Managing Human Resources Canadian 8th Edition by Belcourt – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

1. In addition to the positive morale benefits, recruiting from within the organization also attempts to capitalize on HR and human capital investments.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. Excessive reliance upon internal sources can create the risk of employee cloning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. Organizations tend to integrate their promotion-from-within policy and their employment equity programs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. Nepotism is a problem with executive search firms.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. Mentoring functions can be divided into two broad categories: (1) technical development and (2) career planning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. Outplacement services help terminated employees find a job elsewhere.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. Labour unions can be a recruiting source for some professional job openings.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. Human resources information systems can be used to predict the career paths of employees.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. It is the responsibility of the organization to supply information about its mission, policies, and plans for providing support for employee self-assessment, training, and development.

  a. True
  b. False

 

10. There is a correlation between the accuracy and completeness of an advertisement and recruitment success.

  a. True
  b. False

 

11. Recruiters sent to university and college campuses must be properly trained and prepared to talk to candidates about their company and job requirements of specific openings.

  a. True
  b. False

 

12. The placement of an employee in another job at a higher level in the organization with an increase in pay and status is known as a job rotation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

13. A recruiting strategy that works for one form might not work for another.

  a. True
  b. False

 

14. Applicants who find employment through an employee referral tend to be a problem because they tend to quit more often.

  a. True
  b. False

 

15. Career planning workbooks are popular means of helping employees identify their potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

16. Yield ratios should be calculated for each recruiting source.

  a. True
  b. False

 

17. A recruiter’s job is to “sell” applicants on the organization, but they have no influence on their decision.

  a. True
  b. False

 

18. Advertisements can allow selectivity in attracting applicants.

  a. True
  b. False

 

19. The realistic job preview informs applicants about all aspects of the job, including both its desirable and its undesirable facets.

  a. True
  b. False

 

20. The lines of advancement for an individual within an organization are known as job paths.

  a. True
  b. False

 

21. Private employment agencies often specialize in particular occupations or professions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

22. Some career development paths provide new assignments that increase skill areas and assignments in different functional areas.

  a. True
  b. False

 

23. In many cases, hiring someone from outside is seen as essential for revitalizing the organization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

24. Yield ratios can help indicate which recruitment sources are most effective at producing qualified job candidates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

25. If career development is to succeed, it must receive the complete support of top management.

  a. True
  b. False

 

26. It is the responsibility of the employee to identify his or her own knowledge, skills, abilities, interests, and values and to seek out information about career options in order to set goals and develop career plans.

  a. True
  b. False

 

27. The most common method used by job searchers is responding to printed advertisements.

  a. True
  b. False

 

28. A common approach to establishing a career development program is to integrate it with the existing HR functions and structures in the organization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

29. An assessment centre is a place where people are evaluated.

  a. True
  b. False

 

30. Job posting and bidding can be done via electronic bulletin boards or on regular bulletin boards, employee publications, special handouts, direct mail, and public address messages.

  a. True
  b. False

 

31. For technical and managerial positions, community colleges are generally the primary source of recruitment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

32. Realistic job previews reduce turnover, but also reduce job acceptance rates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

33. Often, applicants will respond to an advertisement even if they don’t meet the job requirements.

  a. True
  b. False

 

34. The effectiveness and attractiveness of recruiters is often a main reason why applicants select one organization over another.

  a. True
  b. False

 

35. Mentoring is one important indicator of management support in career development.

  a. True
  b. False

 

36. Educational institutions are typically a source of young applicants with formal training but relatively little full-time work experience.

  a. True
  b. False

 

37. Career management involves a good deal of analysis and planning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

38. Placement is the process of attempting to locate and encourage potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings.

  a. True
  b. False

 

39. At least one research study has found that managers often hire external candidates rather than promote their current employees because they have a tendency to overvalue unfamiliar candidates and undervalue known ones.

  a. True
  b. False

 

40. The most commonly used search tactic for job seekers is Internet recruiting.

  a. True
  b. False

 

41. Transfers usually provide the same motivational value as promotions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

42. Recruiters usually have minimal influence on an applicant’s decision to work for one organization or another.

  a. True
  b. False

 

43. When unemployment levels are low, employers may need to use more sources of recruitment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

44. Skill inventories are an important tool for succession planning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

45. Mentoring programs develop over time and on an informal basis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

46. Public employment agencies work closely with private employment agencies.

  a. True
  b. False

 

47. Employability refers to the skills and support needed to find a job.

  a. True
  b. False

 

48. The best source for recruitment will vary depending on the industry.

  a. True
  b. False

 

49. A dual career path is for couples who are both working professionals in the same field.

  a. True
  b. False

 

50. Fast-track programs were initiated in some organizations as a way to retain young managers with high potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

51. When Mark applied for a job as an engineer in a small town in Northern Canada, he was told that the pay was good, but that it can be very lonely and cold in the winter. Which of the following approaches to recruiting is the employer using?

  a. realistic job preview
  b. balanced scorecard
  c. balanced recruiting
  d. negative/positive job assessment

 

52. What is the practice of hiring relatives called?

  a. insourcing
  b. nepotism
  c. favouritism
  d. inbreeding

 

53. Which of the following best describes private employment agencies?

  a. They commonly provide services only to college graduates.
  b. They do not charge a fee for their services.
  c. They are administered through the provincial governments.
  d. They commonly specialize in providing services for a specific occupational area.

 

54. Which of the following is a characteristic of a tight labour market?

  a. high unemployment
  b. low unemployment
  c. declining compensation rates
  d. low productivity

 

55. ABC Corporation identifies the top 10 of its junior engineers and allows them to select a top executive to work with on their career development, including goals, expectations, and standards. How would you describe the resulting relationship between the executive and the junior engineer?

  a. formal mentoring
  b. controlled development
  c. dual career planning
  d. career networking

 

56. Which of the following is the most important disadvantage of using employee referrals for recruitment?

  a. It makes human resource planning near impossible due to the unpredictable nature of the talent pool.
  b. Training recruiters to recognize potential in candidates in this way is difficult and costly.
  c. Discrimination may result because people tend to refer others from similar backgrounds.
  d. It is likely that individuals will refer weak candidates in order to lessen internal competition for promotions.

 

57. If you are to offer advice to an employer for an effective newspaper advertisement, which of the following is NOT something that you should advise?

  a. Overlook community newspapers or classified publications that target a specific market segment.
  b. Try to be too creative.
  c. Provide a lot of information about the position.
  d. Mention that the company is an equal opportunity employer.

 

58. Which external recruiting source normally provides applicants who stay with the organization the longest?

  a. newspaper ads
  b. search firms
  c. job fairs
  d. employee referrals

 

59. What is the first stage in the career stage model?

  a. early childhood
  b. organizational entry
  c. preparation for work
  d. early career

 

60. What is often the greatest criticism of search firms?

  a. They allow for too much “inbreeding.”
  b. Their clients have to pay them even if the search is unsuccessful.
  c. Their search is not sufficiently wide.
  d. They attract too many lawsuits.

 

61. When Mary was recruited for her position, she was evaluated in a series of situations that resembled what she would likely experience on the job. Which recruitment method was the employer using?

  a. skills inventory
  b. management talent inventory
  c. assessment centre
  d. performance appraisal

 

62. Which organizational situation is most likely to benefit from using realistic job previews?

  a. in the financial industry where there are few jobs but the training is arduous and jobs are not very lucrative despite the promise of wealth in the long run
  b. in creative organizations, such as symphony orchestras, where the work is not well paid and the training is intense
  c. in a high-tech organization where despite being in a very competitive industry engineers are allowed to explore their creative side and are motivated financially to suggest innovative products
  d. in a meat-processing plant where the work is very messy, the smell is strong and unpleasant, and a lot of expensive training is needed to do the job well

 

Scenario 5.2

Star Bright Consulting, a Canadian private employment agency specializing in IT staffing, has been successfully providing qualified IT employees to various firms in the Greater Toronto Area. Recently, the agency has been experiencing problems with its selection process. Primarily, the agency’s clients are not happy with the length of time it takes to fill positions that become available. Even though Star Bright has been successful over the years, it is not fully leveraging technology to aid in its recruitment and selection efforts.

 

63. Refer to Scenario 5.2. Which of the following tools can Star Bright use to promote the IT careers it offers?

  a. blogs and articles in industry publications
  b. chat lines in cyberspace
  c. an intranet where positions can be quickly viewed and applied for
  d. links to current employees’ Facebook profiles

 

64. Organization W has had an opening in a key managerial role for three weeks, which is viewed as a long time. In situations like this in the past, Organization W has had to resort to hiring external to the organization, which is less preferable to the company, in order to fill the position in question. What is Organization W likely suffering from?

  a. poor HR planning
  b. a weak training and development program in the organization
  c. a weak talent bench
  d. a lack of value for promotions in the organization

 

65. In identifying career opportunities and requirements within an organization, what is the vital first step?

  a. preparing a competency or job analysis
  b. preparing performance appraisals of existing staff in those positions
  c. ensuring the job progressions within the organization are clear
  d. identifying career paths

 

66. Linda has advanced through several roles with increasing responsibilities at ABC Corporation, including HR assistant, HR generalist, and HR manager. What is the term for this line of advancement?

  a. line path
  b. career line
  c. job line progression
  d. career path

 

67. What determines the effectiveness of a computerized record system (such as SAP and PeopleSoft) for locating qualified internal job candidates?

  a. the extent to which data in the system is kept current
  b. the extent to which the system is “user-friendly”
  c. the costs for updating the system
  d. the availability of the system to line personnel

 

68. Company A sometimes recruits employees from its network of past employees/alumni. What is this process called?

  a. retiree recruiting
  b. re-recruiting
  c. network recruiting
  d. employee leasing

 

69. Which of the following best captures the “Peter Principle”?

  a. Through natural selection, incompetent employees tend to turn over.
  b. When promoting based on past performance and seniority, employees will be promoted regularly until they are promoted to a position where they cannot perform well.
  c. Incompetence breeds incompetence.
  d. Managers who are incompetent tend to produce situations where there are more grievances, more voluntary turnover, more absenteeism, and more harassment.

 

70. Sukhi is an excellent engineer and has been promoted three times within her current organization—she is now at the top level of engineering. She loves being an engineer, but the organization has now offered her a very lucrative position as a manager. If she wants to continue to be promoted, the only way is to move into management, since there are no higher engineering jobs for her. Which of the following programs would benefit Sukhi?

  a. a boundaryless career
  b. competency analysis
  c. dual career tracking
  d. a structural career plateau

 

71. Which recruitment method is more likely than the others to result in discrimination against members of protected groups?

  a. executive search firms
  b. social media
  c. employee referrals
  d. educational institutions

 

72. Hamid is a professional engineer. He is not permanently in a management role, but is paid at management rate, and can choose to take up management roles without sacrificing his engineering role. How would you describe his career path?

  a. complex career path
  b. boundaryless career path
  c. dual career path
  d. divergent career path

 

Scenario 5.1

Beloitte Industries Inc. (BI Inc.) has been one of Canada’s leading financial advisory firms for over 50 years. Staffed by roughly 4000 employees in most major cities across the country, BI Inc. prides itself on hiring recent graduates from renowned business schools and offering them competitive salaries, excellent benefits and perks, and limitless training and development opportunities. Employees also have the opportunity to work from home a couple days a week. Over the years, the company realized that while it has no problems recruiting top candidates to the firm, it is having a harder time retaining them. Exit surveys reveal that while employees appreciate all the perks, benefits, and top salaries that attracted them to the organization, they are not able to enjoy them due to six-day workweeks and 14-hour days, leaving very little time for friends and family. They did not know of these work situations when they were hired.

 

73. Refer to Scenario 5.1. Adopting a realistic job preview at BI Inc. can lead to which of the following?

  a. turnover of employees who are more driven by the money
  b. better job satisfaction and lower turnover
  c. inaccurately reflecting the culture for which the candidate is signing up
  d. negative effect on the socialization process

 

74. What is a key factor in the success of any employee referral program?

  a. measuring results
  b. paying employees well for good referrals
  c. increasing the visibility of the program
  d. ensuring nepotism

 

75. Luba is developing a mentoring program for her organization. She has put a great deal of effort into making sure that all protégés are matched demographically with their mentor (gender, race, etc.), educating participants about facts such as the reciprocal nature of the relationship, and that the relationship can be used for personal and professional development. In her plans, which myth about mentors has Luba fallen victim to?

  a. A mentor has to be the same gender and race as the protégé.
  b. Mentoring should focus on the professional and not the personal.
  c. Although mentoring can be reciprocal, that is just a by-product. The focus should be on the protégé.
  d. Highly profiled people make the best mentors.

 

76. What is the key reason why the quality of employee-referred applicants tends to be high?

  a. Employees are hesitant to recommend applicants who might not perform well.
  b. Employees train the applicants.
  c. Employees tend to refer their friends and relatives.
  d. Inbreeding improves the quality.

 

Scenario 5.2

Star Bright Consulting, a Canadian private employment agency specializing in IT staffing, has been successfully providing qualified IT employees to various firms in the Greater Toronto Area. Recently, the agency has been experiencing problems with its selection process. Primarily, the agency’s clients are not happy with the length of time it takes to fill positions that become available. Even though Star Bright has been successful over the years, it is not fully leveraging technology to aid in its recruitment and selection efforts.

 

77. Refer to Scenario 5.2. Which of the following is not useful in assisting Star Bright with efforts to improve its recruitment and selection process?

  a. yield ratio
  b. time to fill a position
  c. realistic job preview
  d. cost per hire

 

78. What is the most likely outcome of hiring an external candidate for a position in an organization?

  a. It would lead to an increase in information about the market.
  b. It would increase morale among executives.
  c. It would lead to revitalization of the organization.
  d. It would decrease creativity.

 

79. Trade schools can be a good source for recruits for what types of positions?

  a. entrepreneurial and managerial
  b. managerial and executive
  c. entrepreneurial and executive
  d. entry level and highly skilled employees

 

80. Which of the following is NOT a service generally offered by public employment agencies?

  a. compensation surveys
  b. evaluation programs
  c. employment testing
  d. apprenticeship programs

 

81. Which of the following positions would most likely be filled by external candidates?

  a. intermediate IT technicians
  b. senior accounting clerks
  c. supervisors
  d. head coaches of professional sports teams

 

82. Which of the following refers to those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organizations into management positions?

  a. artificial barriers
  b. the glass floor
  c. the job plateau
  d. the glass ceiling

 

83. Which of the following is NOT a factor included in a self-evaluation for successful career development?

  a. your interests
  b. academic achievement
  c. academic aptitude
  d. organizational opportunities for advancement

 

84. Which of the following is the best example of a person with a boundaryless career?

  a. When Deborah become pregnant with her third child, she decided that working less would be best for her family. She now shares her job with another person who also works part-time.
  b. Yusef quit his job of 10 years to open his own business and work from home. He has the freedom of being his own boss and being flexible with his schedule.
  c. Bill works in a creative role within an organization with a flat structure. In such an organization there are opportunities to contribute at all levels.
  d. Sally has worked for three different organizations in five years. Each time she moves to a new organization, and usually a higher position, she takes with her the skills and abilities she learned in her previous role.

 

85. Which of the following groups is most likely to respond to advertisements placed through social media?

  a. Generation X
  b. Generation Y
  c. retirees
  d. baby boomers

 

86. Sandeep has been fired from his managerial position. His organization provides services to help him become employable and find a suitable position elsewhere. What are these services called?

  a. coaching
  b. mentoring
  c. outplacement
  d. relocation

 

87. Which of the following best describes outplacement services?

  a. They are useful methods of attracting individuals into a career.
  b. They are designed to help terminated employees find a job elsewhere.
  c. They are rarely given to executive employees.
  d. They are vital parts of any career management system.

 

88. In order to identify qualified candidates for the job of “tennis teaching professional,” Canmay Tennis Clubs have job candidates face a series of situations while they are observed, such as dealing with a series of emails from an unhappy club client in a difficult situation, role-playing a lesson, and a behavioural interview. Which method of identifying qualified candidates is Canmay using?

  a. in-basket exercises
  b. interviewing
  c. a work sample
  d. an assessment centre

 

89. Which of the following is a potential limitation when an organization practises promotion from within?

  a. “inbreeding”
  b. increased cost-per-hire by using the firm’s job posting system
  c. reduced employee morale
  d. increased employee turnover

 

Scenario 5.1

Beloitte Industries Inc. (BI Inc.) has been one of Canada’s leading financial advisory firms for over 50 years. Staffed by roughly 4000 employees in most major cities across the country, BI Inc. prides itself on hiring recent graduates from renowned business schools and offering them competitive salaries, excellent benefits and perks, and limitless training and development opportunities. Employees also have the opportunity to work from home a couple days a week. Over the years, the company realized that while it has no problems recruiting top candidates to the firm, it is having a harder time retaining them. Exit surveys reveal that while employees appreciate all the perks, benefits, and top salaries that attracted them to the organization, they are not able to enjoy them due to six-day workweeks and 14-hour days, leaving very little time for friends and family. They did not know of these work situations when they were hired.

 

90. Refer to Scenario 5.1. Which of the following is helpful in achieving retention at BI Inc.?

  a. highlighting only the positive aspects of the job when hiring
  b. not providing a tour of the working facility during the recruitment process
  c. providing a recruitment package that covers desirable and undesirable attributes
  d. discussion of how to compensate for any negative consideration

 

91. Learning in Development (LID) is a high-tech firm that specializes in applications for hand-held devices. It is looking for a cheap, fast, and effective way of recruiting new candidates. Which strategy would best suit LID?

  a. Internet recruiting
  b. executive search firms
  c. labour unions
  d. walk-in job applicants

 

92. Some organizations that want to focus on their core functions, including small businesses that lack time or HR personnel, sometimes use outside firms for their recruiting functions. What is this process called?

  a. delegation of recruiting
  b. core function planning
  c. recruitment channelling
  d. recruiting process outsourcing

 

93. Sarah is not actively looking for a job but she could be persuaded to take a new job if given the right opportunity. What is the term we used to describe Sarah?

  a. reluctant candidate
  b. job hopper
  c. passive job seeker
  d. active job seeker

 

94. Which of the following sources of applicants is associated with temporary employees more than the other sources?

  a. search firms
  b. walk-ins
  c. private employment agencies
  d. job fairs

 

Scenario 5.1

Beloitte Industries Inc. (BI Inc.) has been one of Canada’s leading financial advisory firms for over 50 years. Staffed by roughly 4000 employees in most major cities across the country, BI Inc. prides itself on hiring recent graduates from renowned business schools and offering them competitive salaries, excellent benefits and perks, and limitless training and development opportunities. Employees also have the opportunity to work from home a couple days a week. Over the years, the company realized that while it has no problems recruiting top candidates to the firm, it is having a harder time retaining them. Exit surveys reveal that while employees appreciate all the perks, benefits, and top salaries that attracted them to the organization, they are not able to enjoy them due to six-day workweeks and 14-hour days, leaving very little time for friends and family. They did not know of these work situations when they were hired.

 

95. Refer to Scenario 5.1. BI Inc.’s problems stem from which of the following?

  a. not providing all the realities of the job when hiring
  b. lack of flexibility for employees
  c. too many unexpected surprises
  d. providing unrealistic rewards

 

96. Which of the following is an important limitation of using educational institutions for recruitment?

  a. The education students receive is not relevant to the workplace.
  b. Basing recruitment of candidates on grade transcripts is not a valid selection tool.
  c. Recruitment is limited to sales and retail.
  d. Candidates generally have limited full-time job experience.

 

97. ABC Corporation needs a new CEO. What is an important advantage of getting this person externally?

  a. It helps to promote outbreeding.
  b. It helps the organization maintain a rich organizational culture.
  c. It helps to lower initial pay, thus saving on compensation costs.
  d. It helps the organization gain access to knowledge from previous employers.

 

98. Which of the following is NOT a method generally used to improve the effectiveness of recruitment?

  a. surveys
  b. yield ratios
  c. realistic job previews
  d. employment testing

 

Scenario 5.2

Star Bright Consulting, a Canadian private employment agency specializing in IT staffing, has been successfully providing qualified IT employees to various firms in the Greater Toronto Area. Recently, the agency has been experiencing problems with its selection process. Primarily, the agency’s clients are not happy with the length of time it takes to fill positions that become available. Even though Star Bright has been successful over the years, it is not fully leveraging technology to aid in its recruitment and selection efforts.

 

99. Refer to Scenario 5.2. Which of the following can be used to speed up the recruitment process while providing valuable information such as time and costs related to hiring?

  a. quality of fill statistics
  b. online software application
  c. leveraging technology
  d. applicant tracking system

 

100. What is the most likely outcome of recruiting from within?

  a. It would increase recruiting costs.
  b. It would reduce employee motivation.
  c. It would inhibit creativity.
  d. It would increase an organization’s technology.

 

 

 

101. What are the advantages and disadvantages of internal recruitment?

 

102. What can managers do to improve the effectiveness of external recruitment?

 

103. Describe the five stages of career development, particularly stages one and two, and briefly describe what stages three through five have in common.

 

Answer Key

1. True

 

2. True

 

3. True

 

4. False

 

5. False

 

6. True

 

7. True

 

8. True

 

9. True

 

10. True

 

11. True

 

12. False

 

13. True

 

14. False

 

15. True

 

16. True

 

17. False

 

18. True

 

19. True

 

20. False

 

21. True

 

22. True

 

23. True

 

24. True

 

25. True

 

26. True

 

27. False

 

28. True

 

29. False

 

30. True

 

31. False

 

32. True

 

33. True

 

34. True

 

35. True

 

36. True

 

37. True

 

38. False

 

39. True

 

40. True

 

41. False

 

42. False

 

43. True

 

44. True

 

45. True

 

46. False

 

47. True

 

48. True

 

49. False

 

50. True

 

51. a

 

52. b

 

53. d

 

54. b

 

55. a

 

56. c

 

57. b

 

58. d

 

59. c

 

60. b

 

61. c

 

62. d

 

63. a

 

64. c

 

65. a

 

66. d

 

67. a

 

68. b

 

69. b

 

70. c

 

71. c

 

72. c

 

73. b

 

74. a

 

75. a

 

76. a

 

77. c

 

78. c

 

79. d

 

80. a

 

81. d

 

82. d

 

83. d

 

84. d

 

85. b

 

86. c

 

87. b

 

88. d

 

89. a

 

90. c

 

91. a

 

92. d

 

93. c

 

94. c

 

95. a

 

96. d

 

97. d

 

98. d

 

99. d

 

100. c

 

101. The use of internal source applicants provides motivation and enhances the morale of the current workforce by linking performance to rewards. Also, internal applicants are well known to management and require less training than external applicants. Disadvantages or limitations of internal recruitment include the inability to be able to fill certain jobs (e.g., jobs that require specialized training or experience). Internal recruitment may also perpetuate inbreeding of ideas and attitudes. Excessive reliance on internal sources can create the risk of “employee cloning” and may limit the organization from gaining knowledge. External source applicants often bring new and innovative ideas to the workplace. They are less likely to think in the same old ways as current employees. Also, external candidates can be used to provide knowledge, skills, and abilities that are lacking in the current workforce.

 

102. There are several things that managers can do to maximize the probability of successful external recruiting. First, managers may calculate yield ratios to help indicate which recruitment sources are most effective at producing qualified job candidates. Second, the cost of various recruiting procedures can be computed using a fairly simple set of calculations. Third, managers can take steps to ensure that their recruiters have a good understanding of the knowledge, skills, abilities, experiences, and other characteristics required for the job. In addition, it is important to remember that recruiters have an influence on an applicant’s job decision. Because recruiters can often enhance the perceived attractiveness of a job and an organization, they are often a main reason why applicants select one organization over another. Another way organizations may be able to increase the effectiveness of their recruitment efforts is to provide job applicants with a realistic job preview. A realistic job preview informs applicants about all aspects of the job, including both its desirable and undesirable facets.

 

103. The first stage, preparation for work, encompasses the period prior to entering an organization, often extending until age 25. It is a period in which individuals must acquire the knowledge, skills, and abilities they will need to compete in the marketplace. Careful planning based on sound information should be the focus.

The second stage, organizational entry, typically from age 18 to 25, is devoted to soliciting job offers and selecting an appropriate job. During this period, one may also be involved in preparing for work.

The next three stages—early career, midcareer, and late career—entail fitting into a chosen occupation and organization, modifying goals, making choices, remaining productive, and finally, preparing for retirement.

 

 

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