Managment Occupation Health And Safety 5th Edition by Kevin Kelloway – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5-Physical Agents

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The human hearing response is conditional on which of the following three characteristics?
a. duration, standards, and loudness
b. loudness, duration, and level
c. frequency, standards, and level
d. frequency, duration, and loudness

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123

 

  1. In which three ways can noise affect humans?
a. cognitively, sensorineurally, and sociologically
b. sociologically, psychologically, and sensorineurally
c. through physiological damage, physiological effects, and psychological effects
d. physiologically, sociologically, and cognitively

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 124-125

 

  1. What are the two basic types of physiological damage that can create hearing loss?
a. conductive and permanent
b. sensorineural and nerve deafness
c. conductive and sensorineural
d. irreversible and conductive

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 124

 

  1. The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety suggests that a workplace might be too noisy if which of the following is true?
a. In the workplace, employees have to raise their voices to be understood.
b. Employees have chronic ear infections.
c. Individuals who have worked in the workplace for years have a general feeling of fatigue.
d. There are a number of employees with hearing problems.

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. Which one is NOT a health effect of whole body vibration?
a. inhibition of muscular reflexes
b. sore joints
c. blurred vision
d.  shortness of breath

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 130

 

  1. If workers are at risk of heat-related disorders, what are employers required to do?
a. conduct a heat stress assessment
b. adjust work-rest schedules to reduce exposure
c. send everyone home if the workplace is too hot
d. a and b

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 132

 

  1. If an employee reports tingling in the fingers, loss of sensation in the fingers, and loss of grip strength they may be suffering from?
a. hand-arm vibration syndrome
b. thermal stress
c. hyperreflexia
d. segmental vibration

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 130

 

  1. Hearing loss results from exposure to sound levels at or above what amount for extended periods of time?
a. 55-60dB(A)
b. 65-75dB(A)
c. 85-90dB(A)
d. 97-105 dB(A)

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a heat-related illness?
a. heat stroke
b. heat exhaustion
c. hypothermia
d. heat hyperpyrexia

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 132

 

  1. Types of non-ionizing radiation include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. ultraviolet radiation
b. x-rays
c. radio waves
d. microwave radiation

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 134

 

  1. Which of the following are involved in thermal stress conditions?
a. wind chill ratings
b. hot temperature extremes
c. usually high humidity
d. b and c

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 131

 

  1. What is the maximum allowable noise exposure level at the federal level?
a. 90 dB(A)
b. 87 dB(A)
c. 80 dB(A)
d. 75 dB(A)

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. Cold-related illnesses include all of the following EXCEPT?
a. hypothermia
b. frostbite
c. hyperthermia
d.  chilblains

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 132

 

  1. What happens when you increase the dB(A) by 3?
a. The sound pressure level is doubled.
b. The sound pressure level is reduced by 30.
c. The sound pressure level is increased 300%.
d. The sound pressure level is tripled.

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 125

 

  1. Which of the following can emit radiation?
a. air conditioning units
b. microwave ovens
c. high-vibration punch presses
d. jack hammers

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 133-134

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Examples of physical agents include noise, vibration, radiation, and extremes in temperature.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123

 

  1. Physical agents are hazards that are created by any one, or any combination of, a very large number of physical reactions.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123

 

  1. The eye is the primary organ at risk from non-ionizing radiation.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 134

  1. Sound that we cannot hear can possibly cause hearing damage.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123

 

  1. The term “threshold of hearing” refers to the envelope or range of sound that the human ear can perceive or hear.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123

 

  1. Segmental vibration effects are caused by using vibrating tools.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 129

 

  1. The two basic classes of hearing protection available are earplugs and earmuffs.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 129

 

  1. British Columbia uses a noise standard of 85 dB(A) or 8 hours and a peak noise level of 140 dB(A).

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. All provinces except Quebec use 85 dB(A) as a noise standard.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. A dosimeter is an instrument used to determine the sensitivity of a person’s hearing or degree of hearing loss.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 127

 

  1. The process for noise control follows source-path-human strategies.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 127

 

  1. The BEST method to control noise is to use personal protective equipment.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 127-128

 

  1. Noise control approaches include job rotation, relocation, isolation, automation, rest periods, and site design.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 129

 

  1. Vibration refers to the oscillating motion of a particle or body moving about a reference position.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 129

 

  1. An indication of exposure to excessive noise levels at work is ringing in the ears (tinnitus).

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 125

 

  1. Thermodynamic theory shows that temperature flows from the high point to the low point. Thus in hot climates, heat will be absorbed by the body, making the person feel hot.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 131

 

  1. In cold climates, heat will flow from the body into the surrounding environment, thereby making the person feel cold.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 131

 

  1. Convection heat transfer occurs when two surfaces are in contact.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 132

 

  1. Radiation occurs when energy is transmitted by electromagnetic waves.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 133

 

  1. The body core temperature is 35° to 40.5° C, with “normal” being 39°C.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 132

 

  1. A normal conversation noise level is approximately 85dB(A).

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. A normal conversation noise level is approximately 55dB(A).

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. The exchange rate in most provinces for noise calculations is 5 dB(A).

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

  1. The exchange rate in most provinces for noise calculations is 3 dB(A).

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 126

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the legal steps an employer/HRM must take to control hazardous noise in the workplace. What is the most effective noise control method?

 

ANS:

An employer/HRM will want to use the source-path-human strategies to control hazardous noise in the workplace. The best method of dealing with noise in the workplace is to reduce noise at the source. If a worker is exposed to noise above the legal noise exposure limit, the employer must, perhaps with the help of experts, investigate and implement engineered noise-control options to reduce the noise exposure of workers below the recommended exposure limits if possible. If it is not possible to reduce noise levels, the employer must reduce noise exposure to the lowest level possible, post warning signs in the noise hazard areas (workers in a posted noise hazard area must wear hearing protection), give affected workers hearing protection that meets the legal standards, and ensure that hearing protection is worn effectively in noise hazard areas. This last strategy of using personal protective equipment is less costly but not always the most effective.

 

PTS: 1

REF: 127-129

 

  1. Describe four important facts about physical agents in the workplace. Give an example of each of these facts.

 

ANS:

  1. a) Physical agents are present in unexpected places (e.g., high school music rooms) and activities (e.g., iPods, concerts).
  2. b) Exposure to some physical agents may be inherent (professional musician).
  3. c) Legislative standards are maximum tolerances, and noise-induced hearing loss can occur below this exposure level (the length of exposure is as critical as the loudness; continuous noise is more damaging than a few minutes’ exposure).
  4. d) Issues are complex and solutions have to be evaluated for the risks they introduce to the environment.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123-135

 

  1. If workers are at risk of heat-related disorders, what obligations do employers have to ensure that the workers are safe from the dangers of heat exposure?

 

ANS:

  • Conduct a heat stress assessment.
  • Implement engineering controls to reduce the level of heat.
  • Adjust work-rest schedules to reduce exposure.
  • Provide personal protective equipment.
  • Ensure cool drinking water is accessible near the worksite.
  • Limit exposure through work rotation.
  • Install fans or air conditioning.
  • Allow time to acclimatize.
  • Provide drinking water.
  • Support the use of sun hats, sunscreen, and eye protection.

 

Preventing Heat Stress at Work is available at the Workers’ Compensation Board of BC at http://www.worksafebc.com/publications.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 131-133

 

  1. Describe several factors an employer/HRM would take into account in conducting a cost-benefit analysis to support an occupational health and safety program or a hearing conservation program that would reduce employees’ exposure to hazardous physical agents.

 

ANS:

Direct and indirect costs include equipment, training incident investigation, damage, replacement, and production costs. Other costs can include unhealthy behaviour, work stoppages and strikes, negative publicity after a death or serious public health problem, employee retention, emotional impact, and increased WCB insurance premiums.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 127-128

 

 

PROBLEM

 

  1. The first step in dealing with noise is to determine if the hazard exists at all. How can an HRM know if employees are exposed to hazardous noise? What is the best hearing protection for work that takes place in hazardous noise environments?

 

ANS:

In BC, an employer must ensure that workers are not exposed to noise levels above either of the following exposure limits: 85 dB(A) Lex daily noise exposure level and 140 dB(A) peak sound level for an eight-hour continuous period without hearing protection. These legislated standards vary slightly throughout the provinces and territories (refer to Table 5.1) and must be viewed as the maximum allowable tolerances, not as a safe level of noise exposure, as hearing loss can occur below the legislated exposure level. Another factor to consider is how long the individual is exposed to potentially hazardous noise (i.e., exposure to noise on the edge of safe limits can cause hearing damage if ongoing over a long time; for example, a kitchen blender, at 86Db). The hazard noise poses is dependent on three main factors: intensity (loudness), frequency (pitch), and duration (time). The WorkSafe BC Publication How Do I Know If I Am Exposed to Noise http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/noise_exposure_handout.pdf describes and gives examples of various combinations of noise levels and durations and how they all pose the same risk to an exposed worker’s hearing. A noise-level assessment should be conducted by the employer for all noise-exposed job classifications, and warning signs should be immediately posted stating that hearing protection is required until a more formal hearing conservation program is implemented. When noise exceeds regulated limits, BC employers must have an effective noise control and hearing conservation program.

 

There is no single hearing protector appropriate for everyone. The criteria to consider include the worker’s noise exposure level, hearing ability of the worker, use of other personal protective equipment, temperature and climate, communication demands on the worker, and physical constraints of the worker or work activity.

 

Link to the Workers’ Compensation Board of BC (WorkSafe BC) website (http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/hear_for_good.pdf) for the following publication: Hear for Good: Preventing Exposure at Work

  • Selecting Hearing Protection Poster (explains what type of hearing protection should be used in different circumstances) http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/hearingposter.pdf
  • Hearing Protection Is for Everyone

http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/hearing_protection_everyone.pdf

 

  • Hearing Protection Checklist

http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/hp_program_checklist.pdf

 

  • Hearing Protection selection criteria

http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/criteria_hearing_protection_selection.pdf

 

  • Noise Awareness Websites

http://www2.worksafebc.com/pdfs/hearing/noise_awareness_websites.pdf

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 123-128

 

 

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