpurchase behavior.

 

E. problem recognition.

 

21. Perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. option identification

 

22. Scanning memory for previous experiences and also exploring the external environment represent which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. financial consideration

 

23. Clarifying the problem for the consumer represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. financial consideration

 

24. A simultaneous evaluation of both product attributes and seller characteristics represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. financial transaction

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

25. A comparison with expectations and an evaluation as satisfied or dissatisfied represent which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. financial transaction

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

26. The point at which you would exchange money for a sandwich of corned beef on rye is in the ____________ stage.

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. option identification

 

27. Perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations that is big enough to trigger a decision is called

A. problem recognition.

 

B. alternative evaluation.

 

C. cognitive dissonance.

 

D. routine response behavior.

 

E. postpurchase behavior.

 

28. During the consumer purchase decision process, an individual at the __________ stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision.

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. cognitive dissonance

 

D. information search

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

29. When Aurelia looked in her closet and said, “I don’t have anything to wear to the party this weekend,” she seems to be in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

30. When the marketing student said, “It’s really hard for me to get to class on time without a car,” she was entering which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

31. Jamie goes shopping with a friend and notices her friend’s durable ripstop nylon wallet. She thinks of her own worn wallet and realizes she needs a new one. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Jamie when she had this realization?

A. information search

 

B. problem recognition

 

C. purchase behavior

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. prepurchase cognition

 

32. Glow Pets, from the makers of Pillow Pets, are a light-up pillow product designed for young children. The pillows are colorful animals that produce a soft light for 20 minutes at a time and were produced for children with a fear of the dark. As a result, the company aired some ads on various TV programs showing children being comforted and sleeping restfully with a Glow Pet, making parents and kids alike desire such a situation. The content of the advertising’s message most likely focuses on which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

33. Amanda plans to go for a run after her classes are over. As she is lacing up her running shoes, she notices that one of the shoe’s seams is unraveling, and she thinks it is about time for a new pair. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is Amanda at that moment?

A. information search

 

B. problem recognition

 

C. purchase behavior

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. prepurchase cognition

 

34. In marketing, advertisements or salespeople can activate a consumer’s purchase decision process by

A. creating a sense of fear or guilt.

 

B. manipulating a customer’s want into a need.

 

C. promising product attributes that exceed the actual product potential.

 

D. showing the shortcomings of competing (or currently owned) products.

 

E. shifting the consumer’s focus from internal search to external search.

 

35. Scanning your memory for previous experiences with products or brands occurs during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

 

36. Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

 

37. “Which brand of smartphone does my roommate own?” would be a question asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process.

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. comparison

 

38. In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask, “How much can I afford to spend on a new 42-inch LED HDTV?”

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. evaluation

 

E. information search

 

39. You have determined you want to buy an advanced hybrid vehicle, and a visit to Ford’s website has revealed that the Ford Fusion Hybrid SE uses hybrid fuel technology with the latest in lithium-ion battery technology. You are currently in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process for this type of automobile?

A. problem recognition

 

B. needs analysis

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. information search

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

 

40. Scanning your memory for previous experiences with products or brands is called

A. problem recognition.

 

B. alternative evaluation.

 

C. cognitive dissonance.

 

D. internal search.

 

E. external search.

 

41. A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memories for previous experiences with products or brands.

A. problem recognition

 

B. internal search

 

C. external search

 

D. purchase task

 

E. antecedent state

 

42. When an elementary school teacher was returning to school in the fall, she wanted to buy markers and craft paper. She remembered the discount website she visited last year for her purchases, so she’ll start there to see if the website still carries the items previously purchased. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher?

A. personal external source

 

B. public external source

 

C. market-dominated external source

 

D. internal search

 

E. market-dominated internal source

 

43. Casey’s girlfriend will celebrate her birthday next week, so he needs to buy her a gift. He remembers the brand of watch that she wears and considers if she would like a new one by the same maker. This is an example of what part of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. recollection search

 

B. external search

 

C. evaluative criteria

 

D. antecedent states

 

E. internal search

 

44. Bob’s best friend Mike turns 25 next week. Bob decided to purchase Mike a tablet device/e-book reader as a present. Because Bob has purchased three personal computers and other consumer electronic devices over the past five years, he scanned his memory for various brand options. This is an example of what part of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. recollection search

 

B. external search

 

C. evaluative criteria

 

D. antecedent states

 

E. internal search

 

45. A mother of two toddlers would primarily use an internal search of her prior experiences with products and brands when purchasing

A. a gift for her babysitter.

 

B. an iPhone.

 

C. disposable diapers.

 

D. a swing set.

 

E. a weekend getaway.

 

46. Julie is an avid mystery reader and her babysitter Tina has been borrowing some of her books over the summer. When Tina’s birthday approaches, Julie wants to buy her a good mystery. When Julie was trying to recall her favorite mystery authors, she was engaged in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. an external search.

 

D. a purchase task.

 

E. the precognition of an antecedent state.

 

47. A(n) __________ for information is needed when past experience or knowledge is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

A. external search

 

B. cognitive search

 

C. alternative search

 

D. internal search

 

E. postpurchase search

 

48. An external search for product information is likely to occur when

A. the cost of gathering information is low.

 

B. review of past experience provides adequate information.

 

C. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low.

 

D. the item is frequently purchased.

 

E. the item is for personal use rather than for professional use.

 

49. When past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low, a consumer is more likely to use an __________ for information.

A. internal search

 

B. informal search

 

C. expert directed search

 

D. external search

 

E. experiential search

 

50. Emily wants to purchase a tablet device. She is unsure about what hardware and apps she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from her friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several salespeople at Apple and Best Buy and has looked at some websites, such as HP and Dell. Emily is engaging in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. an external search.

 

D. a purchase task.

 

E. the creation of an antecedent state.

 

51. Nico wants to buy a new digital camera for his semester studying abroad but he knows very little about cameras, having never owned one. As a result, he has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, he has talked to salespeople at a Wolf camera shop and Best Buy and he has looked at some websites. Nico is engaging in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. the purchase decision.

 

D. an external search.

 

E. the creation of an antecedent state.

 

52. Relatives and friends whom the consumer trusts are known as __________ sources of external information.

A. relational

 

B. marketer-dominated

 

C. personal

 

D. stakeholder

 

E. public

 

53. When conducting an information search, various product-rating organizations, such as government agencies and TV consumer programs, are known as

A. relational sources.

 

B. marketer-dominated sources.

 

C. personal sources.

 

D. public sources.

 

E. stakeholder sources.

 

54. An example of a public source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. advertising.

 

B. relatives.

 

C. salespeople.

 

D. friends.

 

E. product-rating organizations.

 

55. An example of a public source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. People magazine advertising.

 

B. Consumer Reports magazine.

 

C. a salesperson at the Apple Store.

 

D. your brother-in-law.

 

E. a point of purchase display at Target.

 

56. There are various nonprofit publications dedicated to assisting in consumer education and decision making. Examples of these public sources of information for an external information search include Consumer Reports, __________, and TV consumer programs.

A. advertisements

 

B. sales personnel

 

C. friends and relatives

 

D. government agencies

 

E. point-of-purchase displays

 

57. Sources of external information that originate with the sellers of products and services and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores are referred to as

A. relational sources.

 

B. public sources.

 

C. personal sources.

 

D. stakeholder sources.

 

E. marketer-dominated sources.

 

58. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. previous ownership of a product.

 

B. a Better Business Bureau rating.

 

C. a product display in a retail store.

 

D. a consumer program on talk radio.

 

E. your mother.

 

59. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. personal experience.

 

B. salespeople.

 

C. consumer programs on talk radio stations.

 

D. friends and relatives.

 

E. Consumer Reports magazine.

 

60. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. advertising.

 

B. personal experience.

 

C. Consumer Reports magazine.

 

D. consumer programs on talk radio stations.

 

E. friends and relatives.

 

61. Which of the following is not an example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search?

A. advertising

 

B. point-of-purchase displays

 

C. Consumer Reports magazine

 

D. company salespeople

 

E. company websites

 

62. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by __________, yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and developing the consumer value perception that each alternative presents.

A. evaluating particular products

 

B. selecting the type of purchase outlet

 

C. suggesting criteria to use for the purchase

 

D. minimizing cognitive dissonance

 

E. establishing a purchase timeline

 

63. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, __________, and developing consumer value perceptions.

A. evaluating particular products

 

B. selecting the type of purchase outlet

 

C. establishing a purchase timeline

 

D. minimizing cognitive dissonance

 

E. yielding brand names that might meet the criteria

 

64. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and

A. developing consumer value perceptions.

 

B. evaluating particular products.

 

C. selecting the type of retail outlet.

 

D. establishing a purchase timeline.

 

E. creating a hierarchy of needs.

 

65. Sanaa recently made partner at her law firm, and she is rewarding herself with the purchase of a new car. She told a co-worker, “The Volvo has nine airbags but the Cadillac drives so smoothly.” Sanaa is currently in which stage of the purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

 

66. The objective and subjective attributes of a brand that consumers use to compare different products and brands are referred to as

A. temporal states.

 

B. antecedent states.

 

C. information sources.

 

D. evaluative criteria.

 

E. the consideration set.

 

67. Evaluative criteria refer to

A. the objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products and brands.

 

B. those attributes of a brand that are based exclusively on objective criteria in order to make an unbiased purchase decision.

 

C. those attributes of a brand that are based exclusively on subjective criteria in order to avoid postpurchase anxiety.

 

D. the attributes of a product that a manufacturer wishes to promote to a specific target market.

 

E. a list of required product attributes from which a customer will not waver regardless of additional incentives.

 

68. Which of the following statements concerning evaluative criteria is most accurate?

A. If the alternatives in a consideration set do not meet the requirements of the evaluative criteria, the entire decision process is usually discontinued.

 

B. Consumers often have several criteria for evaluating a single product.

 

C. Evaluative criteria represent objective rather than subjective attributes.

 

D. Evaluative criteria represent subjective rather than objective attributes.

 

E. Ultimately, the most important evaluative criterion is price.

 

69. When purchasing a tablet device, factors a consumer considers prior to purchase are called __________, which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones used to compare different products and brands.

A. points of difference

 

B. informational alternatives

 

C. buying-decision choices

 

D. evaluative criteria

 

E. consumer attributes

 

70. The Ford Fusion Hybrid SE uses hybrid fuel technology with the latest in lithium-ion battery technology to deliver more power, convenience, prestige, and fuel economy than non-hybrid cars. These attributes listed for the Ford Fusion Hybrid SE are those that consumers may consider when assessing the car. If they do, these attributes would be considered

A. points of difference.

 

B. informational alternatives.

 

C. evaluative criteria.

 

D. competitive advantages.

 

E. consumer attributes.

 

71. The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is referred to as the

A. evaluative set.

 

B. evolved set.

 

C. consideration set.

 

D. alternative selection group.

 

E. aspiration group.

 

72. A consideration set refers to

A. the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.

 

B. the group of generic brands that a consumer would reluctantly consider acceptable.

 

C. the group of brands of which a consumer is aware.

 

D. all possible competitive product substitutes that may satisfy a consumer’s needs regardless of the product class.

 

E. those product alternatives a consumer has considered, including those deemed unacceptable.

 

73. The BMW StreetCarver is a $495 skateboard that features BMW’s technology in its wheel suspension, which stabilizes the board’s sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. BMW wants its skateboard to be within the consideration set of potential skateboard buyers. In this case, it will most likely focus on

A. reducing the postpurchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product.

 

B. making sure its representatives attend sporting events such as ESPN’s X-Games to get new product ideas.

 

C. making appeals directed toward motivational ego needs.

 

D. explaining the stability and control aspects of the StreetCarver in its advertising messages.

 

E. creating personality profiles for skateboarders.

 

74. In recent ratings from independent rating agencies for selected smartphone brands and models, a number of factors are listed, such as price, display, audio quality, text messaging, web capability, and camera quality. These factors are the typical __________ for smartphones.

A. consideration sets

 

B. evaluative criteria

 

C. value propositions

 

D. quality considerations

 

E. core benefits

 

75. Independent agencies provide ratings of many products. A typical report on smartphones includes brands such as Apple, HTC, LG, Motorola, and Samsung. These brands are referred to as the __________ when consumers use these smartphone ratings to evaluate the products.

A. consideration set

 

B. evaluative criteria

 

C. points of difference

 

D. value propositions

 

E. core benefits

 

76. Once a consumer has completed the alternative evaluation stage of the consumer purchase decision process, the two remaining choices are

A. which product to buy and how to pay for it.

 

B. whether to buy one or several if a BOGO deal is offered and how to pay for them.

 

C. from whom to buy and when to buy.

 

D. which product to buy and whether to tell others about the purchase.

 

E. whether to buy in person or online and whether to tell others about the purchase.

 

77. All of the following would impact your decision about when to buy an offering except

A. the manufacturer is currently offering a $25 rebate.

 

B. you don’t have the money now and don’t get paid until Friday.

 

C. the product is on sale.

 

D. the store is closing in 10 minutes.

 

E. the retailer’s return policy is very relaxed.

 

78. Charlie was standing outside his classroom talking on the phone when a friend heard him say, “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. I’d like to order the 32-gigabyte iPad. I’ll pick it up today at the Southdale Apple Store. Can I use the easy pay plan?” Charlie was in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

 

79. At the __________ of the consumer purchase decision process, a consumer compares the product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied.

A. problem recognition stage

 

B. information search stage

 

C. alternative evaluation stage

 

D. purchase decision stage

 

E. postpurchase stage

 

80. Sensitivity to consumers’ consumption or use experience, whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied, is extremely important in their

A. consideration set assessment.

 

B. prepurchase behavior.

 

C. evaluative criteria selection.

 

D. value perceptions.

 

E. information search.

 

81. Firms such as General Electric, Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, and British Airways focus their attention on __________ to maximize customer satisfaction and retention in part by offering training to handle complaints, answer questions, and solve consumer problems.

A. value perception

 

B. postpurchase behavior

 

C. noncompetitive pricing

 

D. comparison pricing

 

E. prepurchase behavior

 

82. Claire has just told her best friend, “I’m so glad I bought the Samsung Galaxy S6 rather than those other smartphones I was considering. Look at this incredible display, and the battery stays charged forever.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process does Claire’s conversation identify?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase behavior

 

83. Customer satisfaction is an important focus for marketers because

A. marketing research is an expensive proposition; the fewer times it needs to be done, the better off the company is.

 

B. the financial value of a satisfied, loyal customer over time can be significant.

 

C. consumers are unable to assess it by themselves.

 

D. attracting new customers is easier than keeping old ones.

 

E. a 50 percent increase in customer retention can increase a company’s profits by 5 percent.

 

84. Firms such as Ford and Frito-Lay have learned which of the following marketing lessons?

A. It is a lot easier to find new customers than to retain existing ones.

 

B. According to research, it is equally costly to acquire new customers and retain existing ones.

 

C. Existing customers do not spend as much as new customers since the former like the old products rather than the new ones new customers like.

 

D. The buying experience, customer satisfaction, and customer retention can increase a firm’s profits.

 

E. Unless a marketing promotion to retain customer loyalty can increase market share by at least 5 percent, it is not worth the expenditure.

 

85. The feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives is referred to as

A. angst.

 

B. the temporal state.

 

C. the dissociative state.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. cognitive dissonance.

 

86. Cognitive dissonance refers to

A. feelings of guilt for purchasing a product or service that was not consistent with a consumer’s moral or ethical beliefs.

 

B. feelings of discomfort associated with purchasing something purely for the sake of prestige.

 

C. the feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives.

 

D. feelings of discontent after a purchase has been made when the product fails to perform up to expectations.

 

E. feelings of discontent before a purchase has been made when the customer finds out that he or she paid more for the product than necessary.

 

87. Rackspace U.S. Inc. is a web hosting company. If you want to have a website, you can buy Internet space as well as technical support and design services from the company. When its ad tells you that its users consider Rackspace “the risk-free host because it offers dedicated and helpful support any time day or night,” you know that Rackspace is most likely trying to do which of the following?

A. Identify its core values.

 

B. Reduce new buyers’ cognitive dissonance.

 

C. Increase new buyers’ cognitive dissonance.

 

D. Produce a consideration set.

 

E. Evoke problem recognition.

 

88. You have just purchased an iPad Mini 4 tablet device. As you head home from the store, you brood about whether your choice was right or whether you should have bought a Galaxy Tab S2 after seeing an ad for it on TV. This is most likely an example of

A. indecisiveness.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. postpurchase stress.

 

D. market anxiety.

 

E. extended problem solving.

 

89. How would consumers who purchased a new and innovative Nike LeBron X basketball shoe for $315 try to reduce any cognitive dissonance they feel?

A. Limit their information search to an internal one.

 

B. Minimize problem solving involvement.

 

C. Read ads for the new basketball shoe even after the purchase has been made.

 

D. Conceal the product purchase from others.

 

E. If the shoe is comfortable and gives the requisite support, there will be no cognitive dissonance.

 

90. Stephan was excited about his newly purchased laptop. It had all the features he wanted and was really fast with a great display for his gaming. In addition, the $1,200 price tag was reasonable. The same day he took it out of the box, he saw an online special for a similar computer, on sale for only $1,000. Suddenly he began to doubt his purchase decision and worried that maybe he hadn’t gotten such a good deal. Stephan was most likely experiencing

A. limited problem solving.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. selective discord.

 

D. product conflict.

 

E. product uncertainty.

 

91. The personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer, which is known as the level of __________, may cause him or her to skip or minimize one or more stages in the consumer purchase decision process.

A. aspiration

 

B. cognitive dissonance

 

C. motivation

 

D. situational influences

 

E. involvement

 

92. Involvement refers to

A. the external influences that affect a consumer’s purchase.

 

B. the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.

 

C. the level of difficulty involved in making a purchase.

 

D. the total number of people involved in the actual exchange process.

 

E. the time, energy, and personal investment that will be required to use a product.

 

93. High-involvement purchases typically have which of the following sets of characteristics?

A. The item is inexpensive, widely available, or simple to use.

 

B. The item is inexpensive, very safe to use, or purchased with great frequency.

 

C. The item is expensive, new to the market, or recommended by influential personal sources.

 

D. The item is expensive, can have serious personal consequences, or could reflect on one’s social image.

 

E. The item is inexpensive, new to the market, or is used for more than five years.

 

94. For high-involvement purchases, consumers typically do all of the following except

A. spend considerable time evaluating criteria for the consideration set.

 

B. participate in word-of-mouth communication.

 

C. evaluate a single product attribute, such as price.

 

D. consider many brands.

 

E. use both internal and external sources in information search.

 

95. NetJets is a company that offers one-sixteenth or more ownership in a jet plane for a price beginning at $325,000. It gives purchasers privacy, convenience, and flexibility as well as saves them time since the plane is available within four hours unless it’s booked by one of the other shareholders. This is most likely an example of

A. a medium-involvement purchase that involves limited problem solving.

 

B. a high-involvement purchase that involves routine problem solving.

 

C. a high-involvement purchase that involves extended problem solving.

 

D. a low-involvement purchase that involves limited problem solving.

 

E. a low-involvement purchase that involves extended problem solving.

 

96. Which of the following products and services is an example of a low-involvement purchase?

A. a Louis Vuitton designer handbag

 

B. a Trek bicycle

 

C. membership into a local country club

 

D. a vacation to Italy

 

E. Biolage shampoo

 

97. Lexi wants to find the perfect gift for her older sister’s college graduation. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of weeks to find a gift her sister will use and like. Lexi is engaging in

A. routine problem solving.

 

B. limited problem solving.

 

C. extended problem solving.

 

D. problem recognition.

 

E. integrated problem solving.

 

98. In __________, consumers typically seek only a few information sources about several sellers and their brands, and they may identify and evaluate a moderate number of attributes for each brand that eventually will comprise the consideration set.

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. short-term problem solving

 

D. routine problem solving

 

E. relational problem solving

 

99. Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing, sheets, towels, or electric can openers?

A. routine response behavior

 

B. limited problem solving

 

C. extended problem solving

 

D. simulated selection

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

100. Which problem solving variation would typically be used for blenders, a restaurant for lunch, or professional ball game tickets?

A. routine response behavior

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. simulated selection

 

D. integrated problem solving

 

E. limited problem solving

 

101. Elizabeth has decided to purchase a new electric juicer and plans to call several friends for the latest information about alternative brands. She is not concerned about where she buys it as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. In making her decision, Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving variations?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. alternative problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

102. Danilo has decided to purchase a new video game console, not having owned one before. He calls his gamer friends for recommendations about alternative brands and options. He has few concerns about the purchase but wants a quick rundown of the most important aspects to consider. In making his decision, Danilo seems likely to engage in which of the following problem solving variations?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. alternative problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

103. Consumers spend little time and effort evaluating alternatives in the purchase of table salt and milk. The consumer purchase decision process for such staples involves __________, which is virtually a habit and typifies low-involvement decision making.

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. situational problem solving

 

D. rational problem solving

 

E. routine problem solving

 

104. Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase items such as cereal or laundry detergent?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. situational problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

105. Jenn needed to have another set of keys made for her apartment so she went to Home Depot to have it done since she remembered her dad going there. This is an example of

A. limited problem solving.

 

B. extended problem solving.

 

C. situational problem solving.

 

D. routine problem solving.

 

E. integrated problem solving.

 

106. Between classes, many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bars and soft drinks. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. These college students are most likely involved in __________ problem solving purchase situations.

A. limited

 

B. routine

 

C. extensive

 

D. intensive

 

E. unlimited

 

107. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following involves all five stages of the purchase decision process and considerable time and effort?

A. consideration set

 

B. routine problem solving

 

C. limited problem solving

 

D. extended problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

108. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following is appropriate for purchase situations that do not merit a great deal of time or effort?

A. consideration set

 

B. routine problem solving

 

C. limited problem solving

 

D. extended problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

109. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following is virtually a habit?

A. routine problem solving

 

B. limited problem solving

 

C. extended problem solving

 

D. simulated selection

 

E. integrated problem solving

 

110. Which of the following is a strategy for a market leader (rather than a market challenger) when marketing a low-involvement product?

A. Use sales promotion such as free samples, coupons, and rebates to encourage trial of the brand.

 

B. Link the brand attributes with high-involvement issues.

 

C. Use Internet search engines such as Google to assist buyers.

 

D. Use advertising messages that focus on getting the brand into a consumer’s consideration set.

 

E. Use repetitive advertising messages that reinforce a consumer’s knowledge or assure buyers they made the right choice.

 

111. The purchase of bottled water is a low-involvement purchase. How can a market leader such as Perrier keep people buying its brand instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers’ shelves?

A. Avoid Perrier brand stock-outs on retailers’ shelves.

 

B. Make the purchase decision a high-involvement one.

 

C. Offer coupons for Perrier bottled water.

 

D. Convince retailers to offer only Perrier water.

 

E. Denigrate its competition.

 

112. Which of the following is not a strategy used by marketers of high-involvement offerings?

A. Use personal selling to provide consumers with information.

 

B. Use social media to create online experiences for the brand.

 

C. Avoid stock-out situations so that buyers don’t substitute a competing brand.

 

D. Use Internet search engines such as Google to assist buyers.

 

E. Run ads to provide consumers with information.

 

113. Purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states can have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. These are referred to as

A. marketing mix influences.

 

B. situational influences.

 

C. psychological influences.

 

D. sociocultural influences.

 

E. evaluative criteria.

 

114. Situational influences refer to

A. the five aspects of the purchase situation that impact the consumer purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

B. the temporary impediments to a consumer’s purchase decision.

 

C. psychological concepts that are useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts.

 

D. the feelings of postpurchase anxiety that can arise from a number of different factors including social surroundings, physical surroundings, psychological effects, and precedent states.

 

E. both the objective and subjective attributes a consumer uses to compare different products and brands.

 

115. All of the following are situational influences that can have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process except

A. physical surroundings.

 

B. purchase task.

 

C. temporal effects.

 

D. consumer involvement.

 

E. antecedent states.

 

116. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are __________, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. core values

 

C. perception

 

D. consumer socialization

 

E. purchase task

 

117. When a man picks up a bottle of wine and tells the salesclerk, “I’m taking this to a dinner party tonight,” which situational influence is being demonstrated?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

 

118. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, __________, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. motivation

 

C. core values

 

D. brand loyalty

 

E. social surroundings

 

119. Consumers accompanied by children

A. purchase twice as much as they normally would if shopping with other adults.

 

B. purchase about 40 percent more than when shopping alone.

 

C. purchase 40 less than they normally would if shopping with their spouses.

 

D. spend 40 percent less than when shopping alone.

 

E. spend exactly the same amount as when shopping alone.

 

120. Three teenage girls spent an hour at a store trying on various outfits, looking at possible combinations, and asking each other, “How do you think this looks on me?” This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

 

121. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, social surroundings, __________, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. physical surroundings

 

C. core values

 

D. motivation

 

E. economic effects

 

122. Which of the following is not part of the physical surroundings of a retail store that can influence how purchase decisions are made?

A. decor

 

B. crowding

 

C. lighting

 

D. music

 

E. time of day

 

123. The crowded aisles in retail stores at holiday time may cause some shoppers to lose patience and decide on their purchases with far less thought than they otherwise would due to being “harried” and uncomfortable. This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. spatial surroundings

 

124. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, __________, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. core values

 

C. motivation

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. economic effects

 

125. Temporal effects include

A. the purpose of the purchase.

 

B. the presence of other people.

 

C. the time of day of the purchase.

 

D. the crowding in retail stores.

 

E. the consumer’s mood while engaged in the purchase.

 

126. Many consumers buy a subscription to The Wall Street Journal and have it delivered to their homes by 5:30 a.m. so that they can read it during breakfast. This purchase is an example of which situational influence?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

 

127. Rob only has 30 minutes for lunch, so he typically goes somewhere within a block or two of his building and is careful about what he orders. This is an example of which situational influence in the purchase decision process?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

 

128. Consumers with credit cards

A. are less influenced by physical surrounding than those who pay by cash or check.

 

B. are influenced to a certain extent by a retailer’s physical surroundings to buy more with their credit cards than with cash.

 

C. purchase more than those who purchase with cash or debit cards.

 

D. purchase less than those who purchase with cash or debit cards.

 

E. purchase less when accompanied by children than when in the company of other adults.

 

129. The American Floral Council used an ad that showed three flower arrangements varying in size from a single rose to a very large elaborate arrangement. The caption simply read, “Just how mad is she?” This ad relies on which of the following situational influences for its effectiveness?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. psychological effects

 

E. antecedent states

 

130. The __________ influences that can affect the consumer purchase decision process help explain why and how consumers behave as they do.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. sociocultural

 

E. marketing mix

 

131. The four Ps are elements of the __________ influences that can affect the consumer purchase decision process.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. environmental

 

D. marketing mix

 

E. market-dominated

 

132. The __________ influences are those that evolve from a consumer’s formal and informal relationships with other people.

A. sociocultural

 

B. economic

 

C. environmental

 

D. situational

 

E. market-dominated

 

133. The __________ influences are those present in the purchase situation, which will affect the purchase decision process.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. sociocultural

 

E. marketing mix

 

134. The ________________ is influenced by situational, psychological, sociocultural, and marketing mix influences.

A. consumer purchase decision process

 

B. organizational buying decision process

 

C. marketing research process

 

D. marketing program

 

E. consumer socialization process

 

135. Sociocultural influences that affect the consumer purchase decision process include all of the following except

A. personal influence.

 

B. reference groups.

 

C. family.

 

D. culture and subculture.

 

E. values, beliefs, and attitudes.

 

136. The energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need is referred to as

A. a personality.

 

B. an antecedent state.

 

C. a motivation.

 

D. a cognitive dissonance.

 

E. a perception.

 

137. Motivation refers to

A. the stimulus required to cause a consumer to do something uncharacteristic of himself.

 

B. the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a consumer need.

 

C. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

D. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

 

E. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

138. Which list below presents the Maslow hierarchy of needs in its correct order, beginning with the lowest level need and moving up to the highest level need?

A. personal, social, physiological, psychological, and safety

 

B. physiological, safety, social, personal, and self-actualization

 

C. safety, physiological, safety, self-actualization, and personal

 

D. self-actualization, social, safety, physiological, and personal

 

E. safety, personal, self-actualization, physiological, and social

 

139. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are basic to survival and must be satisfied first are referred to as

A. physiological needs.

 

B. safety needs.

 

C. social needs.

 

D. personal needs.

 

E. self-actualization needs.

 

140. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, water, food, and oxygen would be considered __________ needs.

A. psychological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. physiological

 

141. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, __________ needs involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being.

A. physiological

 

B. social

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. self-actualization

 

142. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, a burglar alarm would satisfy a __________ need.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

143. An ad for Conesco’s life insurance asks the question, “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological needs

 

B. safety needs

 

C. social needs

 

D. personal needs

 

E. self-actualization needs

 

144. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are referred to as __________ needs.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

145. eHarmony claims to be the world’s most trusted online dating website. Its appeal is to satisfy consumers’ __________ needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs.

A. physiological

 

B. personal

 

C. interaction

 

D. social

 

E. psychological

 

146. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect are referred to as __________ needs.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. personal

 

D. social

 

E. self-actualization

 

147. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs involving personal fulfillment are called

A. physiological.

 

B. safety.

 

C. social.

 

D. personal.

 

E. self-actualization.

 

148. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs are physiological, followed by safety, social, and personal. What category of needs is at the highest level?

A. intellectual needs

 

B. emotional needs

 

C. self-actualization needs

 

D. religious needs

 

E. psychological needs

 

149. An Acura automobile ad is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau, “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams.” This ad is most likely to appeal to consumer’s __________ needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs.

A. physiological

 

B. personal

 

C. psychological

 

D. social

 

E. self-actualization

 

150. The long-running U.S. Army recruiting advertisement that invited enlistees to “Be All You Can Be” appeals to which Maslow hierarchy of needs level?

A. physiological needs

 

B. self-actualization needs

 

C. safety needs

 

D. social needs

 

E. personal needs

 

151. Those needs that are basic to survival are which level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

152. A high-end credit card company would appeal to what level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

153. Dating services, such as Match.com and eHarmony, and fragrance companies would try to appeal to what level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

154. Smoke detector and burglar alarm manufacturers focus on appeals to which needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

 

155. At times firms try to _________________________ to stimulate problem recognition.

A. avoid appealing to physiological needs

 

B. avoid appealing to safety needs

 

C. avoid appealing to social needs

 

D. avoid appealing to personal needs

 

E. arouse multiple needs

 

156. Self-fulfillment in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of the highest-order needs referred to as

A. physiological needs.

 

B. social needs.

 

C. safety needs.

 

D. personal needs.

 

E. self-actualization needs.

 

157. Status in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

 

158. Friendship in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

 

159. Shelter in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

 

160. Food in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

 

161. The Maslow __________ is based on the idea that motivation comes from a need.

A. motivation for preservation

 

B. products pyramid

 

C. hierarchy of needs

 

D. ladder of effects

 

E. psychosocial influences

 

162. A college education would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

 

163. Staying at a luxury hotel would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

 

164. Chanel No. 5 fragrances would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

 

165. State Farm insurance products would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

 

166. An apartment would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

 

167. A person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations is referred to as

A. motivation.

 

B. core values.

 

C. culture.

 

D. perception.

 

E. personality.

 

168. Personality refers to

A. the attitudes that determine how people spend their time and resources and what they consider important.

 

B. the way people see themselves and others.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful ideal self.

 

D. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

E. those qualities that either attract or repel other members of a person’s personal, social, or professional environment.

 

169. Which of the following statements about personality is most accurate?

A. Personality is dynamic and typically changes several times as a person matures.

 

B. Most personality traits are inherited or formed at an early age.

 

C. Personality is the energizing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful.

 

D. Most personality traits are formed during adulthood and don’t change thereafter.

 

E. People with compliant personalities prefer lesser known brand names.

 

170. Enduring characteristics within a person or in his or her relationship with others are referred to as

A. a key trait.

 

B. a persona.

 

C. a self-concept.

 

D. a core value.

 

E. an ideal self.

 

171. The way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them is referred to as

A. self-evaluation.

 

B. self-concept.

 

C. self-actualization.

 

D. individualized perception.

 

E. personal perception.

 

172. Self-concept refers to

A. the degree to which a person is influenced by situational influences.

 

B. the need for personal fulfillment.

 

C. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

 

D. the degree to which a person trusts his or her own judgment in a purchase situation.

 

E. the way people see others and the way they believe others see other people.

 

173. Marketers recognize that people have an actual self-concept and

A. a persona determined by their peers.

 

B. a persona determined by psychology.

 

C. an abstract self-concept.

 

D. an ideal self-concept.

 

E. an inconsistent self-concept.

 

174. When the state of Virginia touts the slogan “Virginia is for Lovers,” it is trying to appeal to people’s __________ in order to attract them as potential residents, part of its workforce, or vacationers.

A. self-concept

 

B. individualized perception

 

C. self-evaluation

 

D. self-actualization

 

E. personal perception

 

175. The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world is referred to as

A. motivation.

 

B. attitude formation.

 

C. learning.

 

D. perception.

 

E. a self-concept.

 

176. Perception refers to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them.

 

E. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

 

177. A filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention is called

A. selective attention.

 

B. selective perception.

 

C. selective intuition.

 

D. selective retention.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

178. Because the average consumer operates in a complex environment, the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective attention.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

179. A palindrome is a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from the right or from the left (e.g., madam). Originally, Marshall had never recalled hearing the term. However, when he read about palindromes for his English class, he saw three examples of the term within a matter of days. This is most likely the result of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective attention.

 

C. selective intuition.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. selective perception.

 

180. The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with them is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

181. Selective exposure is most likely to occur during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

 

182. Because Marla was so strongly committed to a fat-free diet, she did not bother to read a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine suggesting that some fat in our diet is healthy. The report was in a newspaper that Marla reads daily, but the headline did not appeal to her as the result of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

183. Interpreting information so that it is consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective analysis.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

184. Toro introduced a small, lightweight snowblower called the Snow Pup. Even though the product worked, sales failed to meet expectations. Toro later found out that consumers perceived the name to mean that Snow Pup was a toy or too light to do any serious snow removal. When the product was renamed Snow Master, sales increased sharply. This is likely an example of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective analysis.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

 

185. As a result of __________, consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it.

A. selective retention

 

B. selective comprehension

 

C. selective exposure

 

D. selective perception

 

E. subliminal discrimination

 

186. Selective retention is most likely to occur during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

 

187. Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by

A. hiring well-known celebrities to sponsor their products.

 

B. adding more end-aisle and other point-of-purchase displays throughout the store.

 

C. providing brochures for consumers to take home.

 

D. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and a new selection of popular background music.

 

E. offering extended service warranties.

 

188. If you read the chapters from your marketing textbook the night before this test and still could not remember several of the correct marketing terms, you may be experiencing

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. subliminal perception.

 

189. The process of seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. subliminal perception.

 

C. selective perception.

 

D. selective attention.

 

E. indifference.

 

190. Subliminal perception refers to

A. the process of seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them.

 

B. a person’s innate ability to read nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

 

C. the ability of a person to understand the allegorical meanings behind words, sentences, or paragraphs communicated in writing or speech.

 

D. the process of being brainwashed to the point of acting in a way that is contrary to or inconsistent with one’s normal behavior.

 

E. the inability of a person to communicate due to lack of background knowledge or experience.

 

191. A movie theater owner embedded brief messages during trailers before showing the feature film. The messages, which flashed on the screen for such a short time that moviegoers were not consciously aware of them, urged consumers to “Drink Coke” and to “Eat Popcorn,” encouraging them to visit the snack lobby. Research has shown what about such messages?

A. Selective perception overrides advertising messages.

 

B. Selective exposure is difficult for marketers to surmount.

 

C. Subliminal messages have limited effects on behavior.

 

D. Subliminal perception enables marketers to motivate consumers to take an action.

 

E. Subliminal messages were deemed illegal by the Federal Trade Commission at the time these were shown in the movie theater.

 

192. Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is most accurate?

A. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) believes that subliminal perception can be effective with a large majority of consumers.

 

B. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States.

 

C. Subliminal messages are more effective now due to the advances in computer-generated images in movies and TV programs.

 

D. About half of U.S. consumers think that subliminal messages can cause them to buy products and services they don’t want.

 

E. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau.

 

193. The book The Secret Sales Pitch: An Overview of Subliminal Advertising is about subliminal messages, which reflect what kind of potential influence on the consumer decision making process?

A. sociocultural

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. acculturational

 

E. attitudinal

 

194. The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences is referred to as

A. a negative antecedent state.

 

B. perceived risk.

 

C. temporal uncertainty.

 

D. spatial uncertainty.

 

E. a positive precedent state.

 

195. Perceived risk is

A. an unmerited fear of being taken advantage of in an exchange situation.

 

B. the feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety that consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives.

 

C. the degree to which a seller is willing to make an exchange based upon a customer’s creditworthiness.

 

D. the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.

 

E. the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences.

 

196. The fear of physical harm, the size of financial outlay required to buy the product, product performance, and even the lack of approval of friends can all contribute to

A. consumer angst.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. purchase anxiety.

 

D. perceived risk.

 

E. consumer cynicism.

 

197. All of the following are marketing strategies designed to reduce consumers’ perceived risk and encourage purchases except

A. securing endorsements from influential people.

 

B. providing warranties and guarantees.

 

C. providing free trials of the product.

 

D. giving extensive usage instructions.

 

E. using subliminal advertising.

 

198. When Clorox uses the Good Housekeeping Seal for its Fresh Step cat litter, its strategy is to reduce a consumer’s __________ and encourage purchases.

A. consumer angst

 

B. cognitive dissonance

 

C. perceived risk

 

D. purchase anxiety

 

E. consumer cynicism

 

199. When Kia Motors offered a 10-year, 100,000-mile warranty for its Kia Soul automobile, its strategy was to reduce consumers’ __________ and encourage purchases.

A. behavioral learning

 

B. cognitive learning

 

C. brand loyalty

 

D. perceived risk

 

E. postpurchase dissonance

 

200. Kendall was excited to begin her new job after she graduated from college. Which of the following purchases would most likely have the greatest perceived risk for her the day before she begins the job?

A. a subscription to The Wall Street Journal

 

B. an outfit for her first day

 

C. a new coffeemaker

 

D. flowers to decorate her new apartment

 

E. running shoes

 

201. Those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning are referred to as

A. psychosocial edification.

 

B. acculturation.

 

C. attitudinal identification.

 

D. wisdom.

 

E. learning.

 

202. Learning refers to

A. content that has been transferred from short-term to long-term memory.

 

B. those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people.

 

E. a predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

203. The process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it is referred to as

A. perceptual learning.

 

B. retentive learning.

 

C. functional learning.

 

D. motivated learning.

 

E. behavioral learning.

 

204. All of the following variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience except

A. purchase.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. response.

 

D. drive.

 

E. cue.

 

205. You are sleepy before your 8 a.m. class and you notice the Starbucks on the walk to school. You stop for a drink and purchase something new that you really enjoy. The next day you do the same, and soon this has become a habit. This process is an example of

A. cognitive learning.

 

B. the scientific method.

 

C. behavioral learning.

 

D. attitude formation.

 

E. cognitive dissonance.

 

206. Recall the famous experiment when Dr. Pavlov presented salivating dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell. Eventually, when Pavlov only rang the bell, the dogs would still salivate even though food was not presented. What consumer behavior principle was involved in this research?

A. cognitive learning

 

B. the scientific method

 

C. behavioral learning

 

D. attitude formation

 

E. cognitive dissonance

 

207. In behavioral learning, a need that moves an individual to action is

A. a drive.

 

B. a cue.

 

C. an attitude.

 

D. a response.

 

E. a reinforcement.

 

208. One evening while watching TV, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, your hunger is a

A. reinforcement.

 

B. cue.

 

C. response.

 

D. prompt.

 

E. drive.

 

209. In behavioral learning, __________ is a stimulus or symbol perceived by consumers.

A. a drive

 

B. a cue

 

C. an attitude

 

D. a response

 

E. a reinforcement

 

210. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, seeing a TV ad for Subway is a

A. drive.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. cue.

 

D. response.

 

E. prompt.

 

211. You need to buy a gift for a young cousin’s birthday. You go to the mall and see a girl wearing a Hello Kitty T-shirt. You remember there is a store in the mall with a lot of Hello Kitty merchandise so you go there and buy a little backpack. When you give it to your cousin, she is very excited. In terms of behavioral learning, seeing the girl with the Hello Kitty shirt was a

A. drive.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. cue.

 

D. response.

 

E. prompt.

 

212. In behavioral learning, a __________ is the action taken by a consumer to satisfy a drive.

A. cue

 

B. demotivator

 

C. motivator

 

D. response

 

E. stimulus

 

213. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Jimmy John’s. You walk to Jimmy John’s and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, walking to the sandwich shop and buying a sandwich is a

A. drive.

 

B. response.

 

C. reinforcement.

 

D. cue.

 

E. prompt.

 

214. You need to buy a gift for a young cousin’s birthday. At the mall you see a girl wearing a Hello Kitty T-shirt. You remember there is a store nearby with a lot of Hello Kitty merchandise so you go there and buy a little backpack. When you give it to your cousin, she is very excited. In terms of behavioral learning, your purchase at the Hello Kitty store was a

A. drive.

 

B. response.

 

C. reinforcement.

 

D. cue.

 

E. prompt.

 

215. In behavioral learning, a __________ is the reward that is given to a consumer.

A. cue

 

B. stimulus

 

C. motivator

 

D. response

 

E. reinforcement

 

216. If a consumer tries a new coffee drink at Starbuck and hates it, which variable of behavioral learning has been ineffective?

A. reinforcement

 

B. achievement

 

C. drive

 

D. cue

 

E. response

 

217. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, the great taste of the sandwich is

A. a reinforcement.

 

B. an achievement.

 

C. a drive.

 

D. a cue.

 

E. a response.

 

218. ______________ occurs when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name for different products is an application of this concept.

A. Selective comprehension

 

B. Selective retention

 

C. Stimulus generalization

 

D. Stimulus discrimination

 

E. Routine problem solving

 

219. If McNeil Consumer Healthcare uses the same brand name for different products such as Tylenol Cold and Flu and Tylenol P.M. based on behavioral learning theory, this strategy is an example of

A. stimulus generalization.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective retention.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. routine problem solving.

 

220. Which of the following is a concept from behavioral learning theory that marketers use?

A. selective comprehension

 

B. selective retention

 

C. stimulus generalization

 

D. cognitive dissonance

 

E. routine problem solving

 

221. A person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli is referred to as

A. selective comprehension.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. stimulus generalization.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. routine problem solving.

 

222. Consumers’ ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. stimulus discrimination.

 

C. selective retention.

 

D. selective comprehension.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

 

223. Elsa contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheeses and those with regular fat content. Elsa is exhibiting

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. stimulus discrimination.

 

D. selective comprehension.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

 

224. Edison noticed that prices at a new video game rental website were lower than those at most of the other gaming websites or retail stores such as Game Stop. He is exhibiting

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. selective comprehension.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

 

225. Comparative advertising, in which one brand is compared to another, is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. Marketers who employ comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that their products are better than competitors’ offerings.

A. cognitive dissonance

 

B. selective retention

 

C. selective comprehension

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. stimulus discrimination

 

226. Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting one’s own behavior accordingly is known as what type of learning?

A. stimulus discrimination

 

B. cognitive learning

 

C. attitudinal learning

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. behavioral learning

 

227. When General Mills repeatedly advertises that a cake baked from a Betty Crocker mix tastes just like homemade, it is influencing which type of learning?

A. stimulus discrimination

 

B. brand loyalty

 

C. cognitive learning

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. behavioral learning

 

228. Advertising explains that the drug Plavix works by preventing plaque buildup in arteries that can cause heart attack and stroke. This is an example of

A. using a cognitive learning technique.

 

B. using a behavioral learning technique.

 

C. reducing perceived risk.

 

D. creating stimulus generalization.

 

E. using an attitudinal learning technique.

 

229. The back of a box of Hinode Harvest Blend rice mix suggests cooking with chicken broth for added flavor. This is an example of

A. using a behavioral learning technique.

 

B. reducing perceived risk.

 

C. creating stimulus generalization.

 

D. using a cognitive learning technique.

 

E. using an attitudinal learning technique.

 

230. Research has found that for many products, including soft drinks, coffee, and cosmetics, consumers are unable to distinguish among brands in blind tests (i.e., taste or other use of the products without labels). Nonetheless, even when prices are similar, consumers have strong preferences for specific brands. They may buy out of habit, which is the basis of

A. extended problem solving.

 

B. limited problem solving.

 

C. routine problem solving.

 

D. high-involvement problem solving.

 

E. personal problem solving.

 

231. A favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time is referred to as

A. stimulus generalization.

 

B. attitudinal discrimination.

 

C. brand loyalty.

 

D. behavioral loyalty.

 

E. consumer allegiance.

 

232. Brand loyalty refers to

A. the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.

 

B. a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.

 

C. a formalized agreement of a vendor to carry one brand over another because it views the quality of that brand to be superior to all others.

 

D. the willingness of consumers to try a new brand in a brand line based upon their satisfaction with other brands in the line.

 

E. the faith that other products manufactured by the same company with the same brand name will be of the same quality.

 

233. Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is most accurate?

A. Learning has little effect on brand loyalty because most habits are instinctual.

 

B. Brand loyalty increases the perceived risk associated with impulse purchases.

 

C. The incidence of brand loyalty is steadily rising in North America.

 

D. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions.

 

E. The best way to enhance brand loyalty is to brand all new products with the same brand name.

 

234. A learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way is referred to as

A. an attitude.

 

B. a belief.

 

C. a value.

 

D. a motivation.

 

E. a perception.

 

235. An attitude refers to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

C. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people.

 

D. the feelings one has about the preferable modes of conduct that tend to persist over time.

 

E. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

236. If you hold a personal value of thriftiness, then you probably will have a favorable __________ toward automobiles with good fuel economy.

A. belief

 

B. value

 

C. attitude

 

D. motivation

 

E. perception

 

237. Which of the following statements about attitudes is false?

A. Marketers are primarily concerned with American core values when developing advertising messages.

 

B. Attitudes are learned.

 

C. Attitudes are shaped by one’s values and beliefs.

 

D. An attitude results in responses that are consistently favorable or unfavorable.

 

E. Personal values affect attitudes by influencing the importance assigned to specific product attributes.

 

238. A consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people are referred to as

A. values.

 

B. attitudes.

 

C. beliefs.

 

D. predispositions.

 

E. opinions.

 

239. Beliefs refer to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes.

 

E. the moral and ethical precepts that guide a person’s behavior.

 

240. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) __________, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

C. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

D. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

 

241. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) __________, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

C. changing the perceived importance of attributes

 

D. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

 

242. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) __________.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. adding new attributes to the product

 

C. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

D. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

 

243. What attitude change approach did Colgate marketers use to encourage consumers to purchase its product when it began to include the antibacterial agent triclosan in its product?

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes

 

B. changing the perceived importance of attributes

 

C. adding new attributes to the product

 

D. providing free trials of the new product

 

E. obtaining a seal of approval to reduce consumers’ risk and encourage purchases

 

244. Most people already know that Tums, a popular antacid, contains calcium. Today, ads for Tums stress both the fact that it can be used as a calcium supplement and the health benefits of calcium. The new promotion involves changing consumers’ attitudes toward Tums by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which Tums has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing the perceived risk.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization to prospective buyers.

 

245. The Ford Escape Hybrid SUV was the first SUV on the market to be powered by both electricity and gasoline. Ford has targeted not only people who are excited about technology but also those who want to contribute to cleaner air. Ford set a goal to attract 20,000 buyers a year for this SUV. Ford is trying to change consumer attitudes by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing the perceived risk of the product.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization to prospective buyers.

 

246. Pepsi-Cola made “freshness” an important product attribute when it stamped freshness dates on its cans. Prior to doing so, few consumers considered freshness an issue for soft drinks. Pepsi-Cola is trying to change consumers’ attitudes toward its soft drinks by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing perceived risk.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization.

 

247. A mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them is referred to as

A. culture.

 

B. psychographics.

 

C. social class.

 

D. lifestyle.

 

E. reference group.

 

248. Lifestyle refers to

A. the set of behaviors that is a result of spending one’s time and money as one pleases.

 

B. a mode of living that is defined by one’s personal moral philosophy.

 

C. the similar values, interests, and behaviors that members of society share.

 

D. a self-defined identification of belonging to a lower, lower-middle, middle, upper-middle, or upper class in terms of values, attitudes, and beliefs.

 

E. a mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them.

 

249. Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyles is

A. demographics.

 

B. psychographics.

 

C. social statistics.

 

D. physiological needs.

 

E. sociographics.

 

250. Which of the following statements about psychographics is most accurate?

A. Psychographics is unable to provide actionable information about potential customers since the data obtained from the research are too subjective to be reliably interpreted and acted upon.

 

B. Although helpful in segmenting markets, psychographics is limited in its ability to target consumers.

 

C. Psychographics combines demographic data, psychological data, and actual spending data of consumers to create VALS profiles.

 

D. Psychographics combines psychology, lifestyle, and demographics to uncover consumer motivations for buying and using offerings.

 

E. Psychographic data are extremely vulnerable to current social trends and therefore are best suited to new market-product combinations rather than existing ones.

 

251. The VALS framework is an example of

A. a personality assessment.

 

B. cognitive learning theory.

 

C. a psychographic system.

 

D. a study on the hierarchy of needs.

 

E. geodemographic segmentation.

 

252. The VALS framework segments consumers based on

A. their primary motivation for buying products and their resources.

 

B. their demographics.

 

C. their product usage, age, and gender.

 

D. where they live.

 

E. their media usage and their demographics.

 

253. Which of the following statements about the VALS framework is false?

A. Consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals, achievement, and self-expression—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities.

 

B. Consumers are motivated to buy products and services and seek experiences that give shape, substance, and satisfaction to their lives.

 

C. The VALS framework seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions.

 

D. The VALS framework identifies eight consumer segments.

 

E. A consumer’s gender and age have a direct effect on placement within a VALS consumer segment.

 

254. In the VALS framework, a person’s resources include all of the following except

A. material.

 

B. emotional.

 

C. temporal.

 

D. psychological.

 

E. demographic.

 

255. VALS groups of consumers motivated by __________ are those who are guided by knowledge and principle.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. rewards

 

E. success

 

256. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. One segment of the two ideals-motivated groups, known as __________, includes mature, reflective, and well-educated people who value order, knowledge, and responsibility.

A. Makers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Thinkers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Achievers

 

257. In the VALS framework, those consumers who are practical and who value durability and functionality in products over styling and newness are called

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Achievers.

 

C. Believers.

 

D. Thinkers.

 

E. Innovators.

 

258. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. One segment of the two Ideals-motivated groups, known as __________, have fewer resources and are conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs based on established codes: family, religion, community, and the nation.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

 

259. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. __________ choose familiar products and brands, favor American-made products, and are generally brand loyal.

A. Believers

 

B. Thinkers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Experiencers

 

E. Achievers

 

260. VALS groups of consumers motivated by __________ are those who look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. rewards

 

E. success

 

261. In the VALS framework, consumers who are looking for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to are called

A. an ideals-motivated group.

 

B. a rewards- and-success-motivated group.

 

C. a self-expression-motivated group.

 

D. an achievement-motivated group.

 

E. a high- and-low-resource group.

 

262. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. One segment of the two achievement-motivated groups, known as __________, have a busy, goal-directed lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. Image is important to them.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

 

263. In the VALS framework, consumers who favor established, prestige products and services and are interested in time-saving devices given their hectic schedules are called

A. Thinkers.

 

B. Believers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Experiencers.

 

E. Achievers.

 

264. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. A segment of the achievement-motivated groups, known as __________, are trendy, fun-loving, and less self-confident than Achievers.

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Makers

 

E. Survivors

 

265. In the VALS framework, achievement-motivated consumers who have a lower levels of education and household income than Achievers are called

A. Believers.

 

B. Experiencers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Survivors.

 

266. VALS groups of consumers who are motivated by __________ are those who desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk.

A. ideals

 

B. rewards

 

C. achievement

 

D. self-expression

 

E. success

 

267. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by self-expression desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk. One segment of the two self-expression-motivated groups, known as __________, are young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who become excited about new possibilities but are equally quick to cool.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

 

268. In the VALS framework, consumers who spend much of their income on technology, entertainment, and socializing, are called

A. Believers.

 

B. Experiencers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Thinkers.

 

269. In the VALS framework, consumers whose energy finds outlets in exercise, sports, outdoor recreation, and social activities are referred to as

A. Believers.

 

B. Strivers.

 

C. Achievers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Experiencers.

 

270. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by self-expression desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk. One segment of the two self-expression-motivated groups, known as __________, express themselves and experience the world by working on it—growing vegetables or fixing a car.

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Makers

 

E. Survivors

 

271. In the VALS framework, self-expression-motivated consumers who have fewer resources and express themselves and experience the world by working on it are referred to as

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Thinkers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Believers.

 

E. Makers.

 

272. In the VALS framework, consumers with fewer resources who are practical people, have constructive skills, value self-sufficiency, and are unimpressed by material possessions except those with a practical or functional purpose are referred to as

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Thinkers.

 

C. Makers.

 

D. Believers.

 

E. Strivers.

 

273. In the VALS framework, two segments stand apart based on their abundance or lack of psychological, physical, and material

A. ideals.

 

B. rewards.

 

C. self-expression.

 

D. achievement.

 

E. resources.

 

274. In the VALS framework, the segment with the most abundant resources, known as __________, includes successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and resources of all kinds.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Innovators

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Strivers

 

275. In the VALS framework, consumers who place importance on image—not as evidence of power or status, but as an expression of cultivated tastes, independence, and character—are referred to as

A. Actualizers.

 

B. Innovators.

 

C. Achievers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Strivers.

 

276. Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs that will bloom just a few weeks after spring planting so people who did not plant bulbs in the fall can have spring flowers. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate finer things and will pay a premium price. Which of these VALS segments would be most suitable to target?

A. Survivors

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Innovators

 

E. Experiencers

 

277. LG, a consumer electronics manufacturer, recently introduced a 55-inch Internet-capable, 3-D OLED (organic light-emitting diode) HDTV. As its marketing manager, you have used lifestyle analysis in the past, particularly the VALS system, to help you profile your customers. Which of the following VALS profiles would be the most likely target market for this product?

A. Survivors

 

B. Believers

 

C. Experiencers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Innovators

 

278. In the VALS framework, consumers can have abundant or minimal psychological, physical, and material resources. One segment with minimal resources, known as __________, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires.

A. Thinkers

 

B. Innovators

 

C. Makers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Strivers

 

279. In the VALS framework, consumers with the least resources of any segment represent a modest market for most products and services. They are loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can be purchased at a discount, and are referred to as

A. Strivers.

 

B. Believers.

 

C. Survivors.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Thinkers.

 

280. Two VALS segments stand apart. One segment represents the group with the highest resources and innovation and the other segment represents the group with the lowest resources and innovation. These two groups are the __________ and the __________.

A. Thinkers; Believers

 

B. Strivers; Survivors

 

C. Achievers; Strivers

 

D. Innovators; Survivors

 

E. Experiencers; Makers

 

281. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment would be the most likely to visit Facebook?

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Thinkers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Makers

 

282. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment would be the most likely to read national newspapers?

A. Experiencers

 

B. Thinkers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Strivers

 

E. Makers

 

283. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment is most likely to view outdoor advertising?

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Makers

 

284. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, ____________ are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people.

A. ideals-oriented consumers

 

B. achievement-oriented consumers

 

C. self-expression oriented consumers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

 

285. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ______ are guided by knowledge and principles.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

 

286. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, those consumers who seek products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a group they aspire to refers to

A. Ideals.

 

B. Achievement.

 

C. Self-Expression.

 

D. Survivors.

 

E. Innovators.

 

287. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ___________ desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

 

288. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, the segment that focuses on meeting basic needs—such as food, clothing and shelter, safety and security—rather than fulfilling desires, refers to

A. Ideals.

 

B. Achievement.

 

C. Self-Expression.

 

D. Survivors.

 

E. Innovators.

 

289. A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behavior of others. Two important aspects of personal influence to marketing are

A. lifestyle and motivation.

 

B. personality and lifestyle.

 

C. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity.

 

D. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics.

 

E. psychographics and demographics.

 

290. A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word-of-mouth activity.

A. parental guidance

 

B. peer pressure

 

C. opinion leadership

 

D. government regulation

 

E. psychographics

 

291. Consumers’ purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketers are opinion leadership and

A. consumer socialization.

 

B. word-of-mouth activity.

 

C. peer pressure.

 

D. government regulation.

 

E. sales promotion.

 

292. Individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others are referred to as

A. decision makers.

 

B. achievers.

 

C. innovators.

 

D. buzz managers.

 

E. opinion leaders.

 

293. An opinion leader is an individual

A. within an organization who influences decision making.

 

B. who is able to use moral persuasion to get others to comply with the latest trends.

 

C. in an organization who encourages other paid individuals to forward marketer-initiated messages to others via e-mail, social networking, websites, and blogs.

 

D. who exerts direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

E. who is able and willing to cut red tape and move an organization’s marketing program forward.

 

294. A study by Popular Mechanics magazine identified 18 million _____________ who influence the purchases of some 85 million consumers for do-it-yourself products.

A. lifestyle makers

 

B. aspirational people

 

C. autonomous leaders

 

D. opinion leaders

 

E. joint decision makers

 

295. What percentage of adults is considered to be opinion leaders?

A. 1 percent

 

B. 5 percent

 

C. 10 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. It depends upon the type of product.

 

296. When Citizen, a watch company, uses a spokesperson such as football player Eli Manning to promote its Eco-Drive watches, it believes he is __________ who can influence the purchase decision of its target market.

A. an opinion leader

 

B. a product champion

 

C. an innovator

 

D. a BzzAgent

 

E. a rainmaker

 

297. The influencing of people during conversations is referred to as

A. opinion formations.

 

B. peer persuasion.

 

C. interpersonal gossip.

 

D. word of mouth.

 

E. consumer socialization.

 

298. Word of mouth refers to

A. advertising or public service announcements that rely solely on auditory or voice messages to reach an organization’s target market.

 

B. subjective, often negative, misconceptions that are passed from one person to another as the result of selective perception.

 

C. the influencing of people during conversations.

 

D. the individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

E. casual or unconstrained conversation or reports about other people or offerings involving details that are not confirmed as being true.

 

299. What percentage of all consumer conversations about brands happen face to face?

A. 25 percent

 

B. 33 percent

 

C. 50 percent

 

D. 75 percent

 

E. 90 percent

 

300. About __________ of all consumer conversations about brands happen over the phone.

A. 5 percent

 

B. 10 percent

 

C. 15 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. 40 percent

 

301. What percentage of all consumer conversations about brands happen online?

A. 5 percent

 

B. 10 percent

 

C. 15 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. 40 percent

 

302. What percentage of U.S. product sales is directly tied to word of mouth among friends, family, and colleagues?

A. 10 percent

 

B. 25 percent

 

C. 33 percent

 

D. 50 percent

 

E. 67 percent

 

303. All of the following are marketing activities designed to stimulate conversations that promote positive or retard negative word of mouth except

A. using slogans, music, and humor in advertising.

 

B. giving appropriate product demonstrations.

 

C. recruiting and deploying people to produce buzz.

 

D. employing VALS segmentation strategies.

 

E. running teaser advertising campaigns in advance of new-product introductions.

 

304. Febreze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreze was introduced, a few people in an Internet chat room stated that the product was harmful to house pets. Though untrue, the rumor spread. If P&G had not been convinced it would be a very successful product, it would have dropped Febreze from its P&G product line as a result of

A. negative word of mouth.

 

B. a lack of back translation.

 

C. cultural insensitivity.

 

D. consumer ethnocentrism.

 

E. poor opinion leadership.

 

305. Popularity created by consumer word of mouth is called

A. hype.

 

B. buzz.

 

C. propaganda.

 

D. tweet.

 

E. spin.

 

306. BzzAgent is a firm that specializes in a marketing strategy known as

A. sting.

 

B. teaser advertising.

 

C. spin.

 

D. buzz.

 

E. viral marketing.

 

307. BzzAgent

A. is the top consumer information source in developing countries.

 

B. captures honest word-of-mouth testimonials from satisfied customers who will promote new products or services.

 

C. was the first on the Internet to create a public forum for new products.

 

D. counteracts false rumors or negative buzz for quality products or services that have been unjustly accused on social networking websites.

 

E. uses ethnographic research techniques to discover subtle behavioral and emotional reactions to products in their natural use environment.

 

308. About 65 percent of BzzAgents are

A. Fortune 500 CEOs.

 

B. buzzing entrepreneurs.

 

C. older than 25 years of age.

 

D. considered low-income.

 

E. men.

 

309. BzzAgent researches a product or service before committing to a campaign and rejects about __________ of the companies that seek its service.

A. 20 percent

 

B. 40 percent

 

C. 50 percent

 

D. 70 percent

 

E. 80 percent

 

310. People to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards are referred to as

A. action-oriented consumers.

 

B. spokespersons.

 

C. opinion leaders.

 

D. social classes.

 

E. reference groups.

 

311. Reference groups refer to

A. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society that consists of people who share similar values, interests, and behaviors.

 

B. individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

C. people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.

 

D. those buyers who, through the size of their purchases, affect where marketing dollars will be spent.

 

E. those with whom a person does not wish to be a member of or identified.

 

312. A reference group to which a person actually belongs is referred to as __________ group.

A. a primary

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. a dissociative

 

E. an integrated

 

313. College students who wear clothing displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in __________ group.

A. a dissociative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. an associative

 

D. an identification

 

E. a political

 

314. The specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use is referred to as

A. a brand community.

 

B. a VALS.

 

C. an opinion leader.

 

D. a social class.

 

E. a buzz group.

 

315. A brand community refers to

A. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society that consists of people who share similar values, interests, behaviors, and brands.

 

B. a specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use.

 

C. people to whom an individual looks as a basis for purchasing particular brands.

 

D. those buyers who, through the size of their purchases, affect where marketing dollars will be spent on a particular brand.

 

E. those brands with whom a person does not wish to be identified.

 

316. A brand community is a specialized form of the __________ reference group.

A. dissociative

 

B. aspiration

 

C. associative

 

D. VALS

 

E. social class

 

317. Many University of Florida students, fans, and others view themselves part of “Gator Nation,” the name of the __________ given to supporters of the University of Florida’s educational and athletic programs.

A. VALS type

 

B. aspiration group

 

C. social class

 

D. brand community

 

E. market segment

 

318. A reference group that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with is referred to as __________ group.

A. a preference

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. an assimilation

 

E. an integrated

 

319. An aspiration group is one

A. to which a person belongs and wishes to continue with.

 

B. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with.

 

C. that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.

 

D. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences.

 

E. that a person feels is significantly above him or her in terms of socioeconomics.

 

320. A local country club has a great golf course, swimming pool, tennis courts, and even a stable for horses. It also has numerous high-profile businesspeople, doctors, and local politicians as members. To attract new members, the club’s board of directors should focus its marketing efforts on people who view its current members as __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a pressure

 

E. an involvement

 

321. A recent American Express advertising claim that “membership has its privileges” creates which type of reference group?

A. aspiration group

 

B. dissociative group

 

C. assimilation group

 

D. integrated group

 

E. associative group

 

322. If a fraternity or sorority wants to attract new members, it should focus on people who view its current members as __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a reference

 

E. an involvement

 

323. A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is referred to as __________ group.

A. a socialization

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. a dissociative

 

E. an integrated

 

324. In the United States, there are two major political parties whose members disagree with each other on a variety of issues. Both Republicans and Democrats view one another as being part of __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a reference

 

E. an involvement

 

325. __________ influences on consumer behavior result from three sources: consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household.

A. Functional

 

B. Situational

 

C. Social

 

D. Family

 

E. Personal

 

326. Consumer behavior that results from consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household is referred to as __________ influence.

A. psychographic

 

B. demographic

 

C. family

 

D. reference group

 

E. personal

 

327. The process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers is referred to as

A. consumer assimilation.

 

B. consumer socialization.

 

C. consumer lifestyle.

 

D. purchase decision process.

 

E. purchasing enculturation.

 

328. Consumer socialization refers to

A. the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

B. the people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.

 

C. the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

 

D. the modes of living that are identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them.

 

E. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped.

 

329. Research shows that consumer socialization with respect to brand preferences begins at

A. the age of 2.

 

B. the age of 5 when their cognitive skills have developed to understand the concept of money.

 

C. the age of 13 when they become teenagers, when they can understand the responsibility involved in saving money to be able to consume products and services.

 

D. the age of 18 when they become college students, living outside their parents’ home for the first time and being responsible for their purchase decisions.

 

E. at any time, though most people change their brand preferences many times during their lifetimes.

 

330. Nicole gives her young daughter Kelli an allowance of $5 a week. Sometimes, Nicole takes Kelli shopping. But if Kelli wants something that costs more than she has saved, Nicole reminds her she needs to keep saving. When Kelli is finally able to purchase a special, more expensive item, she is allowed to pay for it herself, including bringing the product to the salesclerk to complete the purchase. In this way, Nicole encourages the development of Kelli’s

A. consumer assimilation.

 

B. consumer acculturation.

 

C. purchasing socialization.

 

D. consumer socialization.

 

E. purchasing enculturation.

 

331. The concept that consists of the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors, is referred to as the

A. family scale.

 

B. family life cycle.

 

C. family continuum.

 

D. household socialization.

 

E. household patterning.

 

332. The family life cycle concept refers to

A. the distinct phases a family progresses through from the birth of children to when the children leave home, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

B. the distinct phases a family progresses through from the birth of children to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

C. the distinct phases a blended family progresses through from marriage to separation, divorce, and remarriage, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

D. the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

E. the intergenerational purchasing habits and product preferences that are passed down from one generation to the next.

 

333. The demographic situation consisting of married couples with children younger than 18 years old and which constitutes 21 percent of all U.S. households is referred to as

A. a traditional family.

 

B. a typical household.

 

C. a socialized household.

 

D. a reference group.

 

E. an ideal family unit.

 

334. The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from __________, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

A. formation to retirement

 

B. birth to death

 

C. the birth of children to retirement

 

D. the birth of children until they leave home

 

E. marriage to retirement unless a divorce, separation, or death occurs

 

335. Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is most accurate?

A. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families.

 

B. Income and gender are two of the variables considered in the family life cycle.

 

C. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel, automobiles, and consumer electronics.

 

D. Single divorcees are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group.

 

E. The most financially secure group of any family life cycle stage is single parents with children.

 

336. Based on the stages of the family life cycle, which of the following groups most likely has the largest amount of discretionary income?

A. young married couples without children

 

B. single parents with children

 

C. middle-aged couples without children

 

D. young married couples with children

 

E. middle-aged couples with children

 

337. The two major styles of family decision making are

A. joint and passive.

 

B. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive.

 

C. joint and spouse-dominant.

 

D. democratic and autocratic.

 

E. active and passive.

 

338. Spouse-dominant decision making implies that

A. the husband makes the majority of the purchase decisions.

 

B. the wife makes the majority of the purchase decisions.

 

C. both the husband and the wife make the purchase decisions together.

 

D. the wife and the husband alternate with respect to their purchase decisions.

 

E. either the husband or the wife is primarily responsible for purchase decisions.

 

339. Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint decision making?

A. groceries

 

B. children’s toys

 

C. medicine

 

D. home appliances

 

E. breakfast cereal

 

340. Which of the following statements about family decision making is most accurate?

A. The use of joint decision making is directly related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses.

 

B. Husbands make most of the purchase decisions about cars, vacations, and homes.

 

C. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous.

 

D. With autonomous decision making, the husband would make all the decisions about groceries, medicine, and car maintenance.

 

E. Women have little influence when it comes to men’s clothing purchases except for socks or ties.

 

341. The five roles of individual family members in the consumer purchase decision process are

A. associative group, aspiration group, opinion leader, decision maker, and user.

 

B. sustainer, experiential, belonger, emulator, and achiever.

 

C. opinion leader, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, and user.

 

D. information gatherer, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, and user.

 

E. need driven, inner directed, outer directed, opinion leader, and decision maker.

 

342. Josh told his father that the family needed a new computer, so his dad asked him to look into the latest products and their prices. Josh’s mom asked that the new computer have an ergonomic keyboard because she has wrist problems. His sister Ann wanted the computer to have a lot of memory to edit videos. With this information, Josh’s dad chose and ordered a Dell. Which best describes the roles each family member played in making this decision?

A. Josh’s mother and Ann acted as information gatherers, users, and decision makers.

 

B. Josh took on all the roles except that of purchaser.

 

C. Josh’s father took on all of the roles.

 

D. Ann acted as a user and an influencer.

 

E. Josh’s mother acted as an information gatherer, a user, an influencer, and a gatekeeper.

 

343. The Martinez family is considering a vacation. Dad wants to stay home this year and use the money for home repairs. His mom who lives with them wants to visit relatives in New York. Dad asks his mother to determine the cost of a trip to New York and if they could stay with relatives while there. Mom and their daughter want to go to a beach. Which of the following sentences best describes the roles each family member played in making this decision?

A. There is no family member serving as an information gatherer.

 

B. The mother and the grandmother only played the role of influencer.

 

C. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers.

 

D. Since the father will make the final vacation decision, he has taken on all of the roles.

 

E. The grandmother plays the roles of user, influencer, and information gatherer.

 

344. When strolling through the grocery store, a toddler tells her mother, “Yuck, I don’t like peas.” Her mother puts down the peas and chooses green beans instead. The role of the little girl in this purchase was that of

A. information gatherer.

 

B. influencer.

 

C. purchaser.

 

D. decision maker.

 

E. user.

 

345. In 31 percent of households, __________ are the primary grocery shoppers, though they may not be the grocery decision makers.

A. teenagers

 

B. extended family members

 

C. paid help

 

D. children of any age

 

E. men

 

346. Jennifer usually worked long hours at her job at the hospital, so her husband, Ari, an amateur chef, prepared most of the meals for the family. As an anniversary gift, Jennifer bought Ari a top-of-the-line professional cooktop and range. Ari’s primary role in this process was that of

A. information gatherer.

 

B. influencer.

 

C. purchaser.

 

D. decision maker.

 

E. user.

 

347. _____________ may be defined as the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped.

A. Mobility

 

B. Stratification

 

C. Culture

 

D. Social class

 

E. Values

 

348. The set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are learned and shared among the members of a group is referred to as

A. national character.

 

B. culture.

 

C. social class.

 

D. code of ethics.

 

E. ethnic ideology.

 

349. Subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes are referred to as

A. reference groups.

 

B. families.

 

C. social classes.

 

D. subcultures.

 

E. normative groups.

 

350. Subcultures refer to

A. subgroups within the larger national culture, whose values and beliefs are diametrically opposed to foreign cultures.

 

B. groups within organizations whose values and beliefs influence the corporate culture.

 

C. subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes.

 

D. stakeholder groups outside an organization whose values and beliefs are contrary to the corporate culture.

 

E. the designation given to people between the ages of 13 and 24 whose values and beliefs are not yet fully formed but are still influenced both by their families and society.

 

351. Which of the following is the largest racial/ethnic subculture in the United States?

A. Asian Americans

 

B. Hispanics

 

C. Caucasians

 

D. African Americans

 

E. Native Americans

 

352. Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is most accurate?

A. Hispanics are often brand loyal and willing to pay a premium price for premium quality.

 

B. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by contemporary fads and fashions.

 

C. Hispanics are dubious about using advertising as an information source.

 

D. Convenience is an essential product attribute for Hispanic homemakers with respect to food preparation or consumption.

 

E. Uniquely Hispanic buying patterns have virtually disappeared over the past 10 years due to increased assimilation.

 

353. Which of the following is a reason that marketing to Hispanics has proven to be a challenge?

A. Hispanics don’t consider advertising a credible source of product information.

 

B. Hispanic communities are spread across the entire country and therefore are difficult to target.

 

C. The Hispanic subculture is diverse.

 

D. Hispanics prefer imports to American-made products; they tend to be ethnocentric in their product preferences.

 

E. Assimilation is valued and the Hispanic community finds cultural target marketing offensive.

 

354. Among the three major racial/ethnic subcultures in the United States, African Americans rank as __________ in terms of spending power.

A. the largest

 

B. the second largest

 

C. the third largest

 

D. equal with Hispanics

 

E. equal with Asian Americans

 

355. Which of the following statements about African American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. African Americans spend more on products for women and girls, especially in terms of clothing.

 

B. There are significant differences between the buying patterns of African Americans and Caucasians of similar socioeconomic status.

 

C. African Americans are not price-conscious but are strongly motivated by quality and choice.

 

D. Adult African Americans spend half as much on online services as Caucasians.

 

E. When socioeconomic status differences between African Americans and Caucasians are removed, there are more similarities than points of difference.

 

356. Which of the following statements about African American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. There are very few differences in the consumption patterns of African Americans and Caucasians.

 

B. African American men spend more on health and beauty products than Caucasian men do.

 

C. The typical African American family is five years older than the typical Caucasian family.

 

D. African American purchase behavior is still affected by the historical deprivation in employment and educational opportunities in the United States.

 

E. African Americans are not price-conscious.

 

357. Anheuser-Busch’s agricultural products division sells eight varieties of California-grown rice, each with a different Asian label to cover a range of nationalities and tastes. Anheuser-Busch is recognizing the diversity of the Asian American _____________ in the United States.

A. agricultural trends

 

B. influence

 

C. entrepreneurialism

 

D. subculture

 

E. assimilation

 

358. Which of the following statements about Asian American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. Assimilated Asian Americans have very different buying patterns from a typical U.S. consumer.

 

B. The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make.

 

C. The Asian American subculture is growing very slowly in the United States.

 

D. Asian Americans are the least educated racial/ethnic subculture in the United States.

 

E. Consumer research on Asian Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated, nonassimilated, and recent immigrants.

 

359. Asian Americans who are conversant in English, highly educated, hold professional and managerial positions, and exhibit buying patterns very much like typical American consumers are referred to as __________ Asian Americans.

A. socialized

 

B. diaspora

 

C. nonassimilated

 

D. reassimilated

 

E. assimilated

 

360. An Asian American family whose relatives emigrated four generations ago has three children. The oldest son, George, is in medical school. Susan, at the age of 21, is a concert pianist. Brent is a second-year business student. This family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian American buying patterns?

A. nonassimilated, yet celebrating their culture by purchasing authentic Asian goods

 

B. assimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers

 

C. assimilated, yet celebrating their culture by seeking traditionally Asian occupations

 

D. nonassimilated, due to inherent differences in Asian subcultures that transcend generations

 

E. nonassimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers

 

361. Groupon built its business model on the premise that

A. consumers would be receptive to online sweepstakes.

 

B. businesses would be willing to post their 30-second TV advertising on a social network.

 

C. consumers would want to “check in” and earn points and badges for visiting businesses.

 

D. consumers would band together and try a new product or service if businesses would offer lower prices to entice them to take advantage of a daily deal offered to them.

 

E. consumers would be willing to pay for fun and exciting online video games that are playable on their smartphones and tablet devices.

 

362. Which of the following statements about Groupon is most accurate?

A. In the alternative evaluation stage of the consumer purchase decision process, many Groupon customers focus on place or distribution as the most important evaluative criterion.

 

B. A Groupon “deal of the day” e-mail may trigger a need in a consumer’s problem recognition stage of the purchase decision process to do (buy) something they may not ordinarily do (buy).

 

C. The typical Groupon user is a 35- to 45-year-old male with an average income of about $25,000 who is looking for a great deal.

 

D. The Groupon purchase decision is made online and then confirmed by a telephone call when enough consumers agree to the offer and the “deal tips.”

 

E. Generally, Groupon consumers rarely follow the purchase decision process like they do for other consumer offerings because they do not have time for an information search.

 

363. All of the following are challenges that Groupon faces except

A. most of the Groupon deals are unprofitable for merchants, so customers must be converted into repeat purchasers for this to be cost-effective.

 

B. Groupon faces extraordinary competition because the daily deal technology is easy to copy.

 

C. the business model is hard to adapt at the local level, though it works well for large, national businesses.

 

D. some consumers buy the coupons but never use them, eventually leaving them dissatisfied and unlikely to use Groupon again.

 

E. Groupon must develop a comprehensive understanding of the differences in international buying behaviors to continue its explosive growth outside the United States.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

364. Explain the actions and considerations that relate to the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process.

 

 

 

 

365. You will be graduating soon and have been offered what you consider the job of your dreams. The new position, however, requires some traveling so you will need a car. You currently do not have one. What decision process will you go through to purchase an automobile?

 

 

 

 

366. Would you agree or disagree with the following statement? “It’s a lot cheaper and easier to keep existing customers than to try to find new ones.” Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

367. Explain the differences between routine problem solving, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving. Give an example of when each might be used.

 

 

 

 

368. Name the five situational influences that affect the consumer purchase decision process.

 

 

 

 

369. Ruth, who has no children, wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend’s baby shower, which is this evening. Since she won’t have any time between work and the baby shower, she must go today during her lunch break. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby-oriented product she sees because she wishes that she too was having a baby. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this scenario. Which situational influence was not described?

 

 

 

 

370. Define motivation and personality and how they impact marketing.

 

 

 

 

371. Psychologists point out that an individual’s needs may be hierarchical; that is, once one set of needs is met, people seek to satisfy the next set of needs in the hierarchy. Name each of the five levels in the hierarchy in order and give an example of each.

 

 

 

 

372. How do selective perception, selective exposure, selective comprehension, and selective retention differ?

 

 

 

 

373. Why is learning important to marketing?

 

 

 

 

374. Explain how attitudes are shaped by our values and beliefs.

 

 

 

 

375. How might Ford Motor Co. apply the three methods of attitude change in its marketing activities?

 

 

 

 

376. What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers?

 

 

 

 

377. The VALS system seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. Consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. Explain the difference between Thinkers and Believers.

 

 

 

 

378. Why would Proactiv, an acne treatment company, select Maroon 5 front man Adam Levine to appear in an ad campaign? What kind of influence could he have on consumer behavior?

 

 

 

 

379. Define consumer socialization.

 

 

 

 

380. Why is the family life cycle important to marketing?

 

 

 

 

381. What is a subculture? Name examples of products targeted at American subcultures.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Understanding Consumer Behavior Answer Key

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Women make what percentage of new-car buying decisions?

A. 15 percent

 

B. 30 percent

 

C. 45 percent

 

D. 60 percent

 

E. 80 percent

Women make 60 percent and influence 80 percent of new-car buying decisions. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

2. Women influence what percentage of new-car buying decisions?

A. 15 percent

 

B. 20 percent

 

C. 40 percent

 

D. 60 percent

 

E. 80 percent

Women make 60 percent and influence 80 percent of new-car buying decisions. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

3. Enlightened carmakers have hired women designers, engineers, and marketing executives to better understand the way women decide to buy new cars. They have learned that

A. meeting the expectations of men during the new-car purchasing process is more difficult than meeting those of women.

 

B. men make the majority of new-car purchasing decisions.

 

C. women and men think differently about the new-car buying experience.

 

D. women care more about quality than men.

 

E. men care more about price than women.

While car price and quality are important, women and men think differently about other key elements of the new-car buying experience. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

4. Which of the following statements about how women buy new cars today is most accurate?

A. Women have definite likes or dislikes when buying a new car, but they don’t feel comfortable expressing their opinions.

 

B. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process.

 

C. The issue of “speed” is an important factor to men but not really important to women.

 

D. Women are more likely to make their new-car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative than from promotional information.

 

E. Women care more about exterior styles and lines and men are more concerned with cargo space and gas mileage.

Women actively seek information and postpone a purchase decision until all options have been evaluated. Women frequently visit auto-buying websites, read car-comparison articles, and scan car advertisements. Recommendations of friends and relatives matter most for the final decision. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

5. Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is most accurate?

A. For women, safety is about features that would help survive an accident.

 

B. Women have definite likes or dislikes when buying a car, but they don’t feel comfortable expressing their opinions.

 

C. When it comes to the actual purchase process, women are more adept negotiators than men.

 

D. Women care more about exterior styles and lines and men are more concerned with cargo space and gas mileage.

 

E. Women usually shop one dealership before making a decision and men usually shop three.

For women, safety is about features that help to survive an accident, including passenger airbags and reinforced side panels. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

6. Many automobile dealerships employ a nonnegotiable or no-haggle price strategy to sell their cars. A customer who wants to buy a new or used car would pay the posted price. These dealers probably adopted this pricing policy because

A. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices.

 

B. women have an intense dislike of price negotiation, yet still want to buy a car.

 

C. many recent immigrants into the United States are not accustomed to negotiation.

 

D. women distrust men in general and car salesmen in particular.

 

E. a sluggish economy guarantees that negotiations would produce negative profit per vehicle.

Women in particular dread price negotiations that are often involved in buying a new car. As a result, a nonnegotiable or no-haggle price strategy may appeal to women car buyers. See Chapter Opener Example: ENLIGHTENED CARMAKERS KNOW WHAT CUSTOM(H)ERS AND INFLUENC(H)ERS VALUE.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

7. The actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions, are referred to as

A. purchase intentions.

 

B. market research.

 

C. consumer behavior.

 

D. consumer conduct.

 

E. purchase protocols.

Key term definition—consumer behavior.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

8. Consumer behavior refers to

A. the aspects of a consumer’s decision making processes that cannot be measured.

 

B. the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.

 

C. the five stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which product and service to investigate, purchase, and consume.

 

D. the mental and social processes related to purchasing that are innate in a person from birth.

 

E. those purchasing behaviors that result from (1) repeated experience and (2) reasoning.

Key term definition—consumer behavior.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

9. Consumer behavior includes the actions a person takes in purchasing services and using products and services, including

A. the physical effort spent on these actions.

 

B. the financial limitations one must overcome to accomplish these actions.

 

C. the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.

 

D. the emotional processes that occur during these actions.

 

E. the cognitive and attitudinal processes that must be learned to complete these actions.

Consumer behavior refers to the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

10. The five stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the

A. information decision process.

 

B. purchase decision process.

 

C. alternative evaluation process.

 

D. postpurchase behavior process.

 

E. problem recognition process.

Key term definition—purchase decision process. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

11. The initial stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

Problem recognition is the initial stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

12. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The first stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity identification.

 

E. problem recognition.

Problem recognition is the initial stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

13. The second stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves searching for information, which may include an internal search and/or an external search. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

Information search is the second stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves searching for information, which may include an internal search and/or an external search. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

14. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The second stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity identification.

 

E. problem recognition.

After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information, which may include an internal search and/or an external search. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

15. The third stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves evaluating brands in the consideration set based on the evaluative criteria (both objective and subjective) identified during the information search step for the ultimate decision. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

Alternative evaluation is the third stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves evaluating brands in the consideration set based on evaluative criteria (both objective and subjective) identified during the information search step for the ultimate decision. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

16. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The third stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. opportunity testing.

 

E. problem recognition.

In the process of collecting information a consumer also accrues alternative products from which to choose. At this stage, the consumer develops evaluative criteria (both objective and subjective) for the ultimate decision. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

17. The fourth stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves deciding from whom to buy and when to buy so that the purchase decision can be made. What is this stage called?

A. purchase indecision

 

B. prepurchase evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

Purchase decision is the fourth stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves deciding from whom to buy and when to buy so that the purchase decision can be made. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

18. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The fourth stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. option testing.

 

E. problem recognition.

Having examined the alternatives in the consideration set, the consumer decides from whom to buy and when to buy. Once these decisions are made, the purchase decision is made. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

19. The fifth stage in the consumer purchase decision process involves comparing the product or service purchased by buyers with their expectations to determine whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied. What is this stage called?

A. postpurchase behavior

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. information search

Postpurchase behavior is the fifth stage in the consumer purchase decision process, which involves comparing the product or service purchased by buyers with their expectations to determine whether they are either satisfied or dissatisfied. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

20. There are five stages in the consumer purchase decision process. The fifth stage is

A. information search.

 

B. purchase decision.

 

C. alternative evaluation.

 

D. postpurchase behavior.

 

E. problem recognition.

After buying a product, the consumer compares it with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

21. Perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. option identification

The first stage of the consumer purchase decision process is problem recognition. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

22. Scanning memory for previous experiences and also exploring the external environment represent which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. financial consideration

The second stage of the consumer purchase decision process is information search. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

23. Clarifying the problem for the consumer represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. financial consideration

The third stage of the consumer purchase decision process is alternative evaluation. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

24. A simultaneous evaluation of both product attributes and seller characteristics represents which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. financial transaction

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. postpurchase behavior

The fourth stage of the consumer purchase decision process is the actual purchase decision. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

25. A comparison with expectations and an evaluation as satisfied or dissatisfied represent which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. financial transaction

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. postpurchase behavior

The fifth stage of the consumer purchase decision process is postpurchase behavior. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

26. The point at which you would exchange money for a sandwich of corned beef on rye is in the ____________ stage.

A. purchase decision

 

B. information search

 

C. problem recognition

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. option identification

The actual purchase follows three previous stages: problem recognition, information search, and alternative evaluation. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

27. Perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations that is big enough to trigger a decision is called

A. problem recognition.

 

B. alternative evaluation.

 

C. cognitive dissonance.

 

D. routine response behavior.

 

E. postpurchase behavior.

Text term definition—problem recognition.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

28. During the consumer purchase decision process, an individual at the __________ stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision.

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. cognitive dissonance

 

D. information search

 

E. postpurchase behavior

Problem recognition, the initial step in the consumer purchase decision process, involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

29. When Aurelia looked in her closet and said, “I don’t have anything to wear to the party this weekend,” she seems to be in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. postpurchase behavior

Problem recognition, the initial step in the consumer purchase decision process, involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. The student’s problem is that she does not have anything she likes for the party.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

30. When the marketing student said, “It’s really hard for me to get to class on time without a car,” she was entering which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. purchase decision

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. problem recognition

 

E. postpurchase behavior

Problem recognition, the initial step in the consumer purchase decision process, involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. The student’s problem is that she hasn’t been able to get to class on time without a car.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

31. Jamie goes shopping with a friend and notices her friend’s durable ripstop nylon wallet. She thinks of her own worn wallet and realizes she needs a new one. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Jamie when she had this realization?

A. information search

 

B. problem recognition

 

C. purchase behavior

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. prepurchase cognition

Problem recognition, the initial step in the consumer purchase decision process, involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. Jamie realized she needed a new wallet.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

32. Glow Pets, from the makers of Pillow Pets, are a light-up pillow product designed for young children. The pillows are colorful animals that produce a soft light for 20 minutes at a time and were produced for children with a fear of the dark. As a result, the company aired some ads on various TV programs showing children being comforted and sleeping restfully with a Glow Pet, making parents and kids alike desire such a situation. The content of the advertising’s message most likely focuses on which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase behavior

The content of the advertising’s message would most likely focus on the problem recognition stage of the consumer purchase decision process to get consumers to realize that they may need a Glow Pet to get to sleep better—a difference between their ideal and actual situations that is big enough to trigger a decision to buy the product.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

33. Amanda plans to go for a run after her classes are over. As she is lacing up her running shoes, she notices that one of the shoe’s seams is unraveling, and she thinks it is about time for a new pair. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is Amanda at that moment?

A. information search

 

B. problem recognition

 

C. purchase behavior

 

D. alternative evaluation

 

E. prepurchase cognition

Problem recognition, the initial step in the consumer purchase decision process, involves perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. Amanda realized she needed a new pair of running shoes because one of the shoe’s seams was unraveling.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

34. In marketing, advertisements or salespeople can activate a consumer’s purchase decision process by

A. creating a sense of fear or guilt.

 

B. manipulating a customer’s want into a need.

 

C. promising product attributes that exceed the actual product potential.

 

D. showing the shortcomings of competing (or currently owned) products.

 

E. shifting the consumer’s focus from internal search to external search.

In marketing, advertisements or salespeople can activate a consumer’s decision process by showing the shortcomings of competing (or currently owned) products.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

35. Scanning your memory for previous experiences with products or brands occurs during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information, first by scanning one’s memory for previous experiences with products or brands.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

36. Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

Once a need is recognized the consumer enters the information search stage. The information search stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

37. “Which brand of smartphone does my roommate own?” would be a question asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process.

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. comparison

The information search stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions. In this stage, the consumer is looking at different brands, one of which may be owned by a roommate.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

38. In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask, “How much can I afford to spend on a new 42-inch LED HDTV?”

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. evaluation

 

E. information search

The information search stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions. In this stage, the consumer is determining a cost criterion.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

39. You have determined you want to buy an advanced hybrid vehicle, and a visit to Ford’s website has revealed that the Ford Fusion Hybrid SE uses hybrid fuel technology with the latest in lithium-ion battery technology. You are currently in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process for this type of automobile?

A. problem recognition

 

B. needs analysis

 

C. purchase decision

 

D. information search

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

After a consumer has recognized a problem, the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. The information search stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase (hybrid technology), yields brand names that might meet the criteria (Ford Fusion Hybrid SE), and develops consumer value perceptions (not addressed here).

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

40. Scanning your memory for previous experiences with products or brands is called

A. problem recognition.

 

B. alternative evaluation.

 

C. cognitive dissonance.

 

D. internal search.

 

E. external search.

Text term definition—internal search.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

41. A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memories for previous experiences with products or brands.

A. problem recognition

 

B. internal search

 

C. external search

 

D. purchase task

 

E. antecedent state

Text term definition—internal search.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

42. When an elementary school teacher was returning to school in the fall, she wanted to buy markers and craft paper. She remembered the discount website she visited last year for her purchases, so she’ll start there to see if the website still carries the items previously purchased. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher?

A. personal external source

 

B. public external source

 

C. market-dominated external source

 

D. internal search

 

E. market-dominated internal source

When the teacher scanned her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, she was engaged in an internal search for information.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

43. Casey’s girlfriend will celebrate her birthday next week, so he needs to buy her a gift. He remembers the brand of watch that she wears and considers if she would like a new one by the same maker. This is an example of what part of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. recollection search

 

B. external search

 

C. evaluative criteria

 

D. antecedent states

 

E. internal search

The stage in the consumer purchase decision process when consumers scan their memories for previous experiences with products or brands is referred to as internal search.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

44. Bob’s best friend Mike turns 25 next week. Bob decided to purchase Mike a tablet device/e-book reader as a present. Because Bob has purchased three personal computers and other consumer electronic devices over the past five years, he scanned his memory for various brand options. This is an example of what part of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. recollection search

 

B. external search

 

C. evaluative criteria

 

D. antecedent states

 

E. internal search

The stage in the consumer purchase decision process when consumers scan their memories for previous experiences with products or brands is referred to as internal search.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

45. A mother of two toddlers would primarily use an internal search of her prior experiences with products and brands when purchasing

A. a gift for her babysitter.

 

B. an iPhone.

 

C. disposable diapers.

 

D. a swing set.

 

E. a weekend getaway.

A consumer would typically use an internal search of her prior experiences with frequently purchased products such as disposable diapers.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

46. Julie is an avid mystery reader and her babysitter Tina has been borrowing some of her books over the summer. When Tina’s birthday approaches, Julie wants to buy her a good mystery. When Julie was trying to recall her favorite mystery authors, she was engaged in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. an external search.

 

D. a purchase task.

 

E. the precognition of an antecedent state.

The stage in the consumer purchase decision process when consumers scan their memories for previous experiences with products or brands is called internal search.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

47. A(n) __________ for information is needed when past experience or knowledge is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

A. external search

 

B. cognitive search

 

C. alternative search

 

D. internal search

 

E. postpurchase search

Text term definition—external search.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

48. An external search for product information is likely to occur when

A. the cost of gathering information is low.

 

B. review of past experience provides adequate information.

 

C. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low.

 

D. the item is frequently purchased.

 

E. the item is for personal use rather than for professional use.

An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

49. When past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low, a consumer is more likely to use an __________ for information.

A. internal search

 

B. informal search

 

C. expert directed search

 

D. external search

 

E. experiential search

When past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low, a consumer is more likely to use an external search for information.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

50. Emily wants to purchase a tablet device. She is unsure about what hardware and apps she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from her friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several salespeople at Apple and Best Buy and has looked at some websites, such as HP and Dell. Emily is engaging in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. an external search.

 

D. a purchase task.

 

E. the creation of an antecedent state.

Emily is searching for information about tablet devices from external sources including friends, relatives, salespeople, and websites. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient, and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

51. Nico wants to buy a new digital camera for his semester studying abroad but he knows very little about cameras, having never owned one. As a result, he has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, he has talked to salespeople at a Wolf camera shop and Best Buy and he has looked at some websites. Nico is engaging in

A. problem recognition.

 

B. an internal search.

 

C. the purchase decision.

 

D. an external search.

 

E. the creation of an antecedent state.

Nico is searching for information about cameras from external sources including friends, relatives, salespeople, and websites. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient, and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

52. Relatives and friends whom the consumer trusts are known as __________ sources of external information.

A. relational

 

B. marketer-dominated

 

C. personal

 

D. stakeholder

 

E. public

Text term definition—personal sources.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

53. When conducting an information search, various product-rating organizations, such as government agencies and TV consumer programs, are known as

A. relational sources.

 

B. marketer-dominated sources.

 

C. personal sources.

 

D. public sources.

 

E. stakeholder sources.

Text term definition—public sources.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

54. An example of a public source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. advertising.

 

B. relatives.

 

C. salespeople.

 

D. friends.

 

E. product-rating organizations.

Public sources of external search information include various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports, government agencies, and TV consumer programs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

55. An example of a public source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. People magazine advertising.

 

B. Consumer Reports magazine.

 

C. a salesperson at the Apple Store.

 

D. your brother-in-law.

 

E. a point of purchase display at Target.

Public sources of external search information include various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports, government agencies, and TV consumer programs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

56. There are various nonprofit publications dedicated to assisting in consumer education and decision making. Examples of these public sources of information for an external information search include Consumer Reports, __________, and TV consumer programs.

A. advertisements

 

B. sales personnel

 

C. friends and relatives

 

D. government agencies

 

E. point-of-purchase displays

Public sources of external search information include various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports, government agencies, and TV consumer programs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

57. Sources of external information that originate with the sellers of products and services and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores are referred to as

A. relational sources.

 

B. public sources.

 

C. personal sources.

 

D. stakeholder sources.

 

E. marketer-dominated sources.

Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

58. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. previous ownership of a product.

 

B. a Better Business Bureau rating.

 

C. a product display in a retail store.

 

D. a consumer program on talk radio.

 

E. your mother.

Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services, and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

59. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. personal experience.

 

B. salespeople.

 

C. consumer programs on talk radio stations.

 

D. friends and relatives.

 

E. Consumer Reports magazine.

Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services, and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

60. An example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search would include

A. advertising.

 

B. personal experience.

 

C. Consumer Reports magazine.

 

D. consumer programs on talk radio stations.

 

E. friends and relatives.

Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services, and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

61. Which of the following is not an example of a marketer-dominated source of information consulted during an external search?

A. advertising

 

B. point-of-purchase displays

 

C. Consumer Reports magazine

 

D. company salespeople

 

E. company websites

Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services, and include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

62. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by __________, yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and developing the consumer value perception that each alternative presents.

A. evaluating particular products

 

B. selecting the type of purchase outlet

 

C. suggesting criteria to use for the purchase

 

D. minimizing cognitive dissonance

 

E. establishing a purchase timeline

The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by (1) suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, (2) yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and (3) developing consumer value perceptions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

63. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, __________, and developing consumer value perceptions.

A. evaluating particular products

 

B. selecting the type of purchase outlet

 

C. establishing a purchase timeline

 

D. minimizing cognitive dissonance

 

E. yielding brand names that might meet the criteria

The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by (1) suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, (2) yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and (3) developing consumer value perceptions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

64. The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and

A. developing consumer value perceptions.

 

B. evaluating particular products.

 

C. selecting the type of retail outlet.

 

D. establishing a purchase timeline.

 

E. creating a hierarchy of needs.

The alternative evaluation stage clarifies the problem for the consumer by (1) suggesting criteria to use for the purchase, (2) yielding brand names that might meet the criteria, and (3) developing consumer value perceptions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

65. Sanaa recently made partner at her law firm, and she is rewarding herself with the purchase of a new car. She told a co-worker, “The Volvo has nine airbags but the Cadillac drives so smoothly.” Sanaa is currently in which stage of the purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

The alternative evaluation stage produces evaluative criteria (she is considering the safety and the feel of the drive) to make a purchase decision from a consideration set (the brands Volvo and Cadillac).

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

66. The objective and subjective attributes of a brand that consumers use to compare different products and brands are referred to as

A. temporal states.

 

B. antecedent states.

 

C. information sources.

 

D. evaluative criteria.

 

E. the consideration set.

Key term definition—evaluative criteria.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

67. Evaluative criteria refer to

A. the objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products and brands.

 

B. those attributes of a brand that are based exclusively on objective criteria in order to make an unbiased purchase decision.

 

C. those attributes of a brand that are based exclusively on subjective criteria in order to avoid postpurchase anxiety.

 

D. the attributes of a product that a manufacturer wishes to promote to a specific target market.

 

E. a list of required product attributes from which a customer will not waver regardless of additional incentives.

Key term definition—evaluative criteria.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

68. Which of the following statements concerning evaluative criteria is most accurate?

A. If the alternatives in a consideration set do not meet the requirements of the evaluative criteria, the entire decision process is usually discontinued.

 

B. Consumers often have several criteria for evaluating a single product.

 

C. Evaluative criteria represent objective rather than subjective attributes.

 

D. Evaluative criteria represent subjective rather than objective attributes.

 

E. Ultimately, the most important evaluative criterion is price.

Consumers often have several criteria for evaluating brands. Knowing this, companies seek to identify the most important evaluative criteria that consumers use when judging brands.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

69. When purchasing a tablet device, factors a consumer considers prior to purchase are called __________, which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones used to compare different products and brands.

A. points of difference

 

B. informational alternatives

 

C. buying-decision choices

 

D. evaluative criteria

 

E. consumer attributes

Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones used to compare different products and brands.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

70. The Ford Fusion Hybrid SE uses hybrid fuel technology with the latest in lithium-ion battery technology to deliver more power, convenience, prestige, and fuel economy than non-hybrid cars. These attributes listed for the Ford Fusion Hybrid SE are those that consumers may consider when assessing the car. If they do, these attributes would be considered

A. points of difference.

 

B. informational alternatives.

 

C. evaluative criteria.

 

D. competitive advantages.

 

E. consumer attributes.

Evaluative criteria are factors that represent both the objective (power, fuel economy) attributes of a brand and the subjective (prestige, convenience) ones a consumer would use to compare different products and brands.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

71. The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is referred to as the

A. evaluative set.

 

B. evolved set.

 

C. consideration set.

 

D. alternative selection group.

 

E. aspiration group.

Key term definition—consideration set.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

72. A consideration set refers to

A. the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.

 

B. the group of generic brands that a consumer would reluctantly consider acceptable.

 

C. the group of brands of which a consumer is aware.

 

D. all possible competitive product substitutes that may satisfy a consumer’s needs regardless of the product class.

 

E. those product alternatives a consumer has considered, including those deemed unacceptable.

Key term definition—consideration set.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

73. The BMW StreetCarver is a $495 skateboard that features BMW’s technology in its wheel suspension, which stabilizes the board’s sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. BMW wants its skateboard to be within the consideration set of potential skateboard buyers. In this case, it will most likely focus on

A. reducing the postpurchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product.

 

B. making sure its representatives attend sporting events such as ESPN’s X-Games to get new product ideas.

 

C. making appeals directed toward motivational ego needs.

 

D. explaining the stability and control aspects of the StreetCarver in its advertising messages.

 

E. creating personality profiles for skateboarders.

The key influence in determining the products in the consideration set is to have important attributes that match the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers’ consideration sets.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

74. In recent ratings from independent rating agencies for selected smartphone brands and models, a number of factors are listed, such as price, display, audio quality, text messaging, web capability, and camera quality. These factors are the typical __________ for smartphones.

A. consideration sets

 

B. evaluative criteria

 

C. value propositions

 

D. quality considerations

 

E. core benefits

The factors listed are the typical evaluative criteria for smartphones. Evaluative criteria are both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones used to compare different products and brands. See Figure 5-2.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

75. Independent agencies provide ratings of many products. A typical report on smartphones includes brands such as Apple, HTC, LG, Motorola, and Samsung. These brands are referred to as the __________ when consumers use these smartphone ratings to evaluate the products.

A. consideration set

 

B. evaluative criteria

 

C. points of difference

 

D. value propositions

 

E. core benefits

Evaluative criteria establish the brands in a consumer’s consideration set, which is the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands of which he or she is aware in the product class.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

76. Once a consumer has completed the alternative evaluation stage of the consumer purchase decision process, the two remaining choices are

A. which product to buy and how to pay for it.

 

B. whether to buy one or several if a BOGO deal is offered and how to pay for them.

 

C. from whom to buy and when to buy.

 

D. which product to buy and whether to tell others about the purchase.

 

E. whether to buy in person or online and whether to tell others about the purchase.

The purchase decision requires two additional choices: (1) from whom to buy and (2) when to buy.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

77. All of the following would impact your decision about when to buy an offering except

A. the manufacturer is currently offering a $25 rebate.

 

B. you don’t have the money now and don’t get paid until Friday.

 

C. the product is on sale.

 

D. the store is closing in 10 minutes.

 

E. the retailer’s return policy is very relaxed.

Deciding when to buy is determined by a number of factors. For instance, you might buy sooner if one of your preferred brands is on sale or its manufacturer offers a rebate. Other factors such as the store atmosphere, pleasantness or ease of the shopping experience, salesperson assistance, time pressure, and financial circumstances could also affect whether a purchase decision is made now or postponed. A retailer’s return policy determines from whom to buy, not when to buy.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

78. Charlie was standing outside his classroom talking on the phone when a friend heard him say, “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. I’d like to order the 32-gigabyte iPad. I’ll pick it up today at the Southdale Apple Store. Can I use the easy pay plan?” Charlie was in which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. problem recognition

 

B. alternative evaluation

 

C. information search

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase evaluation

Having examined the alternatives of the consideration set, the consumer makes a purchase decision. Charlie has decided from whom and when to buy, which occurs during the purchase decision stage of the consumer purchase decision process.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

79. At the __________ of the consumer purchase decision process, a consumer compares the product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied.

A. problem recognition stage

 

B. information search stage

 

C. alternative evaluation stage

 

D. purchase decision stage

 

E. postpurchase stage

After buying a product, a consumer compares it with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. This occurs during the postpurchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

80. Sensitivity to consumers’ consumption or use experience, whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied, is extremely important in their

A. consideration set assessment.

 

B. prepurchase behavior.

 

C. evaluative criteria selection.

 

D. value perceptions.

 

E. information search.

Sensitivity to consumers’ consumption or use experience, whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied, is extremely important in their value perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

81. Firms such as General Electric, Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, and British Airways focus their attention on __________ to maximize customer satisfaction and retention in part by offering training to handle complaints, answer questions, and solve consumer problems.

A. value perception

 

B. postpurchase behavior

 

C. noncompetitive pricing

 

D. comparison pricing

 

E. prepurchase behavior

After buying a product, a consumer compares it with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. This occurs at the postpurchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process. Firms such as General Electric, Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, and British Airways focus attention on postpurchase behavior to maximize customer satisfaction and retention.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

82. Claire has just told her best friend, “I’m so glad I bought the Samsung Galaxy S6 rather than those other smartphones I was considering. Look at this incredible display, and the battery stays charged forever.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process does Claire’s conversation identify?

A. problem recognition

 

B. information search

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. purchase decision

 

E. postpurchase behavior

After buying a product, a consumer compares it with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Claire’s comments regarding the Samsung Galaxy S6’s display and battery life indicate that she was in the postpurchase behavior stage of the consumer purchase decision process.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

83. Customer satisfaction is an important focus for marketers because

A. marketing research is an expensive proposition; the fewer times it needs to be done, the better off the company is.

 

B. the financial value of a satisfied, loyal customer over time can be significant.

 

C. consumers are unable to assess it by themselves.

 

D. attracting new customers is easier than keeping old ones.

 

E. a 50 percent increase in customer retention can increase a company’s profits by 5 percent.

Over time, the financial value of a satisfied, loyal customer can be significant, as shown by the customer lifetime value figures in the textbook for Frito-Lay, Exxon, Kimberly-Clark, and Ford. Research shows that a 5 percent improvement in customer retention can increase a company’s profits by 70 to 80 percent. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

84. Firms such as Ford and Frito-Lay have learned which of the following marketing lessons?

A. It is a lot easier to find new customers than to retain existing ones.

 

B. According to research, it is equally costly to acquire new customers and retain existing ones.

 

C. Existing customers do not spend as much as new customers since the former like the old products rather than the new ones new customers like.

 

D. The buying experience, customer satisfaction, and customer retention can increase a firm’s profits.

 

E. Unless a marketing promotion to retain customer loyalty can increase market share by at least 5 percent, it is not worth the expenditure.

The financial value of a satisfied customer over time has focused marketer attention on the buying experience, customer satisfaction, and retention. Ford executives say that each additional percentage point of customer retention is worth $100 million in profits. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

85. The feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives is referred to as

A. angst.

 

B. the temporal state.

 

C. the dissociative state.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. cognitive dissonance.

Key term definition—cognitive dissonance.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

86. Cognitive dissonance refers to

A. feelings of guilt for purchasing a product or service that was not consistent with a consumer’s moral or ethical beliefs.

 

B. feelings of discomfort associated with purchasing something purely for the sake of prestige.

 

C. the feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives.

 

D. feelings of discontent after a purchase has been made when the product fails to perform up to expectations.

 

E. feelings of discontent before a purchase has been made when the customer finds out that he or she paid more for the product than necessary.

Key term definition—cognitive dissonance.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

87. Rackspace U.S. Inc. is a web hosting company. If you want to have a website, you can buy Internet space as well as technical support and design services from the company. When its ad tells you that its users consider Rackspace “the risk-free host because it offers dedicated and helpful support any time day or night,” you know that Rackspace is most likely trying to do which of the following?

A. Identify its core values.

 

B. Reduce new buyers’ cognitive dissonance.

 

C. Increase new buyers’ cognitive dissonance.

 

D. Produce a consideration set.

 

E. Evoke problem recognition.

Firms often use ads at the postpurchase stage to reduce cognitive dissonance by convincing customers that they made the correct purchase decision.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

88. You have just purchased an iPad Mini 4 tablet device. As you head home from the store, you brood about whether your choice was right or whether you should have bought a Galaxy Tab S2 after seeing an ad for it on TV. This is most likely an example of

A. indecisiveness.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. postpurchase stress.

 

D. market anxiety.

 

E. extended problem solving.

The feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety is called cognitive dissonance. The debate in your head is an example of cognitive dissonance.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

89. How would consumers who purchased a new and innovative Nike LeBron X basketball shoe for $315 try to reduce any cognitive dissonance they feel?

A. Limit their information search to an internal one.

 

B. Minimize problem solving involvement.

 

C. Read ads for the new basketball shoe even after the purchase has been made.

 

D. Conceal the product purchase from others.

 

E. If the shoe is comfortable and gives the requisite support, there will be no cognitive dissonance.

To alleviate cognitive dissonance, consumers attempt to applaud themselves for making the right choice. One way is to seek information to confirm the right choice was made by reading ads about the product they purchased.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

90. Stephan was excited about his newly purchased laptop. It had all the features he wanted and was really fast with a great display for his gaming. In addition, the $1,200 price tag was reasonable. The same day he took it out of the box, he saw an online special for a similar computer, on sale for only $1,000. Suddenly he began to doubt his purchase decision and worried that maybe he hadn’t gotten such a good deal. Stephan was most likely experiencing

A. limited problem solving.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. selective discord.

 

D. product conflict.

 

E. product uncertainty.

Stephan’s doubt, the psychological tension or anxiety about his decision, is an example of cognitive dissonance.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

91. The personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer, which is known as the level of __________, may cause him or her to skip or minimize one or more stages in the consumer purchase decision process.

A. aspiration

 

B. cognitive dissonance

 

C. motivation

 

D. situational influences

 

E. involvement

Key term definition—involvement.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

92. Involvement refers to

A. the external influences that affect a consumer’s purchase.

 

B. the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.

 

C. the level of difficulty involved in making a purchase.

 

D. the total number of people involved in the actual exchange process.

 

E. the time, energy, and personal investment that will be required to use a product.

Key term definition—involvement.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

93. High-involvement purchases typically have which of the following sets of characteristics?

A. The item is inexpensive, widely available, or simple to use.

 

B. The item is inexpensive, very safe to use, or purchased with great frequency.

 

C. The item is expensive, new to the market, or recommended by influential personal sources.

 

D. The item is expensive, can have serious personal consequences, or could reflect on one’s social image.

 

E. The item is inexpensive, new to the market, or is used for more than five years.

High-involvement purchase occasions typically have at least one of three characteristics: The item to be purchased (1) is expensive, (2) can have serious personal consequences, or (3) could reflect on one’s social image.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

94. For high-involvement purchases, consumers typically do all of the following except

A. spend considerable time evaluating criteria for the consideration set.

 

B. participate in word-of-mouth communication.

 

C. evaluate a single product attribute, such as price.

 

D. consider many brands.

 

E. use both internal and external sources in information search.

For high-involvement purchase occasions, consumers engage in extensive information search, consider many product attributes and brands, form attitudes, and participate in word-of-mouth communication. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

95. NetJets is a company that offers one-sixteenth or more ownership in a jet plane for a price beginning at $325,000. It gives purchasers privacy, convenience, and flexibility as well as saves them time since the plane is available within four hours unless it’s booked by one of the other shareholders. This is most likely an example of

A. a medium-involvement purchase that involves limited problem solving.

 

B. a high-involvement purchase that involves routine problem solving.

 

C. a high-involvement purchase that involves extended problem solving.

 

D. a low-involvement purchase that involves limited problem solving.

 

E. a low-involvement purchase that involves extended problem solving.

NetJets is an example of a high-involvement purchase that involves extended problem solving. High-involvement purchases typically have at least one of three characteristics: (1) the item is expensive (the one-sixteenth share costs $325,000); (2) the item can have serious personal consequences; or (3) the item could reflect on one’s social image. Though there are only a few brands to consider, there are many product attributes to evaluate, many sources of external information sources are used, and the time spent deciding is probably significant. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

96. Which of the following products and services is an example of a low-involvement purchase?

A. a Louis Vuitton designer handbag

 

B. a Trek bicycle

 

C. membership into a local country club

 

D. a vacation to Italy

 

E. Biolage shampoo

High-involvement purchases typically have at least one of three characteristics: (1) the item is expensive, (2) the item can have serious personal consequences, or (3) the item could reflect on one’s social image. Shampoo is a low-involvement purchase that typically involves routine problem solving since it is a low-priced, frequently purchased product.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

97. Lexi wants to find the perfect gift for her older sister’s college graduation. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of weeks to find a gift her sister will use and like. Lexi is engaging in

A. routine problem solving.

 

B. limited problem solving.

 

C. extended problem solving.

 

D. problem recognition.

 

E. integrated problem solving.

Extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

98. In __________, consumers typically seek only a few information sources about several sellers and their brands, and they may identify and evaluate a moderate number of attributes for each brand that eventually will comprise the consideration set.

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. short-term problem solving

 

D. routine problem solving

 

E. relational problem solving

For limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

99. Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing, sheets, towels, or electric can openers?

A. routine response behavior

 

B. limited problem solving

 

C. extended problem solving

 

D. simulated selection

 

E. integrated problem solving

In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. There is little time or effort used in these situations. In general, several brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of different attributes. Limited problem solving might be used in choosing clothing, sheets, towels, or electric can openers. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

100. Which problem solving variation would typically be used for blenders, a restaurant for lunch, or professional ball game tickets?

A. routine response behavior

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. simulated selection

 

D. integrated problem solving

 

E. limited problem solving

In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. There is little time or effort used in these situations. In general, several brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of different attributes. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

101. Elizabeth has decided to purchase a new electric juicer and plans to call several friends for the latest information about alternative brands. She is not concerned about where she buys it as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. In making her decision, Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving variations?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. alternative problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information but there is little time or effort spent. Several brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of attributes. Here, Elizabeth seeks some information from friends but has little interest in spending much effort in finding the right place to purchase the item, characteristic of limited problem solving. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

102. Danilo has decided to purchase a new video game console, not having owned one before. He calls his gamer friends for recommendations about alternative brands and options. He has few concerns about the purchase but wants a quick rundown of the most important aspects to consider. In making his decision, Danilo seems likely to engage in which of the following problem solving variations?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. alternative problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. There is little time or effort used in these situations. In general, several brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of different attributes. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

103. Consumers spend little time and effort evaluating alternatives in the purchase of table salt and milk. The consumer purchase decision process for such staples involves __________, which is virtually a habit and typifies low-involvement decision making.

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. situational problem solving

 

D. rational problem solving

 

E. routine problem solving

The purchase decision process for items such as salt and milk is called routine problem solving, is virtually a habit, and typifies low-involvement decision making. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Routine Decisions
 

 

104. Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase items such as cereal or laundry detergent?

A. limited problem solving

 

B. extended problem solving

 

C. routine problem solving

 

D. situational problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

For these types of products, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Routine Decisions
 

 

105. Jenn needed to have another set of keys made for her apartment so she went to Home Depot to have it done since she remembered her dad going there. This is an example of

A. limited problem solving.

 

B. extended problem solving.

 

C. situational problem solving.

 

D. routine problem solving.

 

E. integrated problem solving.

For these types of products, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Routine Decisions
 

 

106. Between classes, many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bars and soft drinks. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. These college students are most likely involved in __________ problem solving purchase situations.

A. limited

 

B. routine

 

C. extensive

 

D. intensive

 

E. unlimited

Routine purchase decisions involve low-priced, frequently purchased products. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives. Purchase decisions resemble habitual responses and are typical of low-involvement decisions. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Routine Decisions
 

 

107. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following involves all five stages of the purchase decision process and considerable time and effort?

A. consideration set

 

B. routine problem solving

 

C. limited problem solving

 

D. extended problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

Extended problem solving makes use of each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. Considerable time and effort are devoted to the search for external information and the identification and evaluation of alternatives. Several brands are in the consideration set and are evaluated on many attributes. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

108. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following is appropriate for purchase situations that do not merit a great deal of time or effort?

A. consideration set

 

B. routine problem solving

 

C. limited problem solving

 

D. extended problem solving

 

E. integrated problem solving

Consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. Several sellers and their brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of attributes. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

109. In terms of consumer involvement and product knowledge, which of the following is virtually a habit?

A. routine problem solving

 

B. limited problem solving

 

C. extended problem solving

 

D. simulated selection

 

E. integrated problem solving

Consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. The purchase process for such items is virtually a habit and typifies low-involvement decision making. See Figure 5-3.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Routine Decisions
 

 

110. Which of the following is a strategy for a market leader (rather than a market challenger) when marketing a low-involvement product?

A. Use sales promotion such as free samples, coupons, and rebates to encourage trial of the brand.

 

B. Link the brand attributes with high-involvement issues.

 

C. Use Internet search engines such as Google to assist buyers.

 

D. Use advertising messages that focus on getting the brand into a consumer’s consideration set.

 

E. Use repetitive advertising messages that reinforce a consumer’s knowledge or assure buyers they made the right choice.

If a company markets a low-involvement product and its brand is a market leader, attention is placed on (l) maintaining product quality, (2) avoiding stock-out situations so that buyers don’t substitute a competing brand, and (3) repetitive advertising messages that reinforce a consumer’s knowledge or assure buyers they made the right choice.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

111. The purchase of bottled water is a low-involvement purchase. How can a market leader such as Perrier keep people buying its brand instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers’ shelves?

A. Avoid Perrier brand stock-outs on retailers’ shelves.

 

B. Make the purchase decision a high-involvement one.

 

C. Offer coupons for Perrier bottled water.

 

D. Convince retailers to offer only Perrier water.

 

E. Denigrate its competition.

When a market leader sells a low-involvement product, its marketing attention must be placed on (1) maintaining product quality, (2) avoiding stock-out situations, and (3) developing advertising messages that reinforce consumers’ knowledge about the brand or assure them that they made the right choice. Here, Perrier is defined as a market leader, so avoiding stock-outs on retailers’ shelves is crucial.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

112. Which of the following is not a strategy used by marketers of high-involvement offerings?

A. Use personal selling to provide consumers with information.

 

B. Use social media to create online experiences for the brand.

 

C. Avoid stock-out situations so that buyers don’t substitute a competing brand.

 

D. Use Internet search engines such as Google to assist buyers.

 

E. Run ads to provide consumers with information.

Avoiding stock-out situations is a marketing strategy used by a market leader for a low-involvement product. Market leaders of high-involvement products offer product information through advertising and personal selling and use social media to create online experiences. Market challengers use comparative advertising that focuses on existing product attributes and often introduce novel evaluative criteria for judging competing brands. Challengers also benefit from Internet search engines such as Google that assist buyers of high-involvement products.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

113. Purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states can have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. These are referred to as

A. marketing mix influences.

 

B. situational influences.

 

C. psychological influences.

 

D. sociocultural influences.

 

E. evaluative criteria.

Key term definition—situational influences. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

114. Situational influences refer to

A. the five aspects of the purchase situation that impact the consumer purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

B. the temporary impediments to a consumer’s purchase decision.

 

C. psychological concepts that are useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts.

 

D. the feelings of postpurchase anxiety that can arise from a number of different factors including social surroundings, physical surroundings, psychological effects, and precedent states.

 

E. both the objective and subjective attributes a consumer uses to compare different products and brands.

Key term definition—situational influences. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

115. All of the following are situational influences that can have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process except

A. physical surroundings.

 

B. purchase task.

 

C. temporal effects.

 

D. consumer involvement.

 

E. antecedent states.

Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

116. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are __________, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. core values

 

C. perception

 

D. consumer socialization

 

E. purchase task

Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

117. When a man picks up a bottle of wine and tells the salesclerk, “I’m taking this to a dinner party tonight,” which situational influence is being demonstrated?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

The factor prompting the purchase in this case is the man’s need for a dinner party gift. This reason for engaging in the decision process is called the purchase task.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

118. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, __________, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. motivation

 

C. core values

 

D. brand loyalty

 

E. social surroundings

Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

119. Consumers accompanied by children

A. purchase twice as much as they normally would if shopping with other adults.

 

B. purchase about 40 percent more than when shopping alone.

 

C. purchase 40 less than they normally would if shopping with their spouses.

 

D. spend 40 percent less than when shopping alone.

 

E. spend exactly the same amount as when shopping alone.

Social surroundings include the other people present when a purchase decision is made. Consumers accompanied by children buy about 40 percent more items than those shopping by themselves.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

120. Three teenage girls spent an hour at a store trying on various outfits, looking at possible combinations, and asking each other, “How do you think this looks on me?” This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

Social surroundings include the other people present when a purchase decision is made.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

121. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, social surroundings, __________, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. physical surroundings

 

C. core values

 

D. motivation

 

E. economic effects

Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

122. Which of the following is not part of the physical surroundings of a retail store that can influence how purchase decisions are made?

A. decor

 

B. crowding

 

C. lighting

 

D. music

 

E. time of day

Physical surroundings such as decor, music, and crowding in retail stores may alter how purchase decisions are made. Temporal effects such as time of day or the amount of time available will influence when a purchase may be made.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

123. The crowded aisles in retail stores at holiday time may cause some shoppers to lose patience and decide on their purchases with far less thought than they otherwise would due to being “harried” and uncomfortable. This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. spatial surroundings

Physical surroundings such as decor, music, and crowding in retail stores may alter how purchase decisions are made.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

124. Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process. They are purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, __________, and antecedent states.

A. competitive offerings

 

B. core values

 

C. motivation

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. economic effects

Five situational influences have an impact on a consumer’s purchase decision process: purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

125. Temporal effects include

A. the purpose of the purchase.

 

B. the presence of other people.

 

C. the time of day of the purchase.

 

D. the crowding in retail stores.

 

E. the consumer’s mood while engaged in the purchase.

Temporal effects include the time of day or the amount of time available for the purchase.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

126. Many consumers buy a subscription to The Wall Street Journal and have it delivered to their homes by 5:30 a.m. so that they can read it during breakfast. This purchase is an example of which situational influence?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

Temporal effects include the time of day when a purchase is made, such as a subscription for The Wall Street Journal available by 5:30 a.m. so that consumers can read it during breakfast.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

127. Rob only has 30 minutes for lunch, so he typically goes somewhere within a block or two of his building and is careful about what he orders. This is an example of which situational influence in the purchase decision process?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. temporal effects

 

E. antecedent states

Temporal effects include the time of day when a purchase is made and the time available for a purchase, the second of which is most important here.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

128. Consumers with credit cards

A. are less influenced by physical surrounding than those who pay by cash or check.

 

B. are influenced to a certain extent by a retailer’s physical surroundings to buy more with their credit cards than with cash.

 

C. purchase more than those who purchase with cash or debit cards.

 

D. purchase less than those who purchase with cash or debit cards.

 

E. purchase less when accompanied by children than when in the company of other adults.

Antecedent states include the consumer’s mood or amount of cash on hand, which can influence purchase behavior and choice. Consumers with credit cards purchase more than those with cash or debit cards.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

129. The American Floral Council used an ad that showed three flower arrangements varying in size from a single rose to a very large elaborate arrangement. The caption simply read, “Just how mad is she?” This ad relies on which of the following situational influences for its effectiveness?

A. purchase task

 

B. social surroundings

 

C. physical surroundings

 

D. psychological effects

 

E. antecedent states

Antecedent states include the consumer’s mood or amount of cash on hand, which can influence purchase behavior and choice. Here, flowers are assumed to improve one’s mood.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

130. The __________ influences that can affect the consumer purchase decision process help explain why and how consumers behave as they do.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. sociocultural

 

E. marketing mix

The psychological influences, which include motivation and personality, perception, learning, values, beliefs, attitudes, and lifestyle, are useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts. Psychology helps marketers understand why and how consumers behave as they do. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

131. The four Ps are elements of the __________ influences that can affect the consumer purchase decision process.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. environmental

 

D. marketing mix

 

E. market-dominated

The marketing mix influences are the four Ps: product, price, promotion, and place. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

132. The __________ influences are those that evolve from a consumer’s formal and informal relationships with other people.

A. sociocultural

 

B. economic

 

C. environmental

 

D. situational

 

E. market-dominated

Sociocultural influences, which evolve from a consumer’s formal and informal relationships with other people, also exert a significant impact on consumer behavior. These involve personal influence, reference groups, family influence, social class, culture, and subculture. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

133. The __________ influences are those present in the purchase situation, which will affect the purchase decision process.

A. economic

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. sociocultural

 

E. marketing mix

Often the purchase situation will affect the purchase decision process. Five situational influences have an impact on the purchase decision process: (1) the purchase task, (2) social surroundings, (3) physical surroundings, (4) temporal effects, and (5) antecedent states.
The purchase task is the reason for engaging in the decision. The search for information and the evaluation of alternatives may differ depending on whether the purchase is a gift, which often involves social visibility, or for the buyer’s own use. Social surroundings, including the other people present when a purchase decision is made, may also affect what is purchased. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

134. The ________________ is influenced by situational, psychological, sociocultural, and marketing mix influences.

A. consumer purchase decision process

 

B. organizational buying decision process

 

C. marketing research process

 

D. marketing program

 

E. consumer socialization process

The consumer purchase decision process in Figure 5-4 identifies the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process, which is influenced by situational, psychological, sociocultural, and marketing mix influences.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

135. Sociocultural influences that affect the consumer purchase decision process include all of the following except

A. personal influence.

 

B. reference groups.

 

C. family.

 

D. culture and subculture.

 

E. values, beliefs, and attitudes.

Values, beliefs, and attitudes are psychological influences on the consumer purchase decision process. See Figure 5-4.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

136. The energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need is referred to as

A. a personality.

 

B. an antecedent state.

 

C. a motivation.

 

D. a cognitive dissonance.

 

E. a perception.

Key term definition—motivation.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

137. Motivation refers to

A. the stimulus required to cause a consumer to do something uncharacteristic of himself.

 

B. the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a consumer need.

 

C. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

D. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

 

E. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

Key term definition—motivation.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

138. Which list below presents the Maslow hierarchy of needs in its correct order, beginning with the lowest level need and moving up to the highest level need?

A. personal, social, physiological, psychological, and safety

 

B. physiological, safety, social, personal, and self-actualization

 

C. safety, physiological, safety, self-actualization, and personal

 

D. self-actualization, social, safety, physiological, and personal

 

E. safety, personal, self-actualization, physiological, and social

The Maslow hierarchy of needs, from the lowest level need to the highest, are physiological, followed by safety, social, personal, and self-actualization. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

139. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are basic to survival and must be satisfied first are referred to as

A. physiological needs.

 

B. safety needs.

 

C. social needs.

 

D. personal needs.

 

E. self-actualization needs.

Text term definition—physiological needs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

140. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, water, food, and oxygen would be considered __________ needs.

A. psychological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. physiological

People possess physiological needs for basics such as water, food, and oxygen, which are basic to survival and must be satisfied first. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

141. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, __________ needs involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being.

A. physiological

 

B. social

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. self-actualization

Text term definition—safety needs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

142. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, a burglar alarm would satisfy a __________ need.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, safety needs involve self-preservation and physical and financial well-being. See Figure 4-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

143. An ad for Conesco’s life insurance asks the question, “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological needs

 

B. safety needs

 

C. social needs

 

D. personal needs

 

E. self-actualization needs

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, safety needs involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

144. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are referred to as __________ needs.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

Text term definition—social needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

145. eHarmony claims to be the world’s most trusted online dating website. Its appeal is to satisfy consumers’ __________ needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs.

A. physiological

 

B. personal

 

C. interaction

 

D. social

 

E. psychological

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, social needs are those that are concerned with love and friendship. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

146. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect are referred to as __________ needs.

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. personal

 

D. social

 

E. self-actualization

Text term definition—personal needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

147. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those needs involving personal fulfillment are called

A. physiological.

 

B. safety.

 

C. social.

 

D. personal.

 

E. self-actualization.

Text term definition—self-actualization needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

148. In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs are physiological, followed by safety, social, and personal. What category of needs is at the highest level?

A. intellectual needs

 

B. emotional needs

 

C. self-actualization needs

 

D. religious needs

 

E. psychological needs

In terms of the Maslow hierarchy of needs, self-actualization needs are at the top. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

149. An Acura automobile ad is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau, “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams.” This ad is most likely to appeal to consumer’s __________ needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs.

A. physiological

 

B. personal

 

C. psychological

 

D. social

 

E. self-actualization

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment, such as the message in the Acura ad, “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams.” See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

150. The long-running U.S. Army recruiting advertisement that invited enlistees to “Be All You Can Be” appeals to which Maslow hierarchy of needs level?

A. physiological needs

 

B. self-actualization needs

 

C. safety needs

 

D. social needs

 

E. personal needs

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment—what the Army recruiting ads suggest enlistees will realize. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

151. Those needs that are basic to survival are which level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

Physiological needs are basic to survival and must be satisfied first. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

152. A high-end credit card company would appeal to what level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

Personal needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs represents personal needs of status, respect, and prestige. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

153. Dating services, such as Match.com and eHarmony, and fragrance companies would try to appeal to what level in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

Social needs are concerned with love and friendship. Dating services, such as Match.com and eHarmony, and fragrance companies try to arouse these needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

154. Smoke detector and burglar alarm manufacturers focus on appeals to which needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. safety

 

C. social

 

D. personal

 

E. self-actualization

In the Maslow hierarchy of needs, those that represent the desire for freedom from harm and for financial security are safety needs. Safety needs involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being. Smoke detector and burglar alarm manufacturers focus on these needs, as do insurance companies and retirement plan advisors. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

155. At times firms try to _________________________ to stimulate problem recognition.

A. avoid appealing to physiological needs

 

B. avoid appealing to safety needs

 

C. avoid appealing to social needs

 

D. avoid appealing to personal needs

 

E. arouse multiple needs

Sometimes firms try to arouse multiple needs to stimulate problem recognition.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

156. Self-fulfillment in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of the highest-order needs referred to as

A. physiological needs.

 

B. social needs.

 

C. safety needs.

 

D. personal needs.

 

E. self-actualization needs.

Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

157. Status in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

Status, respect, and prestige are examples of personal needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

158. Friendship in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

Friendship, belonging, and love are examples of social needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

159. Shelter in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

Shelter is an example of physiological needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

160. Food in the Maslow hierarchy of needs is an example of a __________ need.

A. self-actualization

 

B. personal

 

C. social

 

D. safety

 

E. physiological

Food is an example of physiological needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

161. The Maslow __________ is based on the idea that motivation comes from a need.

A. motivation for preservation

 

B. products pyramid

 

C. hierarchy of needs

 

D. ladder of effects

 

E. psychosocial influences

The Maslow hierarchy of needs is based on the idea that motivation comes from a need. If a need is met, it’s no longer a motivator, so a higher-level need becomes the motivator. Figure 5-5 shows the Maslow hierarchy of needs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

162. A college education would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

A college education involves self-actualization or self-fulfillment in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

163. Staying at a luxury hotel would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

Personal needs include the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect. Staying in a luxury hotel represents these personal needs in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

164. Chanel No. 5 fragrances would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

Chanel No. 5 fragrances represent social needs of friendship, belonging, and love in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

165. State Farm insurance products would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

State Farm insurance products represent safety needs of freedom from harm and financial security, in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

166. An apartment would be found in what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs?

A. physiological

 

B. self-actualization

 

C. personal

 

D. safety

 

E. social

An apartment represents physiological needs for food, water, shelter, and oxygen, in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. See Figure 5-5.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

167. A person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations is referred to as

A. motivation.

 

B. core values.

 

C. culture.

 

D. perception.

 

E. personality.

Key term definition—personality.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

168. Personality refers to

A. the attitudes that determine how people spend their time and resources and what they consider important.

 

B. the way people see themselves and others.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful ideal self.

 

D. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

E. those qualities that either attract or repel other members of a person’s personal, social, or professional environment.

Key term definition—personality.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

169. Which of the following statements about personality is most accurate?

A. Personality is dynamic and typically changes several times as a person matures.

 

B. Most personality traits are inherited or formed at an early age.

 

C. Personality is the energizing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful.

 

D. Most personality traits are formed during adulthood and don’t change thereafter.

 

E. People with compliant personalities prefer lesser known brand names.

Although many personality theories exist, most identify key traits—enduring characteristics within a person or in his or her relationship with others. These traits are inherited or formed at an early age and change little over the years.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

170. Enduring characteristics within a person or in his or her relationship with others are referred to as

A. a key trait.

 

B. a persona.

 

C. a self-concept.

 

D. a core value.

 

E. an ideal self.

Text term definition—key traits.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

171. The way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them is referred to as

A. self-evaluation.

 

B. self-concept.

 

C. self-actualization.

 

D. individualized perception.

 

E. personal perception.

Key term definition—self-concept.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

172. Self-concept refers to

A. the degree to which a person is influenced by situational influences.

 

B. the need for personal fulfillment.

 

C. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

 

D. the degree to which a person trusts his or her own judgment in a purchase situation.

 

E. the way people see others and the way they believe others see other people.

Key term definition—self-concept.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

173. Marketers recognize that people have an actual self-concept and

A. a persona determined by their peers.

 

B. a persona determined by psychology.

 

C. an abstract self-concept.

 

D. an ideal self-concept.

 

E. an inconsistent self-concept.

Marketers recognize that people have an actual self-concept and an ideal self-concept. An actual self-concept refers to how people actually see themselves. An ideal self-concept describes how people would like to see themselves.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

174. When the state of Virginia touts the slogan “Virginia is for Lovers,” it is trying to appeal to people’s __________ in order to attract them as potential residents, part of its workforce, or vacationers.

A. self-concept

 

B. individualized perception

 

C. self-evaluation

 

D. self-actualization

 

E. personal perception

Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. When Virginia uses the slogan “Virginia is for Lovers,” it is trying to appeal to people’s self-concept (being “lovers”) in order to attract them as residents, workers, or vacationers, and linking that concept to Virginia as a state where “lovers” are welcome.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

175. The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world is referred to as

A. motivation.

 

B. attitude formation.

 

C. learning.

 

D. perception.

 

E. a self-concept.

Key term definition—perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

176. Perception refers to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them.

 

E. the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

Key term definition—perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

177. A filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention is called

A. selective attention.

 

B. selective perception.

 

C. selective intuition.

 

D. selective retention.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

Text term definition—selective perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

178. Because the average consumer operates in a complex environment, the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective attention.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

Because the average consumer operates in a complex environment, the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called selective perception, a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

179. A palindrome is a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from the right or from the left (e.g., madam). Originally, Marshall had never recalled hearing the term. However, when he read about palindromes for his English class, he saw three examples of the term within a matter of days. This is most likely the result of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective attention.

 

C. selective intuition.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. selective perception.

Because the average consumer operates in a complex environment, the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called selective perception, a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

180. The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with them is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

Text term definition—selective exposure.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

181. Selective exposure is most likely to occur during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore those that are inconsistent. It often occurs in the postpurchase stage of the decision process when consumers read advertisements for the brand they just bought.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

182. Because Marla was so strongly committed to a fat-free diet, she did not bother to read a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine suggesting that some fat in our diet is healthy. The report was in a newspaper that Marla reads daily, but the headline did not appeal to her as the result of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs, and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with them.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

183. Interpreting information so that it is consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective analysis.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

Text term definition—selective comprehension.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

184. Toro introduced a small, lightweight snowblower called the Snow Pup. Even though the product worked, sales failed to meet expectations. Toro later found out that consumers perceived the name to mean that Snow Pup was a toy or too light to do any serious snow removal. When the product was renamed Snow Master, sales increased sharply. This is likely an example of

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective analysis.

 

E. stimulus discrimination.

A consumer using selective comprehension interprets information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

185. As a result of __________, consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it.

A. selective retention

 

B. selective comprehension

 

C. selective exposure

 

D. selective perception

 

E. subliminal discrimination

Text term definition—selective retention.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

186. Selective retention is most likely to occur during which stage of the consumer purchase decision process?

A. information search

 

B. purchase decision

 

C. alternative evaluation

 

D. postpurchase behavior

 

E. problem recognition

Selective retention means that consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it. Selective retention often occurs in the information search stage of the consumer decision process when consumers engage in both internal and external search activities.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

187. Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by

A. hiring well-known celebrities to sponsor their products.

 

B. adding more end-aisle and other point-of-purchase displays throughout the store.

 

C. providing brochures for consumers to take home.

 

D. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and a new selection of popular background music.

 

E. offering extended service warranties.

Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see, hear, or read, even minutes after exposure to it. Some retailers give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave their stores to help them remember a product.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

188. If you read the chapters from your marketing textbook the night before this test and still could not remember several of the correct marketing terms, you may be experiencing

A. selective retention.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective exposure.

 

D. selective perception.

 

E. subliminal perception.

Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see, hear, or read, even minutes after exposure to it.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

189. The process of seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them is referred to as

A. selective retention.

 

B. subliminal perception.

 

C. selective perception.

 

D. selective attention.

 

E. indifference.

Key term definition—subliminal perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

190. Subliminal perception refers to

A. the process of seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them.

 

B. a person’s innate ability to read nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

 

C. the ability of a person to understand the allegorical meanings behind words, sentences, or paragraphs communicated in writing or speech.

 

D. the process of being brainwashed to the point of acting in a way that is contrary to or inconsistent with one’s normal behavior.

 

E. the inability of a person to communicate due to lack of background knowledge or experience.

Key term definition—subliminal perception.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

191. A movie theater owner embedded brief messages during trailers before showing the feature film. The messages, which flashed on the screen for such a short time that moviegoers were not consciously aware of them, urged consumers to “Drink Coke” and to “Eat Popcorn,” encouraging them to visit the snack lobby. Research has shown what about such messages?

A. Selective perception overrides advertising messages.

 

B. Selective exposure is difficult for marketers to surmount.

 

C. Subliminal messages have limited effects on behavior.

 

D. Subliminal perception enables marketers to motivate consumers to take an action.

 

E. Subliminal messages were deemed illegal by the Federal Trade Commission at the time these were shown in the movie theater.

Subliminal perception occurs when consumers view or hear messages without being aware of them. Its effect on behavior is a hotly debated issue, with more popular appeal than scientific support. Indeed, evidence suggests that such messages have limited effects on behavior.

 

AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

192. Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is most accurate?

A. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) believes that subliminal perception can be effective with a large majority of consumers.

 

B. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States.

 

C. Subliminal messages are more effective now due to the advances in computer-generated images in movies and TV programs.

 

D. About half of U.S. consumers think that subliminal messages can cause them to buy products and services they don’t want.

 

E. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau.

Subliminal perception refers to seeing or hearing messages without being aware of them. About two-thirds of U.S. consumers think subliminal messages are present in commercial communications; about half are convinced that this can cause them to buy things they don’t want. See Making Responsible Decisions in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

193. The book The Secret Sales Pitch: An Overview of Subliminal Advertising is about subliminal messages, which reflect what kind of potential influence on the consumer decision making process?

A. sociocultural

 

B. situational

 

C. psychological

 

D. acculturational

 

E. attitudinal

About half of U.S. consumers think subliminal messages are present in commercial communications that can cause them to buy things they don’t want. This could be a psychological influence on consumer purchase behavior. See Making Responsible Decisions in the text book.

 

AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

194. The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences is referred to as

A. a negative antecedent state.

 

B. perceived risk.

 

C. temporal uncertainty.

 

D. spatial uncertainty.

 

E. a positive precedent state.

Key term definition—perceived risk.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

195. Perceived risk is

A. an unmerited fear of being taken advantage of in an exchange situation.

 

B. the feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety that consumers may experience when faced with two or more highly attractive alternatives.

 

C. the degree to which a seller is willing to make an exchange based upon a customer’s creditworthiness.

 

D. the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.

 

E. the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences.

Key term definition—perceived risk.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

196. The fear of physical harm, the size of financial outlay required to buy the product, product performance, and even the lack of approval of friends can all contribute to

A. consumer angst.

 

B. cognitive dissonance.

 

C. purchase anxiety.

 

D. perceived risk.

 

E. consumer cynicism.

Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences. Examples of negative consequences include the size of the financial outlay required to buy the product, the risk of physical harm, the performance of the product, and the psychosocial risk that friends won’t approve the purchase.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

197. All of the following are marketing strategies designed to reduce consumers’ perceived risk and encourage purchases except

A. securing endorsements from influential people.

 

B. providing warranties and guarantees.

 

C. providing free trials of the product.

 

D. giving extensive usage instructions.

 

E. using subliminal advertising.

Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences. Companies develop strategies to reduce consumers’ perceived risk and encourage purchases, which can include obtaining seals of approval, securing endorsements from influential people, providing free trials of the product, giving extensive usage instructions, and providing warranties and guarantees.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

198. When Clorox uses the Good Housekeeping Seal for its Fresh Step cat litter, its strategy is to reduce a consumer’s __________ and encourage purchases.

A. consumer angst

 

B. cognitive dissonance

 

C. perceived risk

 

D. purchase anxiety

 

E. consumer cynicism

Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences. Firms develop marketing strategies and tactics to reduce consumers’ perceived risk and encourage purchases, including obtaining seals of approval from reputable organizations. The Good Housekeeping Research Institute tests and approves household products; those that are acceptable earn the Good Housekeeping Seal.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

199. When Kia Motors offered a 10-year, 100,000-mile warranty for its Kia Soul automobile, its strategy was to reduce consumers’ __________ and encourage purchases.

A. behavioral learning

 

B. cognitive learning

 

C. brand loyalty

 

D. perceived risk

 

E. postpurchase dissonance

When Kia Motors offers a 10-year, 100,000 mile warranty for the Kia Soul automobile, its strategy is to reduce consumers’ perceived risk and encourage purchases.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

200. Kendall was excited to begin her new job after she graduated from college. Which of the following purchases would most likely have the greatest perceived risk for her the day before she begins the job?

A. a subscription to The Wall Street Journal

 

B. an outfit for her first day

 

C. a new coffeemaker

 

D. flowers to decorate her new apartment

 

E. running shoes

Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences. Examples of negative consequences include the size of the financial outlay required, the risk of physical harm, the performance of the product, and the psychosocial risk that friends won’t approve the purchase. Here, her new co-workers may think she is not dressed appropriately for the job based on cultural norms of her new workplace.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

201. Those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning are referred to as

A. psychosocial edification.

 

B. acculturation.

 

C. attitudinal identification.

 

D. wisdom.

 

E. learning.

Key term definition—learning.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

202. Learning refers to

A. content that has been transferred from short-term to long-term memory.

 

B. those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people.

 

E. a predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

Key term definition—learning.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

203. The process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it is referred to as

A. perceptual learning.

 

B. retentive learning.

 

C. functional learning.

 

D. motivated learning.

 

E. behavioral learning.

Text term definition—behavioral learning.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

204. All of the following variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience except

A. purchase.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. response.

 

D. drive.

 

E. cue.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

205. You are sleepy before your 8 a.m. class and you notice the Starbucks on the walk to school. You stop for a drink and purchase something new that you really enjoy. The next day you do the same, and soon this has become a habit. This process is an example of

A. cognitive learning.

 

B. the scientific method.

 

C. behavioral learning.

 

D. attitude formation.

 

E. cognitive dissonance.

Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

206. Recall the famous experiment when Dr. Pavlov presented salivating dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell. Eventually, when Pavlov only rang the bell, the dogs would still salivate even though food was not presented. What consumer behavior principle was involved in this research?

A. cognitive learning

 

B. the scientific method

 

C. behavioral learning

 

D. attitude formation

 

E. cognitive dissonance

Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment illustrated.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

207. In behavioral learning, a need that moves an individual to action is

A. a drive.

 

B. a cue.

 

C. an attitude.

 

D. a response.

 

E. a reinforcement.

Text term definition—drive.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

208. One evening while watching TV, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, your hunger is a

A. reinforcement.

 

B. cue.

 

C. response.

 

D. prompt.

 

E. drive.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Hunger is a need that motivates or drives a person to take an action.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

209. In behavioral learning, __________ is a stimulus or symbol perceived by consumers.

A. a drive

 

B. a cue

 

C. an attitude

 

D. a response

 

E. a reinforcement

Text term definition—cue.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

210. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, seeing a TV ad for Subway is a

A. drive.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. cue.

 

D. response.

 

E. prompt.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Seeing a TV ad for Subway is a cue or stimulus a consumer experiences through one’s five senses.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

211. You need to buy a gift for a young cousin’s birthday. You go to the mall and see a girl wearing a Hello Kitty T-shirt. You remember there is a store in the mall with a lot of Hello Kitty merchandise so you go there and buy a little backpack. When you give it to your cousin, she is very excited. In terms of behavioral learning, seeing the girl with the Hello Kitty shirt was a

A. drive.

 

B. reinforcement.

 

C. cue.

 

D. response.

 

E. prompt.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Seeing the girl with the Hello Kitty T-shirt was a cue or stimulus a consumer experiences through the five senses.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

212. In behavioral learning, a __________ is the action taken by a consumer to satisfy a drive.

A. cue

 

B. demotivator

 

C. motivator

 

D. response

 

E. stimulus

Text term definition—response.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

213. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Jimmy John’s. You walk to Jimmy John’s and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, walking to the sandwich shop and buying a sandwich is a

A. drive.

 

B. response.

 

C. reinforcement.

 

D. cue.

 

E. prompt.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Walking to Jimmy John’s and buying a sandwich is the response.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

214. You need to buy a gift for a young cousin’s birthday. At the mall you see a girl wearing a Hello Kitty T-shirt. You remember there is a store nearby with a lot of Hello Kitty merchandise so you go there and buy a little backpack. When you give it to your cousin, she is very excited. In terms of behavioral learning, your purchase at the Hello Kitty store was a

A. drive.

 

B. response.

 

C. reinforcement.

 

D. cue.

 

E. prompt.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. The purchase was the action taken by the consumer to satisfy the drive, known as a response.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

215. In behavioral learning, a __________ is the reward that is given to a consumer.

A. cue

 

B. stimulus

 

C. motivator

 

D. response

 

E. reinforcement

Text term definition—reinforcement.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

216. If a consumer tries a new coffee drink at Starbuck and hates it, which variable of behavioral learning has been ineffective?

A. reinforcement

 

B. achievement

 

C. drive

 

D. cue

 

E. response

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. The drink did not provide the anticipated reward needed for reinforcement.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

217. While watching TV one evening, your stomach growls. You see an ad for Subway. You walk to the Subway shop and buy a sandwich, which tastes great. In terms of behavioral learning, the great taste of the sandwich is

A. a reinforcement.

 

B. an achievement.

 

C. a drive.

 

D. a cue.

 

E. a response.

Four variables are central to how consumers learn from repeated experience: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. The great taste of the sandwich is the reinforcement or reward.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

218. ______________ occurs when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name for different products is an application of this concept.

A. Selective comprehension

 

B. Selective retention

 

C. Stimulus generalization

 

D. Stimulus discrimination

 

E. Routine problem solving

Text term definition—stimulus generalization.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

219. If McNeil Consumer Healthcare uses the same brand name for different products such as Tylenol Cold and Flu and Tylenol P.M. based on behavioral learning theory, this strategy is an example of

A. stimulus generalization.

 

B. selective comprehension.

 

C. selective retention.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. routine problem solving.

Stimulus generalization exists when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name for different products, such as Tylenol Cold and Flu and Tylenol P.M., is an application of this concept.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

220. Which of the following is a concept from behavioral learning theory that marketers use?

A. selective comprehension

 

B. selective retention

 

C. stimulus generalization

 

D. cognitive dissonance

 

E. routine problem solving

Marketers use several concepts from behavioral learning theory, including stimulus generalization, which exists when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

221. A person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli is referred to as

A. selective comprehension.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. stimulus generalization.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. routine problem solving.

Text term definition—stimulus discrimination.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

222. Consumers’ ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. stimulus discrimination.

 

C. selective retention.

 

D. selective comprehension.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

Stimulus discrimination refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli. Consumers’ ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

223. Elsa contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheeses and those with regular fat content. Elsa is exhibiting

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. stimulus discrimination.

 

D. selective comprehension.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

Stimulus discrimination refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli—in this case, different types of cheese.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

224. Edison noticed that prices at a new video game rental website were lower than those at most of the other gaming websites or retail stores such as Game Stop. He is exhibiting

A. cognitive dissonance.

 

B. selective retention.

 

C. selective comprehension.

 

D. stimulus discrimination.

 

E. stimulus generalization.

Stimulus discrimination refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli—in this case, different prices for video game rentals.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

225. Comparative advertising, in which one brand is compared to another, is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. Marketers who employ comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that their products are better than competitors’ offerings.

A. cognitive dissonance

 

B. selective retention

 

C. selective comprehension

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. stimulus discrimination

Stimulus discrimination refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli—in this case, two different brands.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

226. Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting one’s own behavior accordingly is known as what type of learning?

A. stimulus discrimination

 

B. cognitive learning

 

C. attitudinal learning

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. behavioral learning

Text term definition—cognitive learning.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

227. When General Mills repeatedly advertises that a cake baked from a Betty Crocker mix tastes just like homemade, it is influencing which type of learning?

A. stimulus discrimination

 

B. brand loyalty

 

C. cognitive learning

 

D. stimulus generalization

 

E. behavioral learning

Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly. In this case, Betty Crocker ads link its cake mixes to baking cakes from scratch.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

228. Advertising explains that the drug Plavix works by preventing plaque buildup in arteries that can cause heart attack and stroke. This is an example of

A. using a cognitive learning technique.

 

B. using a behavioral learning technique.

 

C. reducing perceived risk.

 

D. creating stimulus generalization.

 

E. using an attitudinal learning technique.

Cognitive learning requires thinking, reasoning, and mental problem solving without direct experience. This type of learning involves making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting your own accordingly. The consumer is encouraged to learn about the benefits of the drug.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

229. The back of a box of Hinode Harvest Blend rice mix suggests cooking with chicken broth for added flavor. This is an example of

A. using a behavioral learning technique.

 

B. reducing perceived risk.

 

C. creating stimulus generalization.

 

D. using a cognitive learning technique.

 

E. using an attitudinal learning technique.

Cognitive learning requires thinking, reasoning, and mental problem solving without direct experience. This type of learning involves making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting your own accordingly. The proposed new method of rice preparation can be linked to the product in advertising messages, highlighted on packages, or observed among current users.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

230. Research has found that for many products, including soft drinks, coffee, and cosmetics, consumers are unable to distinguish among brands in blind tests (i.e., taste or other use of the products without labels). Nonetheless, even when prices are similar, consumers have strong preferences for specific brands. They may buy out of habit, which is the basis of

A. extended problem solving.

 

B. limited problem solving.

 

C. routine problem solving.

 

D. high-involvement problem solving.

 

E. personal problem solving.

Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

231. A favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time is referred to as

A. stimulus generalization.

 

B. attitudinal discrimination.

 

C. brand loyalty.

 

D. behavioral loyalty.

 

E. consumer allegiance.

Key term definition—brand loyalty.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

232. Brand loyalty refers to

A. the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.

 

B. a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.

 

C. a formalized agreement of a vendor to carry one brand over another because it views the quality of that brand to be superior to all others.

 

D. the willingness of consumers to try a new brand in a brand line based upon their satisfaction with other brands in the line.

 

E. the faith that other products manufactured by the same company with the same brand name will be of the same quality.

Key term definition—brand loyalty.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

233. Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is most accurate?

A. Learning has little effect on brand loyalty because most habits are instinctual.

 

B. Brand loyalty increases the perceived risk associated with impulse purchases.

 

C. The incidence of brand loyalty is steadily rising in North America.

 

D. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions.

 

E. The best way to enhance brand loyalty is to brand all new products with the same brand name.

Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. The incidence of brand loyalty appears to be declining in North America, Western Europe, and Japan.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

234. A learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way is referred to as

A. an attitude.

 

B. a belief.

 

C. a value.

 

D. a motivation.

 

E. a perception.

Key term definition—attitude.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

235. An attitude refers to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

C. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people.

 

D. the feelings one has about the preferable modes of conduct that tend to persist over time.

 

E. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

Key term definition—attitude.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

236. If you hold a personal value of thriftiness, then you probably will have a favorable __________ toward automobiles with good fuel economy.

A. belief

 

B. value

 

C. attitude

 

D. motivation

 

E. perception

Personal values affect attitudes by influencing the importance assigned to specific product attributes. Suppose thriftiness is a personal value. When you evaluate cars, fuel economy (a product attribute) becomes important. If you believe a specific car brand has this attribute, you are likely to have a favorable attitude toward it.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

237. Which of the following statements about attitudes is false?

A. Marketers are primarily concerned with American core values when developing advertising messages.

 

B. Attitudes are learned.

 

C. Attitudes are shaped by one’s values and beliefs.

 

D. An attitude results in responses that are consistently favorable or unfavorable.

 

E. Personal values affect attitudes by influencing the importance assigned to specific product attributes.

An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. Attitudes are shaped by our values and beliefs, which are learned. Values vary by level of specificity. Marketers are concerned with both American core values and personal values but focus mostly on personal values, which affect attitudes by influencing the importance assigned to specific product attributes.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

238. A consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people are referred to as

A. values.

 

B. attitudes.

 

C. beliefs.

 

D. predispositions.

 

E. opinions.

Key term definition—beliefs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

239. Beliefs refer to

A. a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.

 

B. a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

 

C. the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

 

D. a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes.

 

E. the moral and ethical precepts that guide a person’s behavior.

Key term definition—beliefs.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

240. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) __________, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

C. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

D. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

241. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) __________, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

C. changing the perceived importance of attributes

 

D. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

242. Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) __________.

A. reinforcing the consumers’ sense of self-confidence in making wise purchase decisions

 

B. adding new attributes to the product

 

C. refocusing a consumer’s attention from one attribute to another

 

D. actively educating consumers about the product’s competitive advantages

 

E. denigrating the attributes of competitors’ products

Marketers use three approaches to try to change consumer attitudes toward products and brands: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

243. What attitude change approach did Colgate marketers use to encourage consumers to purchase its product when it began to include the antibacterial agent triclosan in its product?

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes

 

B. changing the perceived importance of attributes

 

C. adding new attributes to the product

 

D. providing free trials of the new product

 

E. obtaining a seal of approval to reduce consumers’ risk and encourage purchases

Colgate-Palmolive included a new antibacterial ingredient, triclosan, in its Colgate Total toothpaste and spent $100 million marketing the brand to encourage customers to consider this germ-fighting property as a new attribute.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

244. Most people already know that Tums, a popular antacid, contains calcium. Today, ads for Tums stress both the fact that it can be used as a calcium supplement and the health benefits of calcium. The new promotion involves changing consumers’ attitudes toward Tums by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which Tums has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing the perceived risk.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization to prospective buyers.

Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. By focusing on this attribute, it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude toward Tums. Since consumers already know Tums contains calcium, a new attribute had not been added.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

245. The Ford Escape Hybrid SUV was the first SUV on the market to be powered by both electricity and gasoline. Ford has targeted not only people who are excited about technology but also those who want to contribute to cleaner air. Ford set a goal to attract 20,000 buyers a year for this SUV. Ford is trying to change consumer attitudes by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing the perceived risk of the product.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization to prospective buyers.

Changing consumer attitudes toward products and brands includes (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product. Adding a new attribute—the hybrid electric and gasoline motor—is one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

246. Pepsi-Cola made “freshness” an important product attribute when it stamped freshness dates on its cans. Prior to doing so, few consumers considered freshness an issue for soft drinks. Pepsi-Cola is trying to change consumers’ attitudes toward its soft drinks by

A. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has a specific attribute.

 

B. changing the perceived importance of a specific attribute.

 

C. adding a new attribute.

 

D. reducing perceived risk.

 

E. providing stimulus generalization.

Pepsi-Cola added the attribute of “freshness” to soft drinks by using “freshness” dates that are stamped on its cans and then promoting this feature. Prior to this, few consumers thought about freshness as an attribute of canned soda. As a result of the $25 million campaign, 61 percent of soft drink consumers believed that freshness dating was an important attribute.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

247. A mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them is referred to as

A. culture.

 

B. psychographics.

 

C. social class.

 

D. lifestyle.

 

E. reference group.

Text term definition—lifestyle.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

248. Lifestyle refers to

A. the set of behaviors that is a result of spending one’s time and money as one pleases.

 

B. a mode of living that is defined by one’s personal moral philosophy.

 

C. the similar values, interests, and behaviors that members of society share.

 

D. a self-defined identification of belonging to a lower, lower-middle, middle, upper-middle, or upper class in terms of values, attitudes, and beliefs.

 

E. a mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them.

Text term definition—lifestyle.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

249. Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyles is

A. demographics.

 

B. psychographics.

 

C. social statistics.

 

D. physiological needs.

 

E. sociographics.

Text term definition—psychographics.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

250. Which of the following statements about psychographics is most accurate?

A. Psychographics is unable to provide actionable information about potential customers since the data obtained from the research are too subjective to be reliably interpreted and acted upon.

 

B. Although helpful in segmenting markets, psychographics is limited in its ability to target consumers.

 

C. Psychographics combines demographic data, psychological data, and actual spending data of consumers to create VALS profiles.

 

D. Psychographics combines psychology, lifestyle, and demographics to uncover consumer motivations for buying and using offerings.

 

E. Psychographic data are extremely vulnerable to current social trends and therefore are best suited to new market-product combinations rather than existing ones.

Psychographics is the practice of combining psychology, lifestyle, and demographics to uncover consumer motivations for buying and using products and services. Psychographics is useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products and services.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

251. The VALS framework is an example of

A. a personality assessment.

 

B. cognitive learning theory.

 

C. a psychographic system.

 

D. a study on the hierarchy of needs.

 

E. geodemographic segmentation.

A prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) segmentation is the VALS framework developed by Strategic Business Insights (SBI).

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

252. The VALS framework segments consumers based on

A. their primary motivation for buying products and their resources.

 

B. their demographics.

 

C. their product usage, age, and gender.

 

D. where they live.

 

E. their media usage and their demographics.

The practice of combining psychology, lifestyle, and demographics can be used to uncover consumer motivations for buying and using products and services. VALS measures the enduring differences between people that explain and predict lifestyles meaningfully.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

253. Which of the following statements about the VALS framework is false?

A. Consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals, achievement, and self-expression—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities.

 

B. Consumers are motivated to buy products and services and seek experiences that give shape, substance, and satisfaction to their lives.

 

C. The VALS framework seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions.

 

D. The VALS framework identifies eight consumer segments.

 

E. A consumer’s gender and age have a direct effect on placement within a VALS consumer segment.

VALS™, owned and operated by Strategic Business Insights (SBI), is more than a lifestyle segmentation because VALS examines the intersection of psychology, demographics, and lifestyles. VALS measures the enduring differences between people that explain and predict lifestyles meaningfully. Eight primary segments—personalities—are identified on the basis of motivations and resources. According to SBI, consumers are motivated to buy products and services and seek life experiences that give shape, substance, and satisfaction to their lives. Consumers are driven by one of three motivations—ideals, achievement, and self-expression—that give meaning to their self and the world and govern their activities. The different levels of resources enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

254. In the VALS framework, a person’s resources include all of the following except

A. material.

 

B. emotional.

 

C. temporal.

 

D. psychological.

 

E. demographic.

In the VALS framework, a person’s resources include psychological, emotional, demographic, and material capacities such as curiosity, risk-taking, age, and income.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

255. VALS groups of consumers motivated by __________ are those who are guided by knowledge and principle.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. rewards

 

E. success

Ideals-motivated VALS groups are those who are guided by knowledge and principle. Ideal-motivated groups consist of Thinkers and Believers.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

256. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. One segment of the two ideals-motivated groups, known as __________, includes mature, reflective, and well-educated people who value order, knowledge, and responsibility.

A. Makers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Thinkers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Achievers

Thinkers are mature, reflective, and well-educated people who value order, knowledge, and responsibility. They are practical consumers who value durability and functionality in products over styling and newness.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

257. In the VALS framework, those consumers who are practical and who value durability and functionality in products over styling and newness are called

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Achievers.

 

C. Believers.

 

D. Thinkers.

 

E. Innovators.

Thinkers are mature, reflective, and well-educated people who value order, knowledge, and responsibility. They are practical consumers who value durability and functionality in products over styling and newness.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

258. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. One segment of the two Ideals-motivated groups, known as __________, have fewer resources and are conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs based on established codes: family, religion, community, and the nation.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

Believers, with fewer resources, are conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs based on established codes: family, religion, community, and the nation. They choose familiar products and brands, favor American-made products, and are generally brand loyal.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

259. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. __________ choose familiar products and brands, favor American-made products, and are generally brand loyal.

A. Believers

 

B. Thinkers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Experiencers

 

E. Achievers

Believers, with fewer resources, are conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs based on established codes: family, religion, community, and the nation. They choose familiar products and brands, favor American-made products, and are generally brand loyal.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

260. VALS groups of consumers motivated by __________ are those who look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. rewards

 

E. success

Achievement-motivated VALS groups are those who look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. Achievement-motivated groups consist of Achievers and Strivers.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

261. In the VALS framework, consumers who are looking for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to are called

A. an ideals-motivated group.

 

B. a rewards- and-success-motivated group.

 

C. a self-expression-motivated group.

 

D. an achievement-motivated group.

 

E. a high- and-low-resource group.

Achievement-motivated VALS groups are those who look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. Achievement-motivated groups consist of Achievers and Strivers.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

262. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. One segment of the two achievement-motivated groups, known as __________, have a busy, goal-directed lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. Image is important to them.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

Achievers have a busy, goal-directed lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. Image is important to them. They favor established, prestige products and services and are interested in time-saving devices given their hectic schedules.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

263. In the VALS framework, consumers who favor established, prestige products and services and are interested in time-saving devices given their hectic schedules are called

A. Thinkers.

 

B. Believers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Experiencers.

 

E. Achievers.

Achievers have a busy, goal-directed lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. Image is important to them. They favor established, prestige products and services and are interested in time-saving devices given their hectic schedules.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

264. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a peer group they aspire to. A segment of the achievement-motivated groups, known as __________, are trendy, fun-loving, and less self-confident than Achievers.

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Makers

 

E. Survivors

Strivers are trend followers. They seek fun to offset frequent, self-inflicted stress-producing situations. Many believe that life is unfair but they lack the education, skills, and tenacity to change their circumstances. Money defines success for them; however, they believe that success is the result of good luck, not hard work.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

265. In the VALS framework, achievement-motivated consumers who have a lower levels of education and household income than Achievers are called

A. Believers.

 

B. Experiencers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Survivors.

Strivers are trend followers. They seek fun to offset frequent, self-inflicted stress-producing situations. Many believe that life is unfair but they lack the education, skills, and tenacity to change their circumstances. Money defines success for them; however, they believe that success is the result of good luck, not hard work.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

266. VALS groups of consumers who are motivated by __________ are those who desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk.

A. ideals

 

B. rewards

 

C. achievement

 

D. self-expression

 

E. success

Self-expression-motivated VALS groups are those who desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk. Self-expression-motivated groups consist of Experiencers and Makers.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

267. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by self-expression desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk. One segment of the two self-expression-motivated groups, known as __________, are young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who become excited about new possibilities but are equally quick to cool.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Thinkers

Experiencers are young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who become excited about new possibilities but are equally quick to cool. They seek to make an impact on their world. Their energy finds an outlet in exercise, sports, outdoor recreation, and social activities. Much of their income is spent on technology, entertainment, and socializing. Form is more important than function because how something looks is very important to them.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

268. In the VALS framework, consumers who spend much of their income on technology, entertainment, and socializing, are called

A. Believers.

 

B. Experiencers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Thinkers.

Experiencers are young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who become excited about new possibilities but are equally quick to cool. They seek to make an impact on their world. Their energy finds an outlet in exercise, sports, outdoor recreation, and social activities. Much of their income is spent on technology, entertainment, and socializing. Form is more important than function because how something looks is very important to them.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

269. In the VALS framework, consumers whose energy finds outlets in exercise, sports, outdoor recreation, and social activities are referred to as

A. Believers.

 

B. Strivers.

 

C. Achievers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Experiencers.

Experiencers are young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who become excited about new possibilities but are equally quick to cool. They seek to make an impact on their world. Their energy finds an outlet in exercise, sports, outdoor recreation, and social activities.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

270. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by self-expression desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk. One segment of the two self-expression-motivated groups, known as __________, express themselves and experience the world by working on it—growing vegetables or fixing a car.

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Makers

 

E. Survivors

Makers, with fewer resources than Experiencers, express themselves and experience the world by working on it—growing vegetables or fixing a car. They are practical people who have constructive skills, value self-sufficiency, and are unimpressed by material possessions except those with a practical or functional purpose.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

271. In the VALS framework, self-expression-motivated consumers who have fewer resources and express themselves and experience the world by working on it are referred to as

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Thinkers.

 

C. Strivers.

 

D. Believers.

 

E. Makers.

Makers, with fewer resources than Experiencers, express themselves and experience the world by working on it—growing vegetables or fixing a car. They are practical people who have constructive skills, value self-sufficiency, and are unimpressed by material possessions except those with a practical or functional purpose.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

272. In the VALS framework, consumers with fewer resources who are practical people, have constructive skills, value self-sufficiency, and are unimpressed by material possessions except those with a practical or functional purpose are referred to as

A. Experiencers.

 

B. Thinkers.

 

C. Makers.

 

D. Believers.

 

E. Strivers.

Makers, with fewer resources than Experiencers, express themselves and experience the world by working on it—growing vegetables or fixing a car. They are practical people who have constructive skills, value self-sufficiency, and are unimpressed by material possessions except those with a practical or functional purpose.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

273. In the VALS framework, two segments stand apart based on their abundance or lack of psychological, physical, and material

A. ideals.

 

B. rewards.

 

C. self-expression.

 

D. achievement.

 

E. resources.

In the VALS system, two segments stand apart based on their abundance or lack of resources (psychological, physical, and material). Consumers with an abundance of resources are known as Innovators while those with minimal resources are known as Survivors.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

274. In the VALS framework, the segment with the most abundant resources, known as __________, includes successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and resources of all kinds.

A. Experiencers

 

B. Innovators

 

C. Makers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Strivers

Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Image is important to them, not as evidence of power or status, but as an expression of cultivated tastes, independent thinking, and character. They are early adopters and change leaders. Their lives are characterized by richness and variety.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

275. In the VALS framework, consumers who place importance on image—not as evidence of power or status, but as an expression of cultivated tastes, independence, and character—are referred to as

A. Actualizers.

 

B. Innovators.

 

C. Achievers.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Strivers.

Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Image is important to them, not as evidence of power or status, but as an expression of cultivated tastes, independent thinking, and character. They are early adopters and change leaders. Their lives are characterized by richness and variety.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

276. Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs that will bloom just a few weeks after spring planting so people who did not plant bulbs in the fall can have spring flowers. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate finer things and will pay a premium price. Which of these VALS segments would be most suitable to target?

A. Survivors

 

B. Believers

 

C. Makers

 

D. Innovators

 

E. Experiencers

Innovators enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. They also have the most resources to spend on things they value, like these tulip bulbs.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

277. LG, a consumer electronics manufacturer, recently introduced a 55-inch Internet-capable, 3-D OLED (organic light-emitting diode) HDTV. As its marketing manager, you have used lifestyle analysis in the past, particularly the VALS system, to help you profile your customers. Which of the following VALS profiles would be the most likely target market for this product?

A. Survivors

 

B. Believers

 

C. Experiencers

 

D. Achievers

 

E. Innovators

Innovators would be the most likely target market to buy the new Internet-capable, 3D OLED (organic light-emitting diode) HDTV. They are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. They are early adopters and change leaders.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

278. In the VALS framework, consumers can have abundant or minimal psychological, physical, and material resources. One segment with minimal resources, known as __________, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires.

A. Thinkers

 

B. Innovators

 

C. Makers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Strivers

Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. They represent a modest market for most products and services and are loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can be purchased at a discount.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

279. In the VALS framework, consumers with the least resources of any segment represent a modest market for most products and services. They are loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can be purchased at a discount, and are referred to as

A. Strivers.

 

B. Believers.

 

C. Survivors.

 

D. Makers.

 

E. Thinkers.

Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. They represent a modest market for most products and services and are loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can be purchased at a discount.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

280. Two VALS segments stand apart. One segment represents the group with the highest resources and innovation and the other segment represents the group with the lowest resources and innovation. These two groups are the __________ and the __________.

A. Thinkers; Believers

 

B. Strivers; Survivors

 

C. Achievers; Strivers

 

D. Innovators; Survivors

 

E. Experiencers; Makers

Two segments stand apart. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling their desires.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

281. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment would be the most likely to visit Facebook?

A. Experiencers

 

B. Believers

 

C. Thinkers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Makers

Each segment receives and processes information differently and exhibits unique media preferences. For example, Experiencers are the most likely to visit Facebook and to read magazines. Makers and Achievers drive the most miles each week; therefore, they are the most likely to view outdoor advertising. Innovators and Thinkers are the most likely to read national newspapers. Survivors watch over 50 hours of television in an average week.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

282. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment would be the most likely to read national newspapers?

A. Experiencers

 

B. Thinkers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Strivers

 

E. Makers

Each segment receives and processes information differently and exhibits unique media preferences. For example, Experiencers are the most likely to visit Facebook and to read magazines. Makers and Achievers drive the most miles each week; therefore, they are the most likely to view outdoor advertising. Innovators and Thinkers are the most likely to read national newspapers. Survivors watch over 50 hours of television in an average week.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

283. In the VALS framework, each consumer segment exhibits unique media preferences. Which segment is most likely to view outdoor advertising?

A. Strivers

 

B. Experiencers

 

C. Believers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Makers

Each segment receives and processes information differently and exhibits unique media preferences. For example, Experiencers are the most likely to visit Facebook and to read magazines. Makers and Achievers drive the most miles each week; therefore, they are the most likely to view outdoor advertising. Innovators and Thinkers are the most likely to read national newspapers. Survivors watch over 50 hours of television in an average week.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

284. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, ____________ are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people.

A. ideals-oriented consumers

 

B. achievement-oriented consumers

 

C. self-expression oriented consumers

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

According to the VALS framework, consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals (guided by knowledge and principles), achievement (demonstrating success to their peers or a group they aspire to), and self-expression (desiring social or physical activity, variety, and risk)—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities. The two different levels of resources (high and low) enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation. A person’s resources include psychological, physical, and material capacities. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. See the VALS framework in the textbook. See Figure 5-6.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

285. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ______ are guided by knowledge and principles.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

According to the VALS framework, consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals (guided by knowledge and principles), achievement (demonstrating success to their peers or a group they aspire to), and self-expression (desiring social or physical activity, variety, and risk)—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities. The two different levels of resources (high and low) enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation. A person’s resources include psychological, physical, and material capacities. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. See the VALS framework in the textbook. See Figure 5-6.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

286. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, those consumers who seek products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a group they aspire to refers to

A. Ideals.

 

B. Achievement.

 

C. Self-Expression.

 

D. Survivors.

 

E. Innovators.

According to the VALS framework, consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals (guided by knowledge and principles), achievement (demonstrating success to their peers or a group they aspire to), and self-expression (desiring social or physical activity, variety, and risk)—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities. The two different levels of resources (high and low) enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation. A person’s resources include psychological, physical, and material capacities. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. See the VALS framework in the textbook. See Figure 5-6.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

287. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, consumers motivated by ___________ desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk.

A. ideals

 

B. achievement

 

C. self-expression

 

D. Survivors

 

E. Innovators

According to the VALS framework, consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals (guided by knowledge and principles), achievement (demonstrating success to their peers or a group they aspire to), and self-expression (desiring social or physical activity, variety, and risk)—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities. The two different levels of resources (high and low) enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation. A person’s resources include psychological, physical, and material capacities. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. See the VALS framework in the textbook. See Figure 5-6.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

288. VALS creates profiles of people based on their primary motivation and resources. In the VALS framework, the segment that focuses on meeting basic needs—such as food, clothing and shelter, safety and security—rather than fulfilling desires, refers to

A. Ideals.

 

B. Achievement.

 

C. Self-Expression.

 

D. Survivors.

 

E. Innovators.

According to the VALS framework, consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations—ideals (guided by knowledge and principles), achievement (demonstrating success to their peers or a group they aspire to), and self-expression (desiring social or physical activity, variety, and risk)—that give meaning to their self or the world and govern their activities. The two different levels of resources (high and low) enhance or constrain a person’s expression of his or her primary motivation. A person’s resources include psychological, physical, and material capacities. Innovators are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources of all kinds. Survivors, with the least resources of any segment, focus on meeting basic needs (safety and security) rather than fulfilling desires. See the VALS framework in the textbook. See Figure 5-6.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

289. A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behavior of others. Two important aspects of personal influence to marketing are

A. lifestyle and motivation.

 

B. personality and lifestyle.

 

C. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity.

 

D. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics.

 

E. psychographics and demographics.

A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behavior of others. Two important aspects of personal influence to marketing are opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

290. A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word-of-mouth activity.

A. parental guidance

 

B. peer pressure

 

C. opinion leadership

 

D. government regulation

 

E. psychographics

A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence are very important to marketing: opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

291. Consumers’ purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketers are opinion leadership and

A. consumer socialization.

 

B. word-of-mouth activity.

 

C. peer pressure.

 

D. government regulation.

 

E. sales promotion.

A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence are very important to marketing: opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

292. Individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others are referred to as

A. decision makers.

 

B. achievers.

 

C. innovators.

 

D. buzz managers.

 

E. opinion leaders.

Key term definition—opinion leaders.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

293. An opinion leader is an individual

A. within an organization who influences decision making.

 

B. who is able to use moral persuasion to get others to comply with the latest trends.

 

C. in an organization who encourages other paid individuals to forward marketer-initiated messages to others via e-mail, social networking, websites, and blogs.

 

D. who exerts direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

E. who is able and willing to cut red tape and move an organization’s marketing program forward.

Key term definition—opinion leaders.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

294. A study by Popular Mechanics magazine identified 18 million _____________ who influence the purchases of some 85 million consumers for do-it-yourself products.

A. lifestyle makers

 

B. aspirational people

 

C. autonomous leaders

 

D. opinion leaders

 

E. joint decision makers

Individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others are called opinion leaders. Opinion leaders are considered to be knowledgeable about or users of particular products and services, so their opinions influence others’ choices. Opinion leadership is widespread in the purchase of cars and trucks, entertainment, clothing and accessories, club membership, consumer electronics, vacation destinations, food, and financial investments. A study by Popular Mechanics magazine identified 18 million opinion leaders who influence the purchases of some 85 million consumers for do-it-yourself products.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

295. What percentage of adults is considered to be opinion leaders?

A. 1 percent

 

B. 5 percent

 

C. 10 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. It depends upon the type of product.

About 10 percent of U.S. adults are opinion leaders. Identifying, reaching, and influencing opinion leaders is a major challenge for companies.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

296. When Citizen, a watch company, uses a spokesperson such as football player Eli Manning to promote its Eco-Drive watches, it believes he is __________ who can influence the purchase decision of its target market.

A. an opinion leader

 

B. a product champion

 

C. an innovator

 

D. a BzzAgent

 

E. a rainmaker

Some firms use sports figures or celebrities as spokespersons (a form of opinion leadership) to represent their products, such as football player Eli Manning for Citizen Eco-Drive watches.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

297. The influencing of people during conversations is referred to as

A. opinion formations.

 

B. peer persuasion.

 

C. interpersonal gossip.

 

D. word of mouth.

 

E. consumer socialization.

Key term definition—word of mouth.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

298. Word of mouth refers to

A. advertising or public service announcements that rely solely on auditory or voice messages to reach an organization’s target market.

 

B. subjective, often negative, misconceptions that are passed from one person to another as the result of selective perception.

 

C. the influencing of people during conversations.

 

D. the individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

E. casual or unconstrained conversation or reports about other people or offerings involving details that are not confirmed as being true.

Key term definition—word of mouth.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

299. What percentage of all consumer conversations about brands happen face to face?

A. 25 percent

 

B. 33 percent

 

C. 50 percent

 

D. 75 percent

 

E. 90 percent

About 75 percent of all consumer conversations about brands happen face to face.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

300. About __________ of all consumer conversations about brands happen over the phone.

A. 5 percent

 

B. 10 percent

 

C. 15 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. 40 percent

About 15 percent of all consumer conversations about brands happen over the phone.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

301. What percentage of all consumer conversations about brands happen online?

A. 5 percent

 

B. 10 percent

 

C. 15 percent

 

D. 25 percent

 

E. 40 percent

About 10 percent of all consumer conversations about brands happen online.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

302. What percentage of U.S. product sales is directly tied to word of mouth among friends, family, and colleagues?

A. 10 percent

 

B. 25 percent

 

C. 33 percent

 

D. 50 percent

 

E. 67 percent

About 67 percent of U.S. product sales are directly tied to word of mouth among friends, family, and colleagues.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

303. All of the following are marketing activities designed to stimulate conversations that promote positive or retard negative word of mouth except

A. using slogans, music, and humor in advertising.

 

B. giving appropriate product demonstrations.

 

C. recruiting and deploying people to produce buzz.

 

D. employing VALS segmentation strategies.

 

E. running teaser advertising campaigns in advance of new-product introductions.

Marketing activities to promote positive word of mouth include: (1) running “teaser” advertising campaigns that are run in advance of new-product introductions; (2) using slogans, music, and humor in advertising; and (3) recruiting and deploying people to produce buzz. Activities to retard negative word of mouth include: (1) supplying factual information, (2) providing toll-free numbers for consumers to call the company, and (3) giving appropriate product demonstrations.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

304. Febreze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreze was introduced, a few people in an Internet chat room stated that the product was harmful to house pets. Though untrue, the rumor spread. If P&G had not been convinced it would be a very successful product, it would have dropped Febreze from its P&G product line as a result of

A. negative word of mouth.

 

B. a lack of back translation.

 

C. cultural insensitivity.

 

D. consumer ethnocentrism.

 

E. poor opinion leadership.

This was a rumor that resulted in negative word of mouth, which was not based on fact.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

305. Popularity created by consumer word of mouth is called

A. hype.

 

B. buzz.

 

C. propaganda.

 

D. tweet.

 

E. spin.

Text term definition—buzz.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

306. BzzAgent is a firm that specializes in a marketing strategy known as

A. sting.

 

B. teaser advertising.

 

C. spin.

 

D. buzz.

 

E. viral marketing.

BzzAgent recruits and deploys people to produce buzz, which is popularity created by consumer-to-consumer word-of-mouth activity. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

307. BzzAgent

A. is the top consumer information source in developing countries.

 

B. captures honest word-of-mouth testimonials from satisfied customers who will promote new products or services.

 

C. was the first on the Internet to create a public forum for new products.

 

D. counteracts false rumors or negative buzz for quality products or services that have been unjustly accused on social networking websites.

 

E. uses ethnographic research techniques to discover subtle behavioral and emotional reactions to products in their natural use environment.

BzzAgent harnesses the power of word of mouth to capture honest word of mouth and build a network that turns passionate customers into brand evangelists. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

308. About 65 percent of BzzAgents are

A. Fortune 500 CEOs.

 

B. buzzing entrepreneurs.

 

C. older than 25 years of age.

 

D. considered low-income.

 

E. men.

About 65 percent are older than 25 years of age and 70 percent are women. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

309. BzzAgent researches a product or service before committing to a campaign and rejects about __________ of the companies that seek its service.

A. 20 percent

 

B. 40 percent

 

C. 50 percent

 

D. 70 percent

 

E. 80 percent

BzzAgent rejects about 80 percent of the companies that seek its service. See Marketing Matters in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

310. People to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards are referred to as

A. action-oriented consumers.

 

B. spokespersons.

 

C. opinion leaders.

 

D. social classes.

 

E. reference groups.

Key term definition—reference groups.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

311. Reference groups refer to

A. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society that consists of people who share similar values, interests, and behaviors.

 

B. individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others.

 

C. people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.

 

D. those buyers who, through the size of their purchases, affect where marketing dollars will be spent.

 

E. those with whom a person does not wish to be a member of or identified.

Key term definition—reference groups.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

312. A reference group to which a person actually belongs is referred to as __________ group.

A. a primary

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. a dissociative

 

E. an integrated

Text term definition—associative group.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

313. College students who wear clothing displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in __________ group.

A. a dissociative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. an associative

 

D. an identification

 

E. a political

An associative group is one to which a person actually belongs, including fraternities and sororities, social clubs, and the family.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

314. The specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use is referred to as

A. a brand community.

 

B. a VALS.

 

C. an opinion leader.

 

D. a social class.

 

E. a buzz group.

Key term definition—brand community.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

315. A brand community refers to

A. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society that consists of people who share similar values, interests, behaviors, and brands.

 

B. a specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use.

 

C. people to whom an individual looks as a basis for purchasing particular brands.

 

D. those buyers who, through the size of their purchases, affect where marketing dollars will be spent on a particular brand.

 

E. those brands with whom a person does not wish to be identified.

Key term definition—brand community.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

316. A brand community is a specialized form of the __________ reference group.

A. dissociative

 

B. aspiration

 

C. associative

 

D. VALS

 

E. social class

A brand community is a specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

317. Many University of Florida students, fans, and others view themselves part of “Gator Nation,” the name of the __________ given to supporters of the University of Florida’s educational and athletic programs.

A. VALS type

 

B. aspiration group

 

C. social class

 

D. brand community

 

E. market segment

A brand community is a specialized form of an associative reference group. It consists of consumers with structured relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use. Members of Gator Nation identify with the University of Florida brand name (Gators), the product category (athletic and educational programs), and other customers who use the brand (fans who buy tickets to Gator athletic events or Gator merchandise, such as jerseys, hats, etc.).

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

318. A reference group that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with is referred to as __________ group.

A. a preference

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. an assimilation

 

E. an integrated

Text term definition—aspiration group.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

319. An aspiration group is one

A. to which a person belongs and wishes to continue with.

 

B. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with.

 

C. that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.

 

D. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences.

 

E. that a person feels is significantly above him or her in terms of socioeconomics.

Text term definition—aspiration group.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

320. A local country club has a great golf course, swimming pool, tennis courts, and even a stable for horses. It also has numerous high-profile businesspeople, doctors, and local politicians as members. To attract new members, the club’s board of directors should focus its marketing efforts on people who view its current members as __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a pressure

 

E. an involvement

Potential new members should view the country club members as an aspiration group, one with whom they want to be identified.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

321. A recent American Express advertising claim that “membership has its privileges” creates which type of reference group?

A. aspiration group

 

B. dissociative group

 

C. assimilation group

 

D. integrated group

 

E. associative group

An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

322. If a fraternity or sorority wants to attract new members, it should focus on people who view its current members as __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a reference

 

E. an involvement

Since a fraternity or sorority is a membership group, potential new members should view the fraternity/sorority as an aspiration group, one to which they aspire to belong.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

323. A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is referred to as __________ group.

A. a socialization

 

B. an associative

 

C. an aspiration

 

D. a dissociative

 

E. an integrated

Text term definition—dissociative group.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

324. In the United States, there are two major political parties whose members disagree with each other on a variety of issues. Both Republicans and Democrats view one another as being part of __________ group.

A. an associative

 

B. an aspiration

 

C. a dissociative

 

D. a reference

 

E. an involvement

A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
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Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

325. __________ influences on consumer behavior result from three sources: consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household.

A. Functional

 

B. Situational

 

C. Social

 

D. Family

 

E. Personal

Family influences on consumer behavior result from three sources: consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

326. Consumer behavior that results from consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household is referred to as __________ influence.

A. psychographic

 

B. demographic

 

C. family

 

D. reference group

 

E. personal

Family influences on consumer behavior result from three sources: consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision making within the family or household.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

327. The process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers is referred to as

A. consumer assimilation.

 

B. consumer socialization.

 

C. consumer lifestyle.

 

D. purchase decision process.

 

E. purchasing enculturation.

Text term definition—consumer socialization.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

328. Consumer socialization refers to

A. the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

B. the people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.

 

C. the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

 

D. the modes of living that are identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them.

 

E. the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped.

Text term definition—consumer socialization.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

329. Research shows that consumer socialization with respect to brand preferences begins at

A. the age of 2.

 

B. the age of 5 when their cognitive skills have developed to understand the concept of money.

 

C. the age of 13 when they become teenagers, when they can understand the responsibility involved in saving money to be able to consume products and services.

 

D. the age of 18 when they become college students, living outside their parents’ home for the first time and being responsible for their purchase decisions.

 

E. at any time, though most people change their brand preferences many times during their lifetimes.

Children learn how to purchase (1) by interacting with adults in purchase situations and (2) through their own purchasing and product usage experiences. Research shows that children evidence brand preferences at age 2 and these preferences often last a lifetime.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

330. Nicole gives her young daughter Kelli an allowance of $5 a week. Sometimes, Nicole takes Kelli shopping. But if Kelli wants something that costs more than she has saved, Nicole reminds her she needs to keep saving. When Kelli is finally able to purchase a special, more expensive item, she is allowed to pay for it herself, including bringing the product to the salesclerk to complete the purchase. In this way, Nicole encourages the development of Kelli’s

A. consumer assimilation.

 

B. consumer acculturation.

 

C. purchasing socialization.

 

D. consumer socialization.

 

E. purchasing enculturation.

Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers, as is the case with Nicole encouraging Kelli’s socialization of the consumer purchase decision process.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
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Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

331. The concept that consists of the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors, is referred to as the

A. family scale.

 

B. family life cycle.

 

C. family continuum.

 

D. household socialization.

 

E. household patterning.

Key term definition—family life cycle.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

332. The family life cycle concept refers to

A. the distinct phases a family progresses through from the birth of children to when the children leave home, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

B. the distinct phases a family progresses through from the birth of children to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

C. the distinct phases a blended family progresses through from marriage to separation, divorce, and remarriage, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

D. the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

 

E. the intergenerational purchasing habits and product preferences that are passed down from one generation to the next.

Key term definition—family life cycle.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

333. The demographic situation consisting of married couples with children younger than 18 years old and which constitutes 21 percent of all U.S. households is referred to as

A. a traditional family.

 

B. a typical household.

 

C. a socialized household.

 

D. a reference group.

 

E. an ideal family unit.

Text term definition—traditional family.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

334. The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from __________, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

A. formation to retirement

 

B. birth to death

 

C. the birth of children to retirement

 

D. the birth of children until they leave home

 

E. marriage to retirement unless a divorce, separation, or death occurs

The family life cycle is comprised of distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. See Figure 5-7.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

335. Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is most accurate?

A. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families.

 

B. Income and gender are two of the variables considered in the family life cycle.

 

C. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel, automobiles, and consumer electronics.

 

D. Single divorcees are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group.

 

E. The most financially secure group of any family life cycle stage is single parents with children.

Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel, automobiles, and consumer electronics. See Figure 5-7.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

336. Based on the stages of the family life cycle, which of the following groups most likely has the largest amount of discretionary income?

A. young married couples without children

 

B. single parents with children

 

C. middle-aged couples without children

 

D. young married couples with children

 

E. middle-aged couples with children

Young married couples without children are typically more affluent than young singles because usually both spouses are employed. Single parents with children are the least financially secure of households with children. Young marrieds are driven by the needs of their children. Middle-aged married couples with children are typically better off financially than their younger counterparts. Middle-aged couples without children typically have a large amount of discretionary income.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

337. The two major styles of family decision making are

A. joint and passive.

 

B. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive.

 

C. joint and spouse-dominant.

 

D. democratic and autocratic.

 

E. active and passive.

Two decision making styles exist: spouse-dominant and joint decision making. Spouse-dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. With a joint decision making style, both the husband and the wife make most decisions together.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

338. Spouse-dominant decision making implies that

A. the husband makes the majority of the purchase decisions.

 

B. the wife makes the majority of the purchase decisions.

 

C. both the husband and the wife make the purchase decisions together.

 

D. the wife and the husband alternate with respect to their purchase decisions.

 

E. either the husband or the wife is primarily responsible for purchase decisions.

Two decision making styles exist: spouse-dominant and joint decision making. Spouse-dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. With a joint decision making style, both the husband and the wife make most decisions together.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

339. Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint decision making?

A. groceries

 

B. children’s toys

 

C. medicine

 

D. home appliances

 

E. breakfast cereal

Home appliances are typically purchased jointly.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

340. Which of the following statements about family decision making is most accurate?

A. The use of joint decision making is directly related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses.

 

B. Husbands make most of the purchase decisions about cars, vacations, and homes.

 

C. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous.

 

D. With autonomous decision making, the husband would make all the decisions about groceries, medicine, and car maintenance.

 

E. Women have little influence when it comes to men’s clothing purchases except for socks or ties.

The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. Decisions about cars, vacations, and homes are typically made jointly. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine. As a rule, joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

341. The five roles of individual family members in the consumer purchase decision process are

A. associative group, aspiration group, opinion leader, decision maker, and user.

 

B. sustainer, experiential, belonger, emulator, and achiever.

 

C. opinion leader, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, and user.

 

D. information gatherer, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, and user.

 

E. need driven, inner directed, outer directed, opinion leader, and decision maker.

The five roles are information gatherer, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, and user.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

342. Josh told his father that the family needed a new computer, so his dad asked him to look into the latest products and their prices. Josh’s mom asked that the new computer have an ergonomic keyboard because she has wrist problems. His sister Ann wanted the computer to have a lot of memory to edit videos. With this information, Josh’s dad chose and ordered a Dell. Which best describes the roles each family member played in making this decision?

A. Josh’s mother and Ann acted as information gatherers, users, and decision makers.

 

B. Josh took on all the roles except that of purchaser.

 

C. Josh’s father took on all of the roles.

 

D. Ann acted as a user and an influencer.

 

E. Josh’s mother acted as an information gatherer, a user, an influencer, and a gatekeeper.

Josh’s mother and Ann acted as users and influencers. Josh did not take on the role of decision maker or purchaser. The decision maker was the father, even though he did not engage in information gathering; he told Josh to do that. A gatekeeper is not a role in family decision making.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

343. The Martinez family is considering a vacation. Dad wants to stay home this year and use the money for home repairs. His mom who lives with them wants to visit relatives in New York. Dad asks his mother to determine the cost of a trip to New York and if they could stay with relatives while there. Mom and their daughter want to go to a beach. Which of the following sentences best describes the roles each family member played in making this decision?

A. There is no family member serving as an information gatherer.

 

B. The mother and the grandmother only played the role of influencer.

 

C. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers.

 

D. Since the father will make the final vacation decision, he has taken on all of the roles.

 

E. The grandmother plays the roles of user, influencer, and information gatherer.

The father is not acting as an information gatherer; the grandmother is.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

344. When strolling through the grocery store, a toddler tells her mother, “Yuck, I don’t like peas.” Her mother puts down the peas and chooses green beans instead. The role of the little girl in this purchase was that of

A. information gatherer.

 

B. influencer.

 

C. purchaser.

 

D. decision maker.

 

E. user.

Five roles exist: (1) information gatherer, (2) influencer, (3) decision maker, (4) purchaser, and (5) user. In this case, the child influenced the behavior of her mother, the purchaser.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

345. In 31 percent of households, __________ are the primary grocery shoppers, though they may not be the grocery decision makers.

A. teenagers

 

B. extended family members

 

C. paid help

 

D. children of any age

 

E. men

Even though women are often the grocery decision maker, they are not necessarily the purchaser. Today, 31 percent of men are the primary grocery shopper in their households.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

346. Jennifer usually worked long hours at her job at the hospital, so her husband, Ari, an amateur chef, prepared most of the meals for the family. As an anniversary gift, Jennifer bought Ari a top-of-the-line professional cooktop and range. Ari’s primary role in this process was that of

A. information gatherer.

 

B. influencer.

 

C. purchaser.

 

D. decision maker.

 

E. user.

Five roles exist: (1) information gatherer, (2) influencer, (3) decision maker, (4) purchaser, and (5) user. In this case, although anyone in the family could use the stove, the person who would use the stove most frequently or purposefully would be Ari (user).

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

347. _____________ may be defined as the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped.

A. Mobility

 

B. Stratification

 

C. Culture

 

D. Social class

 

E. Values

Key term definition—social class.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

348. The set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are learned and shared among the members of a group is referred to as

A. national character.

 

B. culture.

 

C. social class.

 

D. code of ethics.

 

E. ethnic ideology.

Text term definition—culture.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

349. Subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes are referred to as

A. reference groups.

 

B. families.

 

C. social classes.

 

D. subcultures.

 

E. normative groups.

Key term definition—subcultures.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

350. Subcultures refer to

A. subgroups within the larger national culture, whose values and beliefs are diametrically opposed to foreign cultures.

 

B. groups within organizations whose values and beliefs influence the corporate culture.

 

C. subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes.

 

D. stakeholder groups outside an organization whose values and beliefs are contrary to the corporate culture.

 

E. the designation given to people between the ages of 13 and 24 whose values and beliefs are not yet fully formed but are still influenced both by their families and society.

Key term definition—subcultures.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

351. Which of the following is the largest racial/ethnic subculture in the United States?

A. Asian Americans

 

B. Hispanics

 

C. Caucasians

 

D. African Americans

 

E. Native Americans

The three largest racial/ethnic subcultures in the United States are Hispanics, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Hispanics represent the largest racial/ethnic subculture in the United States in terms of population and spending power.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

352. Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is most accurate?

A. Hispanics are often brand loyal and willing to pay a premium price for premium quality.

 

B. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by contemporary fads and fashions.

 

C. Hispanics are dubious about using advertising as an information source.

 

D. Convenience is an essential product attribute for Hispanic homemakers with respect to food preparation or consumption.

 

E. Uniquely Hispanic buying patterns have virtually disappeared over the past 10 years due to increased assimilation.

Hispanics are quality- and brand-conscious. They are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are often brand loyal. Hispanics prefer buying American-made products, especially those offered by firms that cater to Hispanic needs. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. Hispanics consider advertising a credible information source.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

353. Which of the following is a reason that marketing to Hispanics has proven to be a challenge?

A. Hispanics don’t consider advertising a credible source of product information.

 

B. Hispanic communities are spread across the entire country and therefore are difficult to target.

 

C. The Hispanic subculture is diverse.

 

D. Hispanics prefer imports to American-made products; they tend to be ethnocentric in their product preferences.

 

E. Assimilation is valued and the Hispanic community finds cultural target marketing offensive.

Marketing to Hispanics has proven to be a challenge because the Hispanic subculture is diverse, being composed of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and others of Central and South American ancestry. Cultural differences among these nationalities often affect product preferences. Also, translation into Spanish can result in misinterpretation of commercial messages.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

354. Among the three major racial/ethnic subcultures in the United States, African Americans rank as __________ in terms of spending power.

A. the largest

 

B. the second largest

 

C. the third largest

 

D. equal with Hispanics

 

E. equal with Asian Americans

African Americans have the second-largest spending power of the three largest racial/ethnic subcultures in the United States.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

355. Which of the following statements about African American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. African Americans spend more on products for women and girls, especially in terms of clothing.

 

B. There are significant differences between the buying patterns of African Americans and Caucasians of similar socioeconomic status.

 

C. African Americans are not price-conscious but are strongly motivated by quality and choice.

 

D. Adult African Americans spend half as much on online services as Caucasians.

 

E. When socioeconomic status differences between African Americans and Caucasians are removed, there are more similarities than points of difference.

When socioeconomic status differences between African Americans and Caucasians are removed, there are more similarities than differences.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

356. Which of the following statements about African American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. There are very few differences in the consumption patterns of African Americans and Caucasians.

 

B. African American men spend more on health and beauty products than Caucasian men do.

 

C. The typical African American family is five years older than the typical Caucasian family.

 

D. African American purchase behavior is still affected by the historical deprivation in employment and educational opportunities in the United States.

 

E. African Americans are not price-conscious.

When socioeconomic status differences between African Americans and Caucasians are removed, there are more similarities than points of difference. But since, historically, African Americans have been deprived of employment and educational opportunities in the United States, the resulting income disparities influence purchase behavior.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

357. Anheuser-Busch’s agricultural products division sells eight varieties of California-grown rice, each with a different Asian label to cover a range of nationalities and tastes. Anheuser-Busch is recognizing the diversity of the Asian American _____________ in the United States.

A. agricultural trends

 

B. influence

 

C. entrepreneurialism

 

D. subculture

 

E. assimilation

Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture in the United States. The diversity of Asian Americans evident in language, customs, and tastes requires marketers to be sensitive to different Asian nationalities. For example, Anheuser-Busch’s agricultural products division sells eight varieties of California-grown rice, each with a different Asian label to cover a range of nationalities and tastes.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

358. Which of the following statements about Asian American buying patterns is most accurate?

A. Assimilated Asian Americans have very different buying patterns from a typical U.S. consumer.

 

B. The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make.

 

C. The Asian American subculture is growing very slowly in the United States.

 

D. Asian Americans are the least educated racial/ethnic subculture in the United States.

 

E. Consumer research on Asian Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated, nonassimilated, and recent immigrants.

The Asian American subculture is composed of Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian Indians, people from Southeast Asia, and Pacific Islanders. The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

359. Asian Americans who are conversant in English, highly educated, hold professional and managerial positions, and exhibit buying patterns very much like typical American consumers are referred to as __________ Asian Americans.

A. socialized

 

B. diaspora

 

C. nonassimilated

 

D. reassimilated

 

E. assimilated

Text term definition—assimilated.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

360. An Asian American family whose relatives emigrated four generations ago has three children. The oldest son, George, is in medical school. Susan, at the age of 21, is a concert pianist. Brent is a second-year business student. This family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian American buying patterns?

A. nonassimilated, yet celebrating their culture by purchasing authentic Asian goods

 

B. assimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers

 

C. assimilated, yet celebrating their culture by seeking traditionally Asian occupations

 

D. nonassimilated, due to inherent differences in Asian subcultures that transcend generations

 

E. nonassimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers

Assimilated Asian Americans are conversant in English, highly educated, hold professional and managerial positions, and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

361. Groupon built its business model on the premise that

A. consumers would be receptive to online sweepstakes.

 

B. businesses would be willing to post their 30-second TV advertising on a social network.

 

C. consumers would want to “check in” and earn points and badges for visiting businesses.

 

D. consumers would band together and try a new product or service if businesses would offer lower prices to entice them to take advantage of a daily deal offered to them.

 

E. consumers would be willing to pay for fun and exciting online video games that are playable on their smartphones and tablet devices.

Groupon built its business model on the premise that consumers would band together and try a new product or service if businesses would offer lower prices to entice them to take advantage of the deal offered to them. See VIDEO CASE 5: GROUPON: HELPING CONSUMERS WITH PURCHASE DECISIONS.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Consumer Behavior
 

 

362. Which of the following statements about Groupon is most accurate?

A. In the alternative evaluation stage of the consumer purchase decision process, many Groupon customers focus on place or distribution as the most important evaluative criterion.

 

B. A Groupon “deal of the day” e-mail may trigger a need in a consumer’s problem recognition stage of the purchase decision process to do (buy) something they may not ordinarily do (buy).

 

C. The typical Groupon user is a 35- to 45-year-old male with an average income of about $25,000 who is looking for a great deal.

 

D. The Groupon purchase decision is made online and then confirmed by a telephone call when enough consumers agree to the offer and the “deal tips.”

 

E. Generally, Groupon consumers rarely follow the purchase decision process like they do for other consumer offerings because they do not have time for an information search.

In the problem recognition stage of the consumer purchase decision process for Groupon, a need may be triggered by a Groupon “deal of the day” e-mail to present potential customers with an opportunity to do (buy) something they may not ordinarily do. See VIDEO CASE 5: GROUPON: HELPING CONSUMERS WITH PURCHASE DECISIONS.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

363. All of the following are challenges that Groupon faces except

A. most of the Groupon deals are unprofitable for merchants, so customers must be converted into repeat purchasers for this to be cost-effective.

 

B. Groupon faces extraordinary competition because the daily deal technology is easy to copy.

 

C. the business model is hard to adapt at the local level, though it works well for large, national businesses.

 

D. some consumers buy the coupons but never use them, eventually leaving them dissatisfied and unlikely to use Groupon again.

 

E. Groupon must develop a comprehensive understanding of the differences in international buying behaviors to continue its explosive growth outside the United States.

Groupon faces many challenges, including buyers who don’t use the coupons and merchants who are dissatisfied that consumers fail to repeat a purchase. Managing its growth is another challenge. The company has expanded into Europe, Latin America, Asia, and Russia by acquiring local daily deal services. As Groupon continues to grow, it anticipates that it must develop a comprehensive understanding of the differences in international buying behaviors. Also, Groupon faces competition since the daily deal technology is not very sophisticated and the model is easy to copy. See VIDEO CASE 5: GROUPON: HELPING CONSUMERS WITH PURCHASE DECISIONS.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

Short Answer Questions

364. Explain the actions and considerations that relate to the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process.

The five stages in the purchase decision process are: (1) problem recognition—decide you need to buy a product or service; (2) information search—check internal and external sources; (3) alternative evaluation—review objective and subjective attributes from consideration set; (4) purchase decision—make decision after judging the alternatives; and (5) postpurchase evaluation—evaluate the product or service in terms of expectations. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

365. You will be graduating soon and have been offered what you consider the job of your dreams. The new position, however, requires some traveling so you will need a car. You currently do not have one. What decision process will you go through to purchase an automobile?

This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: (1) problem recognition—the car is needed for the new job; (2) information search—you check internal and external sources; (3) alternative evaluation—objective and subjective attributes are considered from a consideration set; (4) purchase decision—decision made after judging the alternatives; and (5) postpurchase evaluation—evaluate car in terms of expectations. See Figure 5-1.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

366. Would you agree or disagree with the following statement? “It’s a lot cheaper and easier to keep existing customers than to try to find new ones.” Explain your answer.

Students should agree. Firms have begun to put a financial value on good customer relationships. Firms try to put a dollar value on what satisfied loyal, repeat customers spend on the firm’s product during a year or a lifetime. These calculations have focused marketer attention on customer retention. Examples in the textbook include Frito-Lay, Exxon, Kimberly-Clark, and Ford Motor Co. Firms have learned that it’s a lot cheaper and easier to keep existing customers than to try to find new ones, particularly due to the high cost of promotions.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

367. Explain the differences between routine problem solving, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving. Give an example of when each might be used.

There are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process based on consumer involvement and product knowledge. Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process, including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. Several brands are in the consideration set, and these are evaluated on many attributes. Extended problem solving exists in high-involvement purchase situations for items such as automobiles and elaborate audio systems. Limited problem solving involves consumers typically seeking some information or relying on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. In general, several brands might be evaluated using a moderate number of different attributes. You might use limited problem solving in choosing a toaster, a restaurant for lunch, and other purchase situations in which you have little time or effort to spend. Routine problem solving is used for products such as table salt and milk. Consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. The purchase process for such items is virtually a habit and typifies low-involvement decision making. Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased products such as toothpaste.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe the stages in the consumer purchase decision process.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Purchase Decision Process
 

 

368. Name the five situational influences that affect the consumer purchase decision process.

Situational influences include the purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states. See Figure 5-4 in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

369. Ruth, who has no children, wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend’s baby shower, which is this evening. Since she won’t have any time between work and the baby shower, she must go today during her lunch break. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby-oriented product she sees because she wishes that she too was having a baby. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this scenario. Which situational influence was not described?

The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect. Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. The only situational influence not mentioned is the physical surroundings.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Distinguish among three variations of the consumer purchase decision process: extended, limited, and routine problem solving.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Situational Influences
 

 

370. Define motivation and personality and how they impact marketing.

Motivation is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. Because consumer needs are the focus of the marketing concept, marketers try to arouse these needs. While motivation is the energizing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful, a consumer’s personality guides and directs behavior. Personality refers to a person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations, which are based on key traits that are inherited or formed at an early age. These traits are reflected in the products and brands a person buys.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

371. Psychologists point out that an individual’s needs may be hierarchical; that is, once one set of needs is met, people seek to satisfy the next set of needs in the hierarchy. Name each of the five levels in the hierarchy in order and give an example of each.

Physiological needs, the lowest level in the hierarchy of needs, such as food, water, shelter, and oxygen, are basic to survival and must be satisfied first. Safety needs, the next level, involve self-preservation, physical and financial well-being, and freedom from harm. Smoke detectors and security systems are examples. Social needs, the next level of needs, are concerned with love, friendship, and belonging. Dating services and fragrance companies try to arouse these needs. Personal needs, the next level, include the need for status, prestige, achievement, and self-respect. The American Express Centurion Card and Brooks Brothers Clothiers are companies that appeal to these needs. The highest level in the hierarchy of needs concerns self-actualization needs, which involve personal fulfillment. The U.S. Army uses the appeal “Be all that you can be” to target those who have self-actualization needs. See Figure 5-4 in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Consumer Needs and Wants
 

 

372. How do selective perception, selective exposure, selective comprehension, and selective retention differ?

Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world. The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information—a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

373. Why is learning important to marketing?

Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. Consumers learn which information sources to use, which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives, and, in general, how to make purchase decisions. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation, which is the basis of routine problem solving and serves as a link to brand loyalty.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

374. Explain how attitudes are shaped by our values and beliefs.

Values, beliefs, and attitudes play a central role in consumer decision making and related marketing actions. Attitudes are learned predispositions to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. Attitudes are shaped by our values and beliefs, which are learned. Values vary by level of specificity. We speak of American core values, including material well-being and humanitarianism. We also have personal values, such as thriftiness and ambition. Marketers are concerned with both but focus mostly on personal values. Beliefs also play a part in attitude formation. Beliefs are a consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. Beliefs are based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people. Beliefs about product attributes are important because, along with personal values, they create the favorable or unfavorable attitude the consumer has toward certain products, services, and brands.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

375. How might Ford Motor Co. apply the three methods of attitude change in its marketing activities?

There are three ways to change attitudes: (1) changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes, (2) changing the perceived importance of attributes, and (3) adding new attributes to the product. (1) Changing beliefs: Ford may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers’ concerns about reliability. (2) Change perceived importance of attributes: Ford might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford’s pollution control characteristics. (3) Adding new attributes: Ford might add a new attribute, such as a DVD player for passengers in the back seat, and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

376. What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers?

Lifestyle is a mode of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them. The analysis of consumer lifestyles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumers’ behavior. For example, lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

377. The VALS system seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. Consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principle. Explain the difference between Thinkers and Believers.

Thinkers and Believers are the two groups within the ideals-motivated group, where consumers are motivated by ideals that are guided by knowledge and principle. Thinkers are mature, reflective, and well-educated people who value order, knowledge, and responsibility. They are practical consumers and deliberate information-seekers who value durability and functionality in products over styling and newness. Believers, with fewer resources, are conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs based on traditional, established codes: family, religion, community, and the nation. They choose familiar products and brands, favor American-made products, and are generally brand loyal. See Figure 5-6 in the textbook.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-03 Identify the major psychological influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Psychological Influences
 

 

378. Why would Proactiv, an acne treatment company, select Maroon 5 front man Adam Levine to appear in an ad campaign? What kind of influence could he have on consumer behavior?

A consumer’s purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. Adam Levine would likely act as an opinion leader and have a personal influence over those who would like to emulate his behavior, thus attracting potential customers, converting many of them to be customers, resulting in increased sales of Proactiv products.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

379. Define consumer socialization.

Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Children learn how to purchase by interacting with adults in purchase situations, and their own purchasing and product usage experiences. As children mature into adults, they develop brand preferences that may last a lifetime.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

380. Why is the family life cycle important to marketing?

Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. See Figure 5-7.

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

381. What is a subculture? Name examples of products targeted at American subcultures.

Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values, ideas, and attitudes within the larger, or national, culture. African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans collectively will spend over $4 trillion for goods and services in 2019. Each group exhibits sophisticated social and cultural behaviors that affect buying patterns. Therefore, subcultures are frequently used to segment and target markets. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include Mazola Corn Oil ads in Spanish, CoverGirl beauty products for African Americans, and non-English-language ads for McDonald’s for Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean consumers.

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identify the major sociocultural influences on consumer behavior.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Sociocultural Influences
 

 

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