Life Span Development 15th Edition by John Santrock – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Cognitive Development in Infancy

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Jean Piaget believed that children:

actively construct their own cognitive world.

passively react to their environments.

absorb their knowledge from the environment.

gain their view of the world from their parents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Schemes refer to:

actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.

groups of behaviors.

knowledge that has been adjusted to fit new experiences.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

According to Piaget, physical activities such as sucking, grasping, and walking are examples of:

mental schemes.

mental adaptations.

behavioral adaptations.

behavioral schemes.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

According to Piaget, solving a puzzle is an example of a:

mental scheme.

mental adaptation.

behavioral adaptation.

behavioral scheme.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Alejandro is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by color. Alejandro has developed:

a new behavioral scheme.

a new mental scheme.

object permanence.

the ability to assimilate.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Benji starts calling his father “dad,” but he also calls all men that he sees “dad.” According to Piaget, this error is due to _____.

amalgamation

accommodation

assimilation

application

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

_____ occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

Adaptation

Accommodation

Assimilation

Application

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Two-year-old Anita has learned the word “dog” to identify the family pet Rover. Now, Anita says the word “dog” when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.

amalgamated

accommodated

assimilated

applied

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Baby Elise has developed a sucking scheme. She knows that to get food she must suck on her mother’s breast. Now, her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Elise immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of _____.

accommodation

assimilation

amalgamation

application

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Three-year-old Jesse used to call all moving vehicles “car.” He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jesse has _____ to fit new information into his existing scheme.

accommodated

assimilated

amalgamated

applied

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

  1. Jean Piaget’s concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called _____.
    A.

assimilation

equilibration

organization

amalgamation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Organization

 

Trenton was playing in a sandbox. He was pouring sand from a short and wide fat container into a tall and narrow container. When he poured the sand into the tall and narrow container, it appeared as if it had more sand in it. Trenton could not figure out where the extra sand came from, and how it got into his container. As Trenton continues to try to solve this puzzle, he experiences considerable movement between states of cognitive _____ and _____ to produce cognitive change.

equilibrium; disequilibrium

adaptation; organization

classification; modification

equilibration; categorization

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to the next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called _____.

equilibration

assimilation

organization

amalgamation

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

For cognitive change to occur, identify the two processes that must work in concert as the child experiences considerable movement between the states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium.

Equilibration and categorization

Amalgamation and organization

Assimilation and accommodation

Classification and modification

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

  1. Jean Piaget believed that children’s thinking in one stage is _____ that in another stage.
    A.

qualitatively different from

quantitatively different from

qualitatively similar to

quantitatively similar to

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

  1. According to Jean Piaget’s theory of infant development, what makes one stage more advanced than another?
    A.

When a child is able to stand and walk

When a child understands the world differently

When a child is older

When a child is able to manipulate objects better

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth to about:

six months of age.

eight months of age.

one year of age.

two years of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage of development into _____ substages.

two

three

five

six

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Alice who is three weeks old is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor development; she will latch on to and suck anything that is touched to her lips.

simple reflexes

first habits

secondary circular reactions

primary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

The _____ substage of sensorimotor development corresponds to the first month after birth.

first habits and primary circular reactions

simple reflexes

secondary circular reactions

internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Which of the following substages of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors?

Conditioned reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Simple reflexes

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Josh is three months old. In which of Jean Piaget’s substages of sensorimotor development is Josh?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development does the infant’s main focus remain on his or her own body?

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

First habits and primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which substage of sensorimotor development do infants start repeating actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results?

First habits and primary circular reactions

Simple reflexes

Secondary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Which substage of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of vision and touch—hand-eye coordination?

Coordination of primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Internalization of schemes

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development do infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects?

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Coordination of primary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

When Monica was born, she showed the typical grasping reflex by closing her fingers around anything that brushed against her palm. After a few weeks, she showed this grasping behavior even when nothing touched her palm. Monica developed a _____ or a scheme based on a reflex that became completely separated from its eliciting stimulus.

habit

simple reflex

primitive symbol

circular reaction

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile again. This is an example of a:

habit.

reflex.

primary circular reaction.

secondary circular reaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant’s actions become more object-oriented?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Sarah, an infant of seven months, loves repeatedly hitting a toy that lights up and plays music on impact with her toy hammer. Sarah is in Piaget’s substage of:

reflexes.

primary circular reaction.

secondary circular reaction.

tertiary circular reaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

  1. According to the substages of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development, which of the following statements about the coordination of secondary circular reactions is NOT true?
    A.

It develops between 8 and 12 months of age.

The infant must be able to coordinate vision and touch, hand and eye.

It develops between 12 and 18 months of age.

It is marked by intentionality.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Significant changes during the _____ substage involve the coordination of schemes and intentionality.

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Eleven-month-old Jenny uses her toy golf club to bring another toy within reach. According to Piaget’s theory of infant development, Jenny is in the _____ substage of the sensorimotor stage.

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Sixteen-month-old Akel plays endlessly with a ball, rolling it, throwing it, using it to knock over other toys, standing on it, and trying to ride on it. Which of Jean Piaget’s substages of the sensorimotor stage is represented by Akel’s behavior?

Primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Piaget, the _____ sensorimotor substage marks the starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty.

second

third

fifth

sixth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant develop the ability to use primitive symbols?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Piaget, a _____ is an internal sensory image or word that represents an event.

transducer

sensation

symbol

memory

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called:

object containment.

object permanence.

object availability.

object continuance.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Object permanence

 

Heather is shown a teddy bear. The teddy bear is then hidden from her, and she searches for it. This shows that Heather has developed a sense of _____.

symbolic manipulation

infinite generativity

telegraphic thinking

object permanence

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Object permanence

 

Identify the type of error that occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting a familiar hiding place rather than a new hiding place as they progress into Piaget’s fourth substage of the sensorimotor stage.

Type 1 error

Type 2 error

F-not-N error

A-not-B error

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: A-not-B error

 

A developmental psychologist studying infants’ understanding of object permanence uses a method where infants see an event happen as it would normally occur. Then, the event is changed, often in a way that creates a physically impossible event. The result of this is that the infants look longer at the changed event indicating that he or she is surprised by it. Which method is being adopted here?

Violation of expectations

Habituation and dishabituation

Visual preference

Principle of persistence

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

  1. In Baillargeon’s view, infants have a pre-adapted, innate bias called the principle of _____ that explains their assumption that objects do not change their properties unless some external factor obviously intervenes.
    A.

consistency

inertia

persistence

internalized representation

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Researchers like Baillargeon have found that infants’ perceptual abilities are highly developed much earlier than Jean Piaget proposed. These researchers conclude that infants see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and separate from their background definitely by _____ of age.

eight to nine months

one to two months

three to four months

five to six months

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Research suggests that infants appear to understand the physical law of gravity:

at birth.

at around 6 to 8 months of age.

at around 1 to 2 months of age.

at the start of toddlerhood.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Research by Renée Baillargeon and her colleagues documents that infants as young as three to four months expect objects to be ­­­­_____ in the sense that other objects cannot move through them and _____ in the sense that objects continue to exist when they are hidden.

subject to gravity; transient

consistent; existential

substantial; permanent

opaque; substantial

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

In considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development, Elizabeth Spelke endorses a _____ approach that states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems.

core knowledge

domain knowledge

learned domain

nurture

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

 

Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in an infant’s everyday environment.

Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in controlled settings.

Infants are more competent than Jean Piaget thought.

Infants are less competent than Jean Piaget reported.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

 

Attention in the first year of life is dominated by a(n) _____ process that involves directing attention to potentially important locations in the environment, that is, “where,” and recognizing objects and their features, that is, “what.”

orienting/tracking

sustained/focused attention

habituation/dishabituation

orienting/investigative

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Attention

 

The focusing of mental resources on select information is called _____.

assimilation

attention

habituation

fixation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Attention

 

Farah shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first, but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. The baby is displaying _____.

distraction

imitation

habituation

dishabituation

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

  1. _____ provides a measure of an infant’s maturity and well-being.
    A.

Assimilation

Habituation

Lateralization

Disambiguation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Eight-month-old Andrew suffered brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation will likely predict that:

Alex will not habituate as well as Andrew.

both twins will habituate at about the same level.

Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex.

Alex will not exhibit any sort of habituation.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

When two individuals focus on the same object or event, the process is called:

sensory attention.

joint attention.

amalgamous attention.

synchronous attention.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Which of the following is a requirement of joint attention?

An ability to manipulate objects

An ability to track another’s behavior

A lack of interest in others

An intense interest in a particular object

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Which of the following statements about joint attention is NOT true?

Joint attention requires the ability to track another’s behavior.

Emerging forms of joint attention occur at about 4 to 5 months.

Joint attention requires that one person directs another person’s attention.

Joint attention requires reciprocal interaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

_____ involves the retention of information over time.

Attention

Memory

Cognition

Organization

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Which is the process by which information gets into memory?

Encoding

Encrypting

Enlisting

Enumerating

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Juno is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juno to use her memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically; this type of memory is referred to as _____ memory.

explicit

implicit

semantic

episodic

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

When Abraham describes to his friend what he did in his last summer vacation, he relies on his _____ memory.

implicit

explicit

procedural

semantic

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Most researchers find that babies do not show _____ until the second half of the first year.

dishabituation

explicit memory

habituation

implicit memory

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Remembering how to swim is an example of:

implicit memory.

deferred imitation.

joint attention.

explicit memory.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

June knows the names of all the states that comprise the United States. The names of the states are a part of June’s _____ memory.

innate

explicit

distinctive

implicit

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Renee remembers very little about the first three years of her life. Psychologists find this normal and call it:

retroactive memory interference.

infantile amnesia.

child memory loss.

memory trace.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. Most of young infants’ conscious memories appear to be _____, although their implicit memory of perceptual-motor actions can be _____.
    A.

substantial; rather fragile

well-developed; underdeveloped

rather fragile and short-lived; substantial

long-lasting; short-lived

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

From about 6 to 12 months of age, the maturation of the _____ and the surrounding cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, makes explicit memory possible.

amygdala

hippocampus

hypothalamus

cerebellum

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a tantrum for a toy. Mandy screams and cries for some candy the following week at the mall. Mandy is displaying:

dishabituation.

habituation.

object permanence.

deferred imitation.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Imitation

 

A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say that this baby is:

exhibiting a reflex.

engaging in true imitation.

showing deferred imitation.

habituating to the mother’s facial expression.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Imitation

 

_____ are cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas.

Symbols

Concepts

Habits

Semantics

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

Using habituation experiments, some researchers have found that infants as young as _____ can group together objects with similar appearances.

five to six days

three to four weeks

three to four months

five to six months

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

Jean Mandler argues that early categorizations are best described as _____ categorization.

conceptual

textual

factual

perceptual

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

In the current version of the Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the subscores obtained from the four and five different categories of Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development respectively are combined into an overall score that determines the infants’:

intelligence quotient (IQ).

intelligence inventory score (IIS).

developmental quotient (DQ).

early intelligence assessment (EIA).

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Identify the widely used assessment method of infant development that has five scales—cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.

Apgar Scale

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

Gesell test

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

According to the Bayley mental scale, a _____ infant should be able to vocalize pleasure and displeasure, persistently search for objects that are just out of immediate reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of the infant by the examiner.

2-month-old

6-month-old

4-month-old

1-month-old

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

According to the Bayley mental scale, by _____ of age, the infant should be able to inhibit behavior when commanded to do so, imitate words the examiner says, and respond to simple requests.

10 weeks

6 months

12 weeks

12 months

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Charisma is six months old and can vocalize pleasure and displeasure, search for objects out of reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of her. According to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Charisma:

is developing normally.

is developmentally delayed.

has an IQ of 110.

has an IQ of 85.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

  1. The _____ focuses on an infant’s ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations.
    A.

developmental quotient

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are used to assess Mathias, who does very well on it. A high score on the Bayley mental scale:

indicates that Mathias will perform poorly in social skills quotient (SSQ) tests later in childhood.

indicates that Mathias will have a high score in IQ tests later in childhood.

indicates that Mathias will have a very low IQ score later in childhood.

does not indicate that Mathias will have high IQ scores later in childhood.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Predicting intelligence

 

Jim and Joanna are curious to know if their baby will grow up to be a child with high IQ. Which of the following measures for assessing infant development is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children and would best suit the purpose?

Bayley-III

Gesell test

Fagan test

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Predicting intelligence

 

A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called _____.

syntax

grammar

language

phonology

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as:

syntax.

phonology.

morphology.

infinite generativity.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Which of the following is NOT one of the five rules of language?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Reciprocity

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

The sound system of a language is called _____.

morphology

semantics

phonology

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

A _____ is the basic unit of sound in a language.

morpheme

phoneme

grapheme

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter “m” makes. This sound is called a _____.

morpheme

phoneme

grapheme

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

In the word “falling,” both “fall” and “-ing” are considered _____.

morphemes

phonemes

graphemes

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

Phonology is to _____ as morphology is to _____.

sound; meaning

meaning; sound

appropriate use of language in different contexts; correct word order

correct word order; appropriate use of language in different contexts

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology
Topic: Phonology

 

A _____ is a minimal unit of meaning; it is a word or a part of a word that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful parts.

symbol

morpheme

phoneme

taxon

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

The rules that govern _____ describe the sound sequences that can occur in a language.

pragmatics

phonology

syntax

morphology

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

The rules of _____ describe the way meaningful units can be combined in words.

morphology

phonology

syntax

pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

_____ have many jobs in grammar, such as marking tense and number.

Syntax

Phonemes

Morphemes

Symbols

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

The word “toy” is an example of a _____.

syntax

phoneme

taxon

morpheme

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

How many morphemes does the word “marker” have?

4

1

2

6

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

Consider the sentence: “The boy the ball with a hit bat.” Which of the following rule systems of language does the sentence violate?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Syntax

 

_____ involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.

Semantics

Phraseology

Syntax

Phonology

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Syntax

 

If Jane says to Harry, “Wilfred gave a gift to Marsha,” Harry knows who gave the gift and who received it because he understands the _____ of the sentence.

syntax

semantics

pragmatics

primitive symbols

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

_____ refers to the meaning of words and sentences.

Pragmatics

Syntax

Morphology

Semantics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Semantics

 

The sentence “The chair told the girl to sit down” is _____ incorrect because people know that chairs cannot talk.

phonologically

syntactically

semantically

pragmatically

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Semantics

 

When one uses polite language in formal conversations and personal, informal language in intimate conversations, one is demonstrating the knowledge of _____, or the appropriate use of language in different contexts.

pragmatics

semantics

syntax

morphology

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Pragmatics

 

Peter shouts and uses profane language while speaking to his teacher. Which of the following rule systems of language is Peter disregarding?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Pragmatics

 

Identify the correct sequence of vocalization in infants.

Crying, babbling, cooing

Crying, cooing, babbling

Babbling, crying, cooing

Cooing, crying, babbling

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

At birth, infants communicate by _____.

cooing

crying

gestures

babbling

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Baby Luis interacts with his grandma and makes gurgling sounds in the back of his throat to express pleasure. This demonstrates _____.

talking

babbling

crying

cooing

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Kevin loves to say “da, da, da, da” over and over again. What type of communication is Kevin using?

Crying

Cooing

Babbling

Gesturing

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

11-month-old Maya points to her cup when she wants some water to drink. Maya’s behavior:

is considered slow for her age; she should be using simple words by this time.

is considered appropriate for her age.

is considered advanced for her age; most children do not point until after 12 months.

should be discouraged so that she will learn to speak.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Gestures

 

Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. This demonstrates how Kyoko’s _____ vocabulary is more developed than her _____ vocabulary.

expressive; spoken

spoken; receptive

receptive; spoken

spoken; expressive

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Which of the following statements about first words is NOT correct?

Infants recognize their name by the age of 3 months.

Children understand more words than they can speak.

By 18 months, most children have a spoken vocabulary of about 50 words.

A child’s first words usually include greeting terms.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

  1. The rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called:
    A.

the secular trend.

telegraphic speech.

the vocabulary spurt.

phonetic advancement.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Two-year-old Max says the word “bunny” for a large hamster and a white rat. Max’s error is known as:

telegraphic speech.

underextension.

aphasia.

overextension.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Two-year-old Sarai uses the word “doll” to refer to her own Cabbage Patch doll but does not use the word to refer to her sister’s Barbie doll. Sarai’s error is known as:

underextension.

telegraphic speech.

private speech.

overextension.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

“Want ice cream”, “Fall down”, and “Mommy give cookie” are all examples of:

holophrases.

repetitive speech patterns.

telegraphic speech.

reflexive speech patterns.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Two-word utterances

 

Many experts believe that humans acquired language about _____ years ago.

2,000,000

1,000,000

500,000

100,000

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

_____ is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in speech production.

Broca’s area

Wernicke’s area

Morton’s area

SMA area

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Mariah has suffered damage to the left frontal lobe of her brain. When she tries to speak, she struggles to produce words and is unable to say them correctly. Mariah has sustained injury to the:

Broca’s area.

Wernicke’s area.

SMA area.

Morton’s area.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called _____.

dysphagia

aphasia

autism

mutism

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

_____ is an area in the left temporal lobe of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of speech.

Broca’s area

SMA area

Morton’s area

Wernicke’s area

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

As an infant, Mary suffered damage to _____ of her brain. This injury severly affected her comprehension abilities. Even though her speech is fluent it remains incomprehensible.

Broca’s area

SMA area

Morton’s area

Wernicke’s area

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Linguist Noam Chomsky said that children are born into the world with a _____, a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.

language acquisition device

biological language center

primary language center

biological language device

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Kuhel is a behaviorist. In the context of language development, he is most likely to believe that language is:

learned with the learning acquisition device.

a special skill that has emerged with biological evolution.

a skill controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain.

acquired through reinforcement.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

A study of young children living in low-income families found that _____ when predicting the vocabulary development of children.

the amount of maternal talk was less important than maternal literacy skills

the amount of maternal talk was more important than the amount of paternal talk

nutrition and SES were more important than the amount of maternal talk or maternal literacy skills

attending preschool or Head Start was more important than paternal talk but less important than maternal talk

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Child-directed speech is the:

ability of parents to understand their children’s holographic speech.

unique way that parents (and others) talk to babies.

continual correcting of children’s syntax by parents.

special way parents speak to each other in front of their children.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

When Alice speaks to her six-month-old nephew, her voice immediately takes on a higher pitch, her speech becomes slower, and she begins to use more simplistic words and phrases. This change in Alice’s language behavior provides an example of:

echoing.

recasting.

child-directed speech.

morphology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

As he rolls his truck up and down the sides of the couch, Nezzy points to his truck and says “My truck” to which his father responds with “What’s the truck doing?” This is an example of:

echoing.

recasting.

infant-directed speech.

morphology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

  1. As they walk in the park together, Damon’s dad points out various objects to him—flowers, birds, butterflies, slides, swings, vehicles, and so on—and helps Damon name each of them. Damon’s dad is using _____ to help his son learn language.
    A.

echoing

encoding

labeling

recasting

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Rebecca says “Milk spill” to which her grandfather replies “Yes, the milk spilled on the floor.” This is an example of:

reframing.

expanding.

correcting.

labeling.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

In her book Growing Up with Language, Naomi Baron provided which of the following suggestions for facilitating language development in toddlers?

Remember to listen.

Supply words and thoughts for the child to avoid frustration.

Use questions that encourage the child to answer “yes” or “no.”

Let the toddler know when he or she is not being clear in communication.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Interactionist view

 

The interactionist view of language development emphasizes that:

the primary language center and the biological language device are both needed for language to develop.

language development occurs largely due to positive reinforcement.

the development of receptive language is universal, whereas the development of spoken language differs across cultures.

both biology and experience contribute to language development.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Interactionist view

 

Short Answer Questions
 

Identify the theorist who developed a cognitive development theory that suggests that development is universal and occurs in a fixed stage-like sequence. He or she proposed that infants are in the stage of “sensorimotor development.”

 

 

Jean Piaget

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

Identify the theorist who developed a measure to test infant cognitive development designed to distinguish normal babies from abnormal ones. The current version of this theorist’s test combines the infant’s performance in four domains into an overall score called the developmental quotient.

 

 

Arnold Gesell

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Identify the theorist who developed a scale to assess infant behavior and predict later development. The current version, which is Bayley-III, has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.

 

 

Nancy Bayley

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

Identify the linguist who proposed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language. He or she proposed that infants are born into the world with a language acquisition device that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language.

 

 

Noam Chomsky

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

According to Jean Piaget, identify the actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

 

 

Schemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

Eighteen-month-old Moira knows that her mother is “mommy”, but she now calls all women she meets “mommy.” According to Piaget, this illustrates _____.

 

 

assimilation

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

  1. Identify Jean Piaget’s concept that describes the cognitive conflict that occurs when information in the environment is inconsistent with the child’s current schemes. This conflict is the motivation to modify schemes or develop new schemes that are more consistent with the outside world.

 

Disequilibrium

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

According to Jean Piaget, identify the first substage of sensorimotor thought. This substage is apparent at birth and lasts approximately one month. Sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behaviors.

 

 

Simple reflexes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Jean Piaget, identify the sixth and final substage of sensorimotor thought. This substage is apparent in children between 18 and 24 months of age. The infant develops the ability to use primitive symbols in this substage.

 

 

Internalization of schemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

While nine-month-old Mave is playing with a ball, her brother takes it and hides it behind a pillow. Mave cries and crawls over to the pillow to get the ball. Which Piagetian concept is represented in this scenario?

 

 

Object permanence

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Identify the memory without conscious recollection. This includes memories of skills and routine procedures (such as crawling) that are performed automatically.

 

 

Implicit memory

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

Identify the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.

 

 

Infinite generativity

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Shelby babbles using the sounds “ba, ba, ba” or “ch, ch, ch.” These basic units of sound that our language is composed of are known as _____.

 

 

phonemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

Identify a special way that adults speak to babies that is characterized by language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, the use of simple words, and the use of simple sentences.

 

 

Child-directed speech

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Define schemes. What are the processes of accommodation and assimilation? How are they related to schemes?

 

 

Schemes are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. According to Piaget, as the infant or child seeks to construct an understanding of the world, the developing brain creates schemes. To explain how children use and adapt their schemes, Piaget offered two concepts: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences. Accommodation occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation
Topic: Schemes

  1. List in order Jean Piaget’s six substages of the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.

 

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six substages: (1) simple reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3) secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Jean Piaget observes that at 1 year and 2 months, his daughter Jacqueline holds in her hands an object which is new to her: a round, flat box which she turns all over, shakes, [and] rubs against the bassinet. She lets it go and tries to pick it up. But she only succeeds in touching it with her index finger, without grasping it. She nevertheless makes an attempt and presses on the edge. The box then tilts up and falls again. Jacqueline shows an interest in this result and studies the fallen box. Which of Piaget’s six substages of sensorimotor development does this behavior reflect?

 

 

Jacqueline’s behavior is characteristic of Piaget’s tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity stage, which is the fifth sensorimotor substage. It develops between 12 and 18 months of age. In this substage, infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things that they can make happen to objects. Tertiary circular reactions are schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, continually doing new things to them and exploring the results. Piaget says that this stage marks the starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

A recent study revealed that habituation assessed at 3 or 6 months of age was linked to verbal skills and intelligence assessed at 32 months of age. How can parents use the concepts of habituation and dishabituation to better interact with their babies and maybe boost their verbal skills and intelligence in the process?

 

 

Knowing about habituation and dishabituation can help parents interact effectively with infants. Infants respond to changes in stimulation. Wise parents sense when an infant shows an interest and realize that they may have to repeat something many times for the infant to process information. But if the stimulation is repeated often, the infant stops responding to the parent. In parent-infant interaction, it is important for parents to do novel things and to repeat them often until the infant stops responding. The parent stops or changes behaviors when the infant redirects his or her attention.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Synthesis
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Distinguish between explicit memory and implicit memory.

 

 

Implicit memory refers to memory without conscious recollection—memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically. A child riding a bike draws on his or her implicit memory every time he or she performs the task. In contrast, explicit memory refers to the conscious memory of facts and experiences. One’s memories of the last vacation taken and the ability to recall the names of previous U.S. Presidents are examples of explicit memory.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

What is infantile amnesia? What are two explanations given for this phenomenon?

 

 

Most adults can remember little if anything from the first three years of their life. This is called infantile or childhood amnesia. One reason for this phenomenon is that during the early years of life the prefrontal lobes of the brain—which are believed to play an important role in storing memories for events—are immature.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

How is the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence different from the Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?

 

 

The Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development focus on infant behavior and do not specifically test the infant’s ability to process information. On the other hand, the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence focuses on the infant’s ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations. The Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development have low correlations with later measures of IQ, while the Fagan test is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

Long before infants speak recognizable words, they produce a number of vocalizations. Describe some of these vocalizations in the order that they appear in infants.

 

 

Babies’ sounds or vocalizations go through this sequence during the first year:
1) Crying: Babies cry even at birth. Crying can signal distress, but there are different types of cries that signal different things.
2) Cooing: Babies first coo at about 2 to 4 months. These are gurgling sounds that are made in the back of the throat and usually express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver.
3) Babbling: In the middle of the first year, babies babble—that is, they produce strings of consonant-vowel combinations, such as “ba, ba, ba, ba.”

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Define receptive vocabulary and spoken vocabulary. What is the relationship between the two?

 

 

Receptive vocabulary refers to the words that the child understands, whereas spoken vocabulary refers to the words that the child uses. Receptive vocabulary always precedes and exceeds spoken vocabulary.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

What is child-directed speech? What are some other strategies adults use to increase infants’ acquisition of language?

 

 

Child-directed speech is language spoken in a higher pitch and slower pace than normal and uses simple words and sentences. It has the important function of capturing the infant’s attention and maintaining communication. Adults often use strategies other than child-directed speech to enhance the child’s acquisition of language, including recasting, expanding, and labeling.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

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