Living Physical Geography 1st Edition Gervais – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1. How many EF5 tornadoes have been recorded in the United States in the last 60 years?
  A) 40
  B) 50
  C) 60
  D) 70

 

 

2. A multicell thunderstorm is an example of a __________ event.
  A) microscale
  B) mesoscale
  C) synoptic-scale
  D) global-scale

 

 

3. A hurricane is an example of a __________ event.
  A) microscale
  B) mesoscale
  C) synoptic-scale
  D) global-scale

 

 

4. A single-cell thunderstorm is an example of a __________ event.
  A) microscale
  B) mesoscale
  C) synoptic-scale
  D) global-scale

 

 

5. A supercell thunderstorm is an example of a __________ event.
  A) microscale
  B) mesoscale
  C) synoptic-scale
  D) global-scale

 

 

6. A midlatitude cyclone is an example of a __________ event.
  A) microscale
  B) mesoscale
  C) synoptic-scale
  D) global-scale

 

 

7. Which events have the greatest duration?
  A) microscale events
  B) mesoscale events
  C) synoptic-scale events
  D) global-scale events

 

 

8. Which events have the shortest duration?
  A) microscale events
  B) mesoscale events
  C) synoptic-scale events
  D) global-scale events

 

 

9. Each day there are about __________ thunderstorms worldwide.
  A) 10,000
  B) 20,000
  C) 30,000
  D) 40,000

 

 

10. Which state has the most thunderstorms?
  A) California
  B) Florida
  C) Colorado
  D) Mississippi

 

 

11. Which state has the fewest thunderstorms?
  A) California
  B) Florida
  C) Colorado
  D) Mississippi

 

 

12. Which region has the greatest number of thunderstorms?
  A) equatorial Africa
  B) equatorial South America
  C) the foothills of the Himalayas
  D) Indonesia

 

 

13. There is a region of high thunderstorm activity in Colorado because of __________.
  A) the Great Plains
  B) the warm Gulf of Mexico
  C) the Rocky Mountains
  D) the cold Pacific Ocean

 

 

14. The western states have few thunderstorms because of __________.
  A) the Great Plains
  B) the warm Gulf of Mexico
  C) the Rocky Mountains
  D) the cold Pacific Ocean

 

 

15. Which air mass will form over a warm ocean?
  A) mT
  B) cT
  C) mP
  D) cP

 

 

16. Which air mass will form over a cool ocean?
  A) mT
  B) cT
  C) mP
  D) cP

 

 

17. Which air mass will form over a warm continent?
  A) mT
  B) cT
  C) mP
  D) cP

 

 

18. Which air mass will form over a cold continent?
  A) mT
  B) cT
  C) mP
  D) cP

 

 

19. Which sequence is the correct order of single-cell thunderstorm development?
  A) mature—cumulus—dissipating
  B) cumulus—mature—dissipating
  C) dissipating—cumulus—mature
  D) cumulus—dissipating—mature

 

 

20. About how long do single-cell thunderstorms typically last?
  A) 1 hour
  B) 2 hours
  C) 4 hours
  D) 6 hours

 

 

21. Which is not one of the criteria used to determine whether a thunderstorm is severe or not?
  A) hail size
  B) tornado presence
  C) wind speed
  D) lightning frequency

 

 

22. About __________ percent of the thunderstorms in the United States are severe.
  A) 10
  B) 20
  C) 30
  D) 40

 

 

23. Individual thunderstorms in a multicell system persist for about __________ hour(s).
  A) 1
  B) 2
  C) 3
  D) 6

 

 

24. Which setting is least likely to form a multicell thunderstorm?
  A) squall lines
  B) mesoscale convective systems
  C) within the interior of air masses
  D) on the boundary of air masses

 

 

25. A derecho is formed when a gust front has 93 kilometers per hour winds or greater and is __________ kilometers in length.
  A) 100
  B) 200
  C) 300
  D) 400

 

 

26. __________ is the most common form of lightning.
  A) Cloud-to-cloud
  B) Cloud-to-ground
  C) Heat lightning
  D) Nighttime lightning

 

 

27. A __________ is sand that has been fused by lightning.
  A) derecho
  B) fulgurite
  C) thermocline
  D) squall line

 

 

28. About __________ people are struck by lightning each year in the United States.
  A) 300
  B) 400
  C) 500
  D) 600

 

 

29. Which is the safest if caught outdoors in a lightning storm?
  A) on the top of a mountain
  B) playing golf
  C) hiding under an isolated tall tree
  D) sheltering in a car

 

 

30. If there is a 6-second delay between the sound of thunder and a discharge of lightning, about how many kilometers distant was the lightning bolt?
  A) 1
  B) 2
  C) 3
  D) 4

 

 

31. What is a mesocyclone?
  A) a rotating updraft in a thunderstorm
  B) another name for a hurricane
  C) a midlatitude cyclone
  D) a name for a tornado in Australia

 

 

32. A __________ is the lowest portion of a mesocyclone.
  A) down draft
  B) fulgurite
  C) wall cloud
  D) supercell

 

 

33. An EF3 tornado is associated with __________ to structures and trees.
  A) moderate damage
  B) severe damage
  C) devastating damage
  D) incredible damage

 

 

34. An EF4 tornado is associated with __________ to structures and trees.
  A) moderate damage
  B) severe damage
  C) devastating damage
  D) incredible damage

 

 

35. For what minimum tornado categories are cars lifted off the ground?
  A) EF2
  B) EF3
  C) EF4
  D) EF5

 

 

36. What percentage of tornadoes in the United States are EF0 and EF1?
  A) 1 percent
  B) 30 percent
  C) 60 percent
  D) 80 percent

 

 

37. What percentage of tornadoes in the United States are EF4 and EF5?
  A) 1 percent
  B) 30 percent
  C) 60 percent
  D) 80 percent

 

 

38. About what percentage of tornado damage in the United States is caused by EF4 and EF5 tornadoes?
  A) 25 percent
  B) 55 percent
  C) 65 percent
  D) 90 percent

 

 

39. Most tornadoes in the United States occur __________.
  A) January to March
  B) March to April
  C) April to July
  D) July to August

 

 

40. Most tornadoes in the United States occur __________.
  A) before noon
  B) from noon to 2:00 pm
  C) 2:00 to 4:00 pm
  D) 4:00 to 6:00 pm

 

 

41. Most tornadoes in the United States last about __________ minutes.
  A) 5
  B) 20
  C) 45
  D) 60

 

 

42. The United States experiences about __________ tornadoes per year.
  A) 500
  B) 1,200
  C) 1,700
  D) 2,000

 

 

43. Most strong tornadoes in the United States occur __________.
  A) west of the Rocky Mountains
  B) east of the Appalachian Mountains
  C) in Canada
  D) between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains

 

 

44. A tornado watch is issued for a region when __________.
  A) a tornado has been seen
  B) conditions are favorable for supercell thunderstorms
  C) conditions are favorable for single-cell thunderstorms
  D) conditions are favorable for strong wind shear

 

 

45. A tornado warning is issued for a region when __________.
  A) a tornado has been seen
  B) conditions are favorable for supercell thunderstorms
  C) conditions are favorable for single-cell thunderstorms
  D) conditions are favorable for strong wind shear

 

 

46. A Doppler radar hook echo indicates the presence of what?
  A) heavy downpours
  B) heavy hail
  C) a tornado
  D) a hurricane

 

 

47. Which is the least safe place to be during a strong tornado?
  A) the basement
  B) near a window
  C) under a mattress
  D) an interior room

 

 

48. If you are caught in a car in a tornado, which act should not be done?
  A) park the car on the side of the road
  B) keep the seat belt on
  C) put your head below the window level
  D) try to drive through the tornado

 

 

49. Hurricane strength comes from __________.
  A) the absorption of latent heat through evaporation
  B) the trade winds
  C) the release of latent heat through condensation
  D) ocean currents

 

 

50. Tropical waves develop in the __________.
  A) trade winds
  B) doldrums
  C) westerlies
  D) subpolar low

 

 

51. Tropical waves give rise to __________.
  A) tropical depressions
  B) tropical storms
  C) tropical disturbances
  D) hurricanes

 

 

52. Which sequence is the correct order of hurricane development?
  A) tropical storm—tropical disturbance—tropical depression—hurricane
  B) tropical disturbance—tropical depression—tropical storm—hurricane
  C) tropical depression—tropical disturbance—tropical storm—hurricane
  D) tropical disturbance— tropical storm—tropical depression—hurricane

 

 

53. Closed rotation first begins in a __________.
  A) tropical depression
  B) tropical storm
  C) tropical disturbance
  D) hurricane

 

 

54. A category 1 hurricane has wind speeds over __________ kilometers per hour.
  A) 100
  B) 119
  C) 154
  D) 250

 

 

55. Which hurricane category brings “extensive” damage?
  A) 2
  B) 3
  C) 4
  D) 5

 

 

56. Which hurricane category has pressure between 920 and 944 millibars?
  A) 2
  B) 3
  C) 4
  D) 5

 

 

57. A category 5 hurricane has wind speeds over __________ kilometers per hour.
  A) 100
  B) 119
  C) 154
  D) 250

 

 

58. The __________ is the system used to rank hurricanes.
  A) enhanced Fujita scale
  B) Saffir-Simpson scale
  C) Beaufort wind-force scale
  D) ocean wind-force scale

 

 

59. For hurricanes to form, seawater generally must be about __________ degrees Celsius at the surface.
  A) 21
  B) 23
  C) 26
  D) 28

 

 

60. Warm seawater must extend to about __________ meters in depth for hurricanes to persist.
  A) 60
  B) 80
  C) 100
  D) 110

 

 

61. Which hurricane monitoring system provides information about seawater temperatures beneath the surface of the ocean?
  A) satellites
  B) aircraft reconnaissance and dropsondes
  C) marine buoys
  D) Doppler radar

 

 

62. Which region experiences the most and the strongest tropical cyclones (hurricanes)?
  A) the western Pacific Ocean
  B) the eastern Pacific Ocean
  C) the western Atlantic Ocean
  D) the Indian Ocean

 

 

63. Which region experiences the most deadly tropical cyclones (hurricanes)?
  A) the western Pacific Ocean
  B) the eastern Pacific Ocean
  C) the western Atlantic Ocean
  D) the Indian Ocean

 

 

64. Why does the equator never experience tropical cyclones (hurricanes)?
  A) because there is no Coriolis force
  B) because the water is too warm
  C) because there is not enough ocean
  D) because the water is too cool

 

 

65. Why do tropical cyclones (hurricanes) not form near South America?
  A) because there is no Coriolis force
  B) because the water is too warm
  C) because there is not enough ocean
  D) because the water is too cool

 

 

66. Generally, which aspect of hurricanes is most dangerous?
  A) sustained high winds
  B) inland flooding
  C) coastal flooding
  D) warm seawater

 

 

67. A __________ is a rise in sea level caused by high winds and low atmospheric pressure.
  A) storm surge
  B) nor’easter
  C) hurricane
  D) squall line

 

 

68. A __________ occurs when a warm air mass advances on a relatively cold air mass.
  A) warm front
  B) midlatitude cyclone
  C) hurricane
  D) cold front

 

 

69. A __________ occurs when a cold air mass advances on a relatively warm air mass.
  A) warm front
  B) midlatitude cyclone
  C) hurricane
  D) cold front

 

 

70. Which air mass is a midlatitude cyclone cold sector composed of?
  A) mT
  B) cT
  C) mP
  D) Air masses do not make up midlatitude cyclone cold sectors.

 

 

71. Which is unlikely to be produced by a warm front?
  A) gentle frontal slope
  B) precipitation is steady and prolonged
  C) a progression of clouds, beginning with high-altitude cirrus and ending with low-altitude nimbostratus
  D) a cold air mass after the front has passed

 

 

72. Which is unlikely to be produced by a cold front?
  A) multicell thunderstorms
  B) brief and intense showers
  C) precipitation from nimbostratus
  D) a squall line

 

 

73. Which sequence puts the stages of midlatitude cyclone development in the correct order?
  A) stationary wave—stationary front—midlatitude cyclone— occluded front
  B) stationary front—stationary wave—midlatitude cyclone—occluded front
  C) midlatitude cyclone—stationary front—stationary wave— occluded front
  D) occluded front—stationary front—stationary wave—midlatitude cyclone

 

 

74. Which cannot strengthen a midlatitude cyclone?
  A) a Rossby wave trough
  B) upper-level divergence
  C) upper-level convergence
  D) a rising central air column

 

 

75. The Pacific Northwest in North America is likely to experience __________ weather from El Niño.
  A) warm
  B) wet and warm
  C) dry
  D) dry and warm

 

 

76. Indonesia is likely to experience __________ from El Niño.
  A) warm
  B) wet and warm
  C) dry
  D) dry and warm

 

 

77. The Southeastern United States is likely to experience ___________ from El Niño.
  A) warm
  B) wet and cool
  C) dry
  D) dry and warm

 

 

78. Southeastern Africa is likely to experience __________ from El Niño.
  A) warm
  B) wet and cool
  C) dry
  D) dry and warm

 

 

79. Peru and Ecuador are likely to experience __________ from El Niño.
  A) drought
  B) flooding rains
  C) heat waves
  D) fires

 

 

80. Western Australia is likely to experience __________ from El Niño.
  A) typhoons
  B) flooding rains
  C) heat waves
  D) fires

 

 

81. Which does not occur when an El Niño year occurs?
  A) a reversal of the trade winds
  B) migration of warm water eastward across the equatorial Pacific Ocean
  C) deepening of the thermocline near Indonesia and Australia
  D) reversed Walker circulation

 

 

82. In recent decades the intensity of El Niño has __________.
  A) increased
  B) decreased
  C) remained the same
  D) cycled between high and low states

 

 

83. El Niños and La Niñas occurred during about __________ of the last 50 years.
  A) 8
  B) 10
  C) 25
  D) 30

 

 

84. The most hurricane-prone state in the United States is __________.
  A) Louisiana
  B) Mississippi
  C) North Carolina
  D) Florida

 

 

85. The long-term average number of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean is __________.
  A) increasing
  B) decreasing
  C) not changing significantly
  D) unknown

 

 

86. Which factor was not cited in this chapter as one that could decrease the number of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean?
  A) wind shear
  B) La Niña
  C) El Niño
  D) warmer ocean temperatures

 

 

Use the following to answer question 87:

 

 

 

87. According to the map, which of these states has the least frequent number of hurricanes?
  A) Mississippi
  B) Georgia
  C) Alabama
  D) Texas

 

 

Use the following to answer questions 88-89:

 

 

 

88. According to the graph, which of these years experienced the strongest El Niño event?
  A) 1978
  B) 1997
  C) 2000
  D) 2005

 

 

89. According to the graph, which of these years experienced the strongest La Niña event?
  A) 1970
  B) 1997
  C) 1989
  D) 1999

 

 

90. The strongest tornado ranking is EF5.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

91. The “EF” scale stands for “Enhanced Force.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

92. The United States experiences about one EF5 tornado per year on average.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

93. EF5 tornadoes do not cause very much damage.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

94. A thunderstorm is a cumulonimbus cloud that makes lightning and thunder.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

95. All thunderstorms make lightning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

96. Microscale events are 1 kilometer in size or greater.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

97. Multicell thunderstorms can form under conditions of moderate wind shear.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

98. Gust fronts form from downdrafts in a thunderstorm.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

99. Multicell thunderstorms have a rotating updraft.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

100. Lightning develops as a separation of electrical charges builds up between a cloud and another cloud or a cloud and the ground.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

101. All mesocyclones produce tornadoes.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

102. Tornadoes do not form in mountainous regions.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

103. Tornados never hit the same place twice.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

104. Tornadoes can travel over the ground at 113 kilometers per hour or more.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

105. North America experiences the most and the strongest tornadoes in the world.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

106. A funnel cloud is a tornado that has not touched ground.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

107. Seeking shelter beneath a bridge when a tornado strikes is safe.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

108. Tropical cyclones rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

109. All hurricanes have wind speeds of 119 kilometers per hour or greater.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

110. A hurricane is also called a typhoon.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

111. Hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean basin use French, English, and Spanish names.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

112. Hurricane names are retired for those storms that are particularly destructive.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

113. Strong hurricanes always bring the heaviest rainfall totals.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

114. Like tornadoes, hurricanes often go undetected and catch coastal populations by surprise.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

115. Dropsondes measure precipitation amounts in hurricanes.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

116. Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest hurricane to strike U.S. shores.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

117. A midlatitude cyclone rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

118. Midlatitude cyclones occur between 30 and 70 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

119. Midlatitude cyclones are the largest storm systems on the planet.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

120. Warm fronts often bring severe weather.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

121. The cold front of a midlatitude cyclone arrives before the warm front.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

122. Troughs provide upper-level support for midlatitude cyclones.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

123. Nor’easters occur in the Rocky Mountains.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

124. El Niño is a periodic shift in Earth’s climate system.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

125. El Niño events occur predictably every 5 years.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

126. La Niña often follows right after El Niño.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

127. Scientists cannot predict El Niño more than 6 months in advance.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

128. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded about 80 percent of New Orleans.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

129. Tallahassee, Florida, is the largest metropolitan region in the United States most at risk to flooding and wind damage by a major hurricane.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

130. In the 1990s Atlantic hurricane frequency increased as part of a natural, long-term cycle.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

131. If the water temperature decreased in the Great Lakes, would the lake-effect snows increase or decrease? Explain.

 

 

132. Are scientists certain how hurricane activity will change in the coming decades?

 

 

133. Explain how hurricane winds grow so strong and perpetuate themselves.

 

 

134. In the context of climate change, why might a person reasonably expect that hurricanes should be getting more frequent and stronger?

 

 

135. Based on your reading in this chapter, what, if any, atmospheric hazards occur where you live? Explain how they form.

 

 

136. Do you think it would be possible to reduce the vulnerability of the Great Plains to tornadoes? What would need to be done to accomplish this?

 

 

137. How does El Niño influence the weather where you live?

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. D
8. A
9. D
10. B
11. A
12. A
13. C
14. D
15. A
16. C
17. B
18. D
19. B
20. A
21. D
22. A
23. A
24. C
25. D
26. A
27. B
28. C
29. D
30. B
31. A
32. C
33. B
34. C
35. B
36. D
37. A
38. C
39. C
40. D
41. A
42. B
43. D
44. B
45. A
46. C
47. B
48. D
49. C
50. A
51. C
52. B
53. A
54. B
55. B
56. C
57. D
58. B
59. C
60. A
61. C
62. A
63. D
64. A
65. D
66. C
67. A
68. A
69. D
70. C
71. D
72. C
73. B
74. C
75. A
76. D
77. B
78. D
79. B
80. D
81. C
82. A
83. C
84. D
85. C
86. B
87. B
88. B
89. C
90. A
91. B
92. A
93. B
94. A
95. A
96. B
97. A
98. A
99. B
100. A
101. B
102. B
103. B
104. A
105. A
106. A
107. B
108. B
109. A
110. A
111. A
112. A
113. B
114. B
115. B
116. B
117. A
118. A
119. A
120. B
121. B
122. A
123. B
124. A
125. B
126. A
127. A
128. A
129. B
130. A
131. The snows would decrease because cold water evaporates less quickly than warm water. Also, colder water could freeze the surface. A cover of ice greatly reduces the rate of evaporation from a water body.
132. Scientists are not at all certain how hurricanes will respond to a warmer world. A warmer world is a potentially windier world with more wind shear. Wind shear does not favor hurricane development.
133. Hurricane sustained winds are caused by the latent-heat positive feedback. The more condensation that occurs, the faster the surface winds will be. Condensation of water vapor in the eye wall releases latent heat. This warms the atmosphere and enhances instability in the eye wall. Unstable, buoyant clouds rise, cool, and water vapor condenses, releasing yet more latent heat. These rising columns of air pull in air from surrounding regions at the surface level, creating hurricane-force winds.
134. We might expect stronger hurricanes because hurricanes require a very high specific humidity. Warm air has a higher water vapor capacity than cold air and warm air warms the ocean’s surface, causing it to evaporate more quickly. So a warmer atmosphere should make more hurricanes.
135. Answers will vary depending on where the student lives.
136. Answers will vary. One line of thought would be to build better shelters in all structures. Another idea would be to build stronger structures, but this may not be effective given how strong tornado winds are. It is not reasonable to assume that people could move away from tornado country.
137. Answers will vary. Use Figure 5.25 for help.

 

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