Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain 2nd Edition By Swink – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Manufacturing and Service Process Structures

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following process structures can produce the widest variety of products?

A. Job shop

 

B. Repetitive process

 

C. Continuous flow

 

D. Batch operation

 

2. Which process type is not correctly matched with its descriptive characteristic?

A. Project-high complexity

 

B. Repetitive process-customized products

 

C. Job shop-high flexibility

 

D. Continuous flow-low-skilled workers

 

3. Which of the following types of businesses would most likely use a batch process structure?

A. Company that builds cruise ships.

 

B. An automotive assembler such as Ford Motor Co.

 

C. A glass beverage bottle manufacturer.

 

D. A company that produces automobile seats.

 

4. Wanda Corp. currently uses a job shop process. It wants to maintain the advantages of this but increase efficiency. Wanda should investigate:

A. Cellular manufacturing.

 

B. Job shop processes.

 

C. Mass customization.

 

D. Project process.

 

5. Zanda Corp. wants to have a process structure that has cost advantages similar to continuous or repetitive processes, but wants to produce greater variety than those processes normally allow. Zanda should consider:

A. Cellular manufacturing.

 

B. Job shop processes.

 

C. Mass customization.

 

D. Project process.

 

6. Jones Company has a make-to-order orientation. It most likely does NOT use:

A. Continuous process structure.

 

B. Cellular manufacturing process structure.

 

C. Job shop process structure.

 

D. Jones is likely to use any of these.

 

7. Companies with a make-to-stock orientation are most likely to use which of the following process structures?

A. Mass customization

 

B. Job shop

 

C. Repetitive process

 

D. They are likely to use any one of these process structures.

 

8. For which market orientation is accurately forecasting the amount of finished goods needed likely to be the most important for a firm’s financial performance?

A. Engineer to order

 

B. Make to order

 

C. Assemble to order

 

D. Make to stock

 

9. Which of the following products is most likely to use an assemble-to-order market orientation?

A. An upholstered sofa

 

B. A mobile phone

 

C. Shampoo

 

D. A race car

 

10. Choose the service type that is correctly matched with one of its key characteristics.

A. Service factory-facilities and equipment represent a large proportion of total costs.

 

B. Service shop-there is a low degree of customer interaction.

 

C. Mass service-transactions are very varied from customer to customer.

 

D. Professional service-transactions tend to be fairly standardized.

 

11. Which of the following is NOT considered in the service process matrix?

A. Customization

 

B. Volume

 

C. Customer interaction

 

D. Labor intensity

 

12. Using technology, such as self-checkouts in grocery stores, to enable customers to complete the service delivery and transaction themselves is most commonly used for:

A. Service factories.

 

B. Service shops.

 

C. Mass services.

 

D. Professional services.

 

13. All of the following are potential benefits of decoupling front and back offices in service processes EXCEPT:

A. Standardization across multiple locations.

 

B. Economies of scale.

 

C. Use of remotely located back office employees.

 

D. Easier customization of services.

 

14. An approach that analyzes the interface between customers and service processes is called:

A. Service process matrix.

 

B. Service blueprinting.

 

C. Process mapping.

 

D. Product/process matrix.

 

15. If you were developing a service blueprint, how would you classify “delivery of gasoline to a service station”?

A. Support processes

 

B. Physical evidence

 

C. Back-office/invisible contact employee actions

 

D. Front-office/visible contact employee actions

 

16. Ensuring that all the right people, equipment, and materials arrive on time is especially challenging when using which layout?

A. Fixed-position layout

 

B. Functional layout

 

C. Service factory layout

 

D. Product layout

 

17. A common goal when designing a functional layout is to:

A. Ensure materials arrive on schedule.

 

B. Reduce the time and cost of moving people and materials between departments.

 

C. Avoid downtime at any workstation.

 

D. Balance the flow of materials through the process.

 

18. Zanadu Corp. has dedicated equipment and workers in a regularly occurring sequence of activities. Zanadu has which type of operations layout?

A. Fixed-position layout

 

B. Functional layout

 

C. Service factory layout

 

D. Product layout

 

19. John Jones, CEO of Joes Corp., is unhappy because each product his company makes takes a unique route through the facility, so processing times tend to be high. His company most likely has a:

A. Fixed-position layout.

 

B. Sequential action layout.

 

C. Functional layout.

 

D. Product layout.

 

20. What is the primary objective of line balancing?

A. To minimize the travel time between workstations

 

B. To match output rates with actual demand

 

C. To minimize materials handling costs

 

D. To group similar activities together

 

21. A company needs to produce 400 units per day (the day is defined as 12 hours of production). There are three tasks to be completed, with a total task time for all three tasks of 6 minutes. The company should have:

A. 3 workstations.

 

B. 4 workstations.

 

C. 5 workstations.

 

D. 2 workstations.

 

22. A company needs to produce 1,000 units per day (the day is defined as 8 hours of production). There are six tasks to be completed, with a total task time of 12 minutes. The company should have:

A. 25 workstations.

 

B. 2 workstations.

 

C. 84 workstations.

 

D. 14 workstations.

 

23. A contemporary process layout in which product “families” with similar processing characteristics are identified and produced on “mini-assembly lines” is referred to as:

A. Cellular layout.

 

B. Fixed position layout.

 

C. Flexible manufacturing systems.

 

D. Mass customization.

 

24. Compared to a functional layout, cellular layouts have:

A. Less work-in-process inventory.

 

B. More complexity in scheduling.

 

C. More frequent setups.

 

D. Lower efficiency.

 

25. An example of an integrative technology is a/an:

A. Transportation management system.

 

B. Industrial robot.

 

C. Radio frequency identification (RFID) system.

 

D. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system.

 

26. Systems that combine automated machines, robots, and material handling systems and are controlled by a single computer are:

A. Transportation management systems (TMS).

 

B. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS).

 

C. Manufacturing executive systems (EMS).

 

D. Warehouse management systems (WMS).

 

27. The use of a tablet computer such as an iPad for a restaurant’s wine list is an example of:

A. Mobility.

 

B. Point-of-sale system.

 

C. Warehouse management system.

 

D. Enterprise resource management system.

 

28. An automated process can be compared to a more labor-intensive process using:

A. A service blueprint.

 

B. Line balancing.

 

C. Indifference analysis.

 

D. Mass customization.

 

29. A bakery has a choice of leasing different types of ovens. Oven A will cost $1,000 per year to lease and operate, plus $0.50 per cake baked. Oven B will cost $3,000 per year to lease and operate, plus $0.40 per cake baked. Find the indifference point at which the annual costs of the two ovens are equal.

A. 200 cakes.

 

B. 20,000 cakes.

 

C. 40,000 cakes.

 

D. None of these.

 

30. Three processes have the following costs: Process A has a fixed cost of $2,000 and variable cost of $3.00/unit. Process B fixed cost is $4,000 and variable cost is $2.60/unit. Process C fixed cost is $8,000 and variable cost is $2.40/unit. If the projected total demand is for 6,000 units, which process should be used?

A. Process A

 

B. Process B

 

C. Process C

 

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Manufacturing and Service Process Structures Answer Key

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following process structures can produce the widest variety of products?

A. Job shop

 

B. Repetitive process

 

C. Continuous flow

 

D. Batch operation

Job shop processes produce the widest variety of the listed process types.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

2. Which process type is not correctly matched with its descriptive characteristic?

A. Project-high complexity

 

B. Repetitive process-customized products

 

C. Job shop-high flexibility

 

D. Continuous flow-low-skilled workers

Repetitive processes typically produce standardized products. The other choices are correct (see Table 5-1).

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

3. Which of the following types of businesses would most likely use a batch process structure?

A. Company that builds cruise ships.

 

B. An automotive assembler such as Ford Motor Co.

 

C. A glass beverage bottle manufacturer.

 

D. A company that produces automobile seats.

Automobile seats have moderate volumes and varieties considering such factors as differences in upholstery and thus would use a batch process (see Table 5-1).

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

4. Wanda Corp. currently uses a job shop process. It wants to maintain the advantages of this but increase efficiency. Wanda should investigate:

A. Cellular manufacturing.

 

B. Job shop processes.

 

C. Mass customization.

 

D. Project process.

Cellular manufacturing attempts to maintain flexibility of job shops but at lower costs.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

5. Zanda Corp. wants to have a process structure that has cost advantages similar to continuous or repetitive processes, but wants to produce greater variety than those processes normally allow. Zanda should consider:

A. Cellular manufacturing.

 

B. Job shop processes.

 

C. Mass customization.

 

D. Project process.

Mass customization attempts to maintain cost advantages similar to continuous or repetitive processes, but allows a firm to produce greater variety than those processes normally allow.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

6. Jones Company has a make-to-order orientation. It most likely does NOT use:

A. Continuous process structure.

 

B. Cellular manufacturing process structure.

 

C. Job shop process structure.

 

D. Jones is likely to use any of these.

Continuous process structures are used for make-to-stock orientations. The others are primarily make-to-order.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

7. Companies with a make-to-stock orientation are most likely to use which of the following process structures?

A. Mass customization

 

B. Job shop

 

C. Repetitive process

 

D. They are likely to use any one of these process structures.

Of the alternatives, only repetitive process applies to make-to-stock. The others are make or assemble to order.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

8. For which market orientation is accurately forecasting the amount of finished goods needed likely to be the most important for a firm’s financial performance?

A. Engineer to order

 

B. Make to order

 

C. Assemble to order

 

D. Make to stock

In a make-to-stock orientation, products are made in advance of actual customer orders and held in inventory. Thus, forecasting is critical to both costs and sales. Firms using the other orientations do not produce finished goods until after a customer order is received.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

9. Which of the following products is most likely to use an assemble-to-order market orientation?

A. An upholstered sofa

 

B. A mobile phone

 

C. Shampoo

 

D. A race car

For an upholstered sofa using an assemble-to-order orientation, the premade frames are held in inventory but the fabric is not added until a customer order is placed. Sofas can also be make to stock.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-01 Compare and contrast the seven process structures: project; job shop; batch; repetitive process; continuous process; mass customization; and cellular manufacturing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Process Structures
 

 

10. Choose the service type that is correctly matched with one of its key characteristics.

A. Service factory-facilities and equipment represent a large proportion of total costs.

 

B. Service shop-there is a low degree of customer interaction.

 

C. Mass service-transactions are very varied from customer to customer.

 

D. Professional service-transactions tend to be fairly standardized.

A service factory requires high capital investment. The other descriptions are opposite of the reality. See Figure 5-2.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

11. Which of the following is NOT considered in the service process matrix?

A. Customization

 

B. Volume

 

C. Customer interaction

 

D. Labor intensity

The degree of customization/customer interaction and labor/capital intensity form the axes of the service process matrix as shown in Figure 5-2.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

12. Using technology, such as self-checkouts in grocery stores, to enable customers to complete the service delivery and transaction themselves is most commonly used for:

A. Service factories.

 

B. Service shops.

 

C. Mass services.

 

D. Professional services.

Because there is moderate to low customization/customer interaction, meaning that large groups of customers have similar requirements, mass services technology can be used to create “self-services.” This helps to reduce labor costs and can increase service availability for customers.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

13. All of the following are potential benefits of decoupling front and back offices in service processes EXCEPT:

A. Standardization across multiple locations.

 

B. Economies of scale.

 

C. Use of remotely located back office employees.

 

D. Easier customization of services.

Decoupling allows for back-office work to be done at a remote centralized location, allowing for standardization and economies of scale. Decoupling may actually reduce the ability to customize services.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

14. An approach that analyzes the interface between customers and service processes is called:

A. Service process matrix.

 

B. Service blueprinting.

 

C. Process mapping.

 

D. Product/process matrix.

Service blueprinting is defined as an approach that analyzes the interface between customers and service processes. It is similar to but different from process mapping.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

15. If you were developing a service blueprint, how would you classify “delivery of gasoline to a service station”?

A. Support processes

 

B. Physical evidence

 

C. Back-office/invisible contact employee actions

 

D. Front-office/visible contact employee actions

Delivery of gasoline is essential for the service, but it is carried out by employees who do not have direct contact with customers, and it is generally not seen (or intended to be seen) by customers.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-02 Compare and contrast the goals and challenges associated with a service factory; a mass service; a service shop; and professional services.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Unique Aspects of Service Processes
 

 

16. Ensuring that all the right people, equipment, and materials arrive on time is especially challenging when using which layout?

A. Fixed-position layout

 

B. Functional layout

 

C. Service factory layout

 

D. Product layout

In a fixed-position layout, all of the necessary resources must come to the work site.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Describe how each of the operations layouts; fixed-position; functional; product; and cellular; is designed to meet the demands placed on it.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

17. A common goal when designing a functional layout is to:

A. Ensure materials arrive on schedule.

 

B. Reduce the time and cost of moving people and materials between departments.

 

C. Avoid downtime at any workstation.

 

D. Balance the flow of materials through the process.

Because each product or customer takes a unique route through the process, the time and cost for movement can be very high.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-03 Describe how each of the operations layouts; fixed-position; functional; product; and cellular; is designed to meet the demands placed on it.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

18. Zanadu Corp. has dedicated equipment and workers in a regularly occurring sequence of activities. Zanadu has which type of operations layout?

A. Fixed-position layout

 

B. Functional layout

 

C. Service factory layout

 

D. Product layout

When resources are arranged in a regular sequence of activities, a product layout is being employed.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Describe how each of the operations layouts; fixed-position; functional; product; and cellular; is designed to meet the demands placed on it.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

19. John Jones, CEO of Joes Corp., is unhappy because each product his company makes takes a unique route through the facility, so processing times tend to be high. His company most likely has a:

A. Fixed-position layout.

 

B. Sequential action layout.

 

C. Functional layout.

 

D. Product layout.

Unique routes and high processing times are characteristics of functional layouts.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 05-03 Describe how each of the operations layouts; fixed-position; functional; product; and cellular; is designed to meet the demands placed on it.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

20. What is the primary objective of line balancing?

A. To minimize the travel time between workstations

 

B. To match output rates with actual demand

 

C. To minimize materials handling costs

 

D. To group similar activities together

Lines are balanced so that each workstation does not exceed the takt time, which is the time required at each station to produce exactly what the customer demands.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 05-04 Analyze a product layout using line balancing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

21. A company needs to produce 400 units per day (the day is defined as 12 hours of production). There are three tasks to be completed, with a total task time for all three tasks of 6 minutes. The company should have:

A. 3 workstations.

 

B. 4 workstations.

 

C. 5 workstations.

 

D. 2 workstations.

(400 items × 6 minutes)/(12 hours × 60 minutes) = 3.33 (round up to 4)

 

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-04 Analyze a product layout using line balancing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

22. A company needs to produce 1,000 units per day (the day is defined as 8 hours of production). There are six tasks to be completed, with a total task time of 12 minutes. The company should have:

A. 25 workstations.

 

B. 2 workstations.

 

C. 84 workstations.

 

D. 14 workstations.

(1,000 units × 12 minutes)/(8 hours × 60 minutes) = 25

 

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-04 Analyze a product layout using line balancing.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

23. A contemporary process layout in which product “families” with similar processing characteristics are identified and produced on “mini-assembly lines” is referred to as:

A. Cellular layout.

 

B. Fixed position layout.

 

C. Flexible manufacturing systems.

 

D. Mass customization.

A cellular layout arranges workstations to form work cells to produce parts that have similar processing characteristics.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Analyze a product layout using line balancing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

24. Compared to a functional layout, cellular layouts have:

A. Less work-in-process inventory.

 

B. More complexity in scheduling.

 

C. More frequent setups.

 

D. Lower efficiency.

Compared to a functional layout, a cellular layout is less complex, has fewer setups, higher efficiency, and less work-in-process inventory.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-04 Analyze a product layout using line balancing.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Operations Layout
 

 

25. An example of an integrative technology is a/an:

A. Transportation management system.

 

B. Industrial robot.

 

C. Radio frequency identification (RFID) system.

 

D. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system.

See Table 5-4.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-05 Explain how technology is used in the supply chain and the benefit and drawbacks of process automation.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Capacity Enabling Technologies
 

 

26. Systems that combine automated machines, robots, and material handling systems and are controlled by a single computer are:

A. Transportation management systems (TMS).

 

B. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS).

 

C. Manufacturing executive systems (EMS).

 

D. Warehouse management systems (WMS).

FMS systems combine automated machines, robots, and material handling systems and are controlled by a single computer.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-05 Explain how technology is used in the supply chain and the benefit and drawbacks of process automation.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Capacity Enabling Technologies
 

 

27. The use of a tablet computer such as an iPad for a restaurant’s wine list is an example of:

A. Mobility.

 

B. Point-of-sale system.

 

C. Warehouse management system.

 

D. Enterprise resource management system.

The use of tablet computers to provide information at the source where it is needed is mobility.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-05 Explain how technology is used in the supply chain and the benefit and drawbacks of process automation.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Capacity Enabling Technologies
 

 

28. An automated process can be compared to a more labor-intensive process using:

A. A service blueprint.

 

B. Line balancing.

 

C. Indifference analysis.

 

D. Mass customization.

Indifference analysis is used to compare processes.

 

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 05-06 Use indifference analysis in process selection decisions.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic Area: Use Indifference Analysis in Process Selection Decisions
 

 

29. A bakery has a choice of leasing different types of ovens. Oven A will cost $1,000 per year to lease and operate, plus $0.50 per cake baked. Oven B will cost $3,000 per year to lease and operate, plus $0.40 per cake baked. Find the indifference point at which the annual costs of the two ovens are equal.

A. 200 cakes.

 

B. 20,000 cakes.

 

C. 40,000 cakes.

 

D. None of these.

$1,000 + $0.50/cake = $3,000 + $0.40/cake, breakeven = $2,000/$0.10/cake = 20,000 cakes

 

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 05-06 Use indifference analysis in process selection decisions.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Use Indifference Analysis in Process Selection Decisions
 

 

30. Three processes have the following costs: Process A has a fixed cost of $2,000 and variable cost of $3.00/unit. Process B fixed cost is $4,000 and variable cost is $2.60/unit. Process C fixed cost is $8,000 and variable cost is $2.40/unit. If the projected total demand is for 6,000 units, which process should be used?

A. Process A

 

B. Process B

 

C. Process C

The indifference point for A versus B is 5,000 units. Since B has the lowest variable cost, it is preferable to A for anticipated demand of 6,000 units. Breakeven for B versus C is 20,000 units. Since anticipated volume is only 6,000 units, B is preferable since it has lower fixed cost than C.

 

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Evaluate
Learning Objective: 05-06 Use indifference analysis in process selection decisions.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic Area: Use Indifference Analysis in Process Selection Decisions
 

 

 

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