Laboratory Manual for Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy 4th Edition by Lynn S. Lippert PT MS – Test Bank

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Chapter 5 Muscular System
PRE-LAB WORKSHEETS
1. Match the terms that follow with their definitions.
E Muscle contraction A. Reversal of
without joint movement muscle action
H Distance between maximum B. Normal resting
contracted and extended length length
A The origin of the contracting C. Tone
muscle moves toward the
insertion
F Constant speed with variable D. Tenodesis
resistance
G Not as effective as the prime E. Isometric
mover contraction
C Slight tension in a muscle F. Isokinetic
contraction
B Position when muscle is G. Assisting mover
unstimulated
D Can produce hand opening H. Muscle excursion
and closing
2. Muscles have origins and insertions. Which is generally
proximal? The origin
3. A. The sternocleidomastoid muscle typically flexes the
head and neck. The mastoid process (on the head) is the
insertion, and the sternum and clavicle are the origin.
Is the origin moving toward the insertion, or is the
insertion moving toward the origin during flexion of
the head and neck? Insertion is moving toward origin.
B. When you have worked hard and are short of breath,
the sternocleidomastoid helps you to take deeper
breaths by lifting the chest. In this case, is the origin
moving toward the insertion, or is the insertion
moving toward the origin?
Origin is moving toward insertion.
C. Muscles acting in this manner are said to be
performing a: reversal of muscle action.
4. Match the muscle with the characteristic associated with
its name.
Answers
Number Direction Muscle
Location Shape Action of Heads Attachments of Fibers Size
Rhomboids X
Abductor digiti minimi X X
Biceps brachii X X
Quadriceps femoris X X
Pectoralis major X X
Gluteus medius X
Sternocleidomastoid X
CHAPTER 5 ■ Muscular System 21
Copyright © 2017 by F. A. Davis Company
A
D
B
E
C
F
5. Enter the letter by the structures in Figure 5-1, next to the
correct label for that structure. You can also write the
names of the structures on the figure.
E Bipennate F Multipennate A Strap
B Fusiform D Unipennate C Triangular
6. Using the terms listed in question 5, name the type of
muscle fiber arrangement for each muscle:
7. Match the muscle characteristic with the correct
description. Use each term only once.
C Ability to be stretched beyond A. Irritability
normal resting length
A Ability to receive and respond B. Contractility
to a stimulus
B Ability to produce tension C. Extensibility
D Ability to return to normal D. Elasticity
length
8. A muscle with a resting length of 4 inches can be
shortened approximately 2 inches and lengthened
4 inches. Therefore, it has an excursion of 6 inches.
9. A muscle that cannot be lengthened simultaneously over
all the joints it crosses is said to be actively/passively
insufficient. Underline the correct answer.
10. Stretching a multijoint muscle is achieved by positioning
the joints to cause the muscle to be in its:
shortened position.
resting position.
X lengthened position over all joints it crosses.
lengthened position at some joints and shortened
at other joints.
Muscle Fiber Arrangement
Deltoid Multipennate
Pectoralis major Triangular
Flexor pollicis longus Unipennate
Biceps brachii Fusiform
Rectus femoris Bipennate
Sternocleidomastoid Strap (parallel)
FIGURE 5-1 Muscle shapes.
11. The advantage of a two-joint muscle that has opposing
actions at the joints it crosses is that it can maintain
greater contractility through its range, because while it
is shortening over one joint, it is being lengthened over
the other joint.
12. Identify the type of muscle contraction described below
as eccentric (E) or concentric (C).
E Lengthening contraction
C Shortening contraction
C Insertion moves toward origin
E Insertion moves away from origin
C, E Isotonic contraction
C Muscle contraction moves the body segment
against gravity
E Muscle contraction slows the pull of gravity on
the body segment
13. Complete the statements that follow using the terms
listed below.
Agonist Antagonist Cocontraction
Neutralizer Stabilizers Synergists
A. The shoulder girdle muscles act as stabilizers when
one lifts a book off the table.
B. When a muscle acts to eliminate undesired motions
during an activity, it is functioning as a(n) neutralizer.
C. Contracting the quadriceps and hamstring muscles
simultaneously is an example of cocontraction.
D. Muscles that are primarily responsible for producing
a specific movement are called the agonists.
E. When the biceps are contracting, the triceps muscle is
the antagonist.
F. The elbow has three muscles that can produce
flexion. When more than one muscle is working,
the muscles are acting as synergists.
G. When the wrist flexors and extensors produce
ulnar deviation, each muscle is also acting as a(n)
neutralizer.
14. The angle of pull of a muscle is determined, in part, by the
relationship of the muscle to the axis of the joint it crosses.
15. Indicate whether each of the activities that follow is an
example of an open kinetic chain (O) or closed kinetic
chain (C).
O A. The upper extremity when one is walking
carrying a book bag
C B. The upper extremity when one is doing
pushups
C C. The upper extremity when one is
supported on crutches
O D. The lower extremities when one is
swinging from an overhead bar
C E. The lower extremities when one is
performing wall slides
O F. The lower extremity being used to
kick a ball
LAB ACTIVITIES
1. Using a skeleton, locate the attachments of the muscles
listed below. Palpate on your partner the origins and
insertions of the muscles listed below. Indicate which,
origin or insertion, is located proximally and which is
located distally. Remember that the proximal attachment
is also usually the more stable attachment, and the distal
attachment is the more movable attachment.
22 PART 1 ■ Basic Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy
Copyright © 2017 by F. A. Davis Company
Muscle Origin Insertion Proximal Distal
Brachioradialis Lateral supracondylar ridge Styloid process of radius Origin Insertion
on the humerus
Teres minor Axillary border of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Insertion Origin
Rectus abdominis Pubis Costal cartilages of fifth, sixth, Insertion Origin
and seventh ribs
Sartorius Anterior superior iliac spine Proximal medial aspect of tibia Origin Insertion
Soleus Posterior tibia and fibula Posterior calcaneus Origin Insertion
CHAPTER 5 ■ Muscular System 23
Copyright © 2017 by F. A. Davis Company
2. Using illustrations from in the Lippert text, locate the
muscles listed below on your partner and yourself. Use a
skin pencil or a water-soluble marker to draw over your
partner’s muscles, showing the muscle fiber arrangement.
Deltoid Pectoralis Flexor pollicis Biceps
major longus brachii
Rectus Sternocleidomastoid Rhomboids
femoris
This is an experiential activity; no answer is given.
3. Have your partner assume a supine position. Standing
next to your partner’s right lower extremity, place
the heel of her or his lower extremity in the palm of your
right hand. Place your left hand under your partner’s
right thigh.
• Slowly flex and then extend your partner’s hip and
knee simultaneously. Note the amount of “resistance”
you feel while moving your partner’s lower extremity.
Some people have a difficult time letting someone else
move their body parts; however, if your partner is
relaxed, you will feel the normal resting tone of his or
her lower extremity muscles.
This is an experiential activity; no answer is given.
4. With your partner in a supine position, stand next to her
or his right lower extremity and place the heel of her or
his lower extremity in the palm of your right hand. Place
your left hand under your partner’s right thigh.
A. Slowly flex and then extend your partner’s hip and
knee simultaneously. Note the amount of hip flexion.
B. Next, slowly flex and then extend your partner’s
hip while keeping the knee extended (straight).
Note the amount of hip flexion your partner has
when the knee remains extended. Hip flexion with
the knee extended (straight) is known as a straight
leg raise—SLR.
1) Was the amount of hip flexion more, the same, or less
with knee extended compared with hip flexion with
the knee flexed? Generally less motion
2) Was the result what you expected? Students to give
their own opinion.
3) Is this an example of active or passive insufficiency?
Passive
4) Which muscle(s) was (were) being lengthened
simultaneously over all the joints they crossed when
you moved your partner through the SLR?
Hamstrings: Biceps femoris, semitendinosus,
semimembranosus
5. Perform the activities that follow on your partner.
A. With your partner in a supine position, perform
simultaneous hip and knee flexion. Note the
amount of knee flexion obtained when the hip
is flexed.
B. Have your partner assume a prone position. Align
the thigh in anatomical position. Slowly flex the
knee of the same lower extremity you had moved
when your partner was supine. Note the amount of
knee flexion motion present now that the hip is
extended. Students’ answers may vary.
1) Was the amount of knee flexion more, the same, or
less with the hip extended compared to knee flexion
with the hip flexed? Less (generally)
2) Was the result what you expected? Answers will vary.
3) Is this an example of active/passive insufficiency?
Underline the correct answer.
4) Which muscle(s) was (were) being lengthened
simultaneously over all the joints they cross when you
moved your partner through knee flexion with the hip
extended? Rectus femoris (only one part of quadriceps
femoris crosses the hip)
6. Perform the activities that follow on your partner.
A. With your partner sitting over the side of a
treatment table with her or his knee at about
90 degrees of flexion, resist your partner’s
isometric knee flexion. Note how strong the
knee flexors are in this position.
B. Have your partner assume a prone position
with hip extended and the same knee flexed to
90 degrees. Repeat the resisted isometric
contraction of the knee flexors, noting the
strength of the knee flexors.
C. Have your partner assume a prone position with hip
extended and flex her or his knee through as much of
its range of motion as possible (more than 90 degrees).
Repeat the resisted isometric contraction at the end
of the motion, noting the strength of the knee
flexors. Be cautious with the resistance offered
because your partner may develop a muscle cramp.
1) Describe the hip and knee position in these three
scenarios:
Hip and Knee Position Hip Knee
Sitting on side Flexion Flexed to
of table 90 degrees
Prone with knee Extension Flexed to
at 90 degrees 90 degrees
Prone with maximum Extension Flexed to more
knee flexion than 90 degrees
2) Was the strength of the knee flexors the same in all
three positions? No
3) If not, in which position were the knee flexors
strongest? Sitting
weakest? Prone with maximum flexion
4) Is this an example of active/passive insufficiency?
Underline the correct answer.
7. When your partner performs the maximum knee flexion
possible in the prone position, how do you determine if
she or he is experiencing active insufficiency of the knee
flexors or passive insufficiency of the knee extensors?
If you can passively flex your partner’s knee through
more motion, it is active insufficiency.
If you cannot passively flex your partner’s knee through
more motion, it is passive insufficiency.
8. As a general rule, the statements that follow describe
muscle contractions in relation to gravity.
A. When joint movement occurs against gravity, the
agonist performs which type of contraction?
Isometric X Concentric
Eccentric None
B. When joint movement occurs against gravity, the
antagonist performs which type of contraction?
Isometric Concentric
Eccentric X None
C. When a muscle contracts to prevent an undesired
motion of another muscle, the contraction is usually?
X Isometric Concentric
Eccentric None
D. When joint movement occurs in the same direction
that gravity would produce movement, the agonist
performs which type of contraction? Eccentric
Isometric Concentric
X Eccentric None
E. When performing an eccentric contraction, the agonist
is acting to (select one):
overcome gravity.
X slow down gravity.
F. When performing a concentric contraction, the agonist
is acting to (select one):
X overcome gravity.
slow down gravity.
9. Throughout this lab manual, you will be asked to
analyze activities to determine the type of muscle
contractions required to perform the activity. The
general rule is that when a muscle is acting to overcome
gravity or body weight, the muscle is performing a
concentric (shortening) contraction and when a muscle
is acting to slow down gravity, the muscle is performing
an eccentric (lengthening) contraction. In the supine
position, perform a straight leg raise.
A. Name the muscle group acting at the hip to perform
the SLR. Hip flexors
B. Name the antagonist muscle group at the hip. Hip
extensors
C. As the leg is raised, select the type of contraction the
hip agonist is performing.
Isometric X Concentric
Eccentric None
D. As the leg is lowered, select the type of contraction
the hip agonist is performing.
Isometric Concentric
X Eccentric None
E. Name the muscle group acting at the knee to
maintain it extended.
Knee extensors (quadriceps)
F. Name the antagonist muscle group at the knee. Knee
flexors (hamstrings)
G. As the leg is raised, select the type of contraction the
knee agonist is performing.
X Isometric Concentric
Eccentric None
H. As the leg is lowered, select the type of contraction
the knee agonist is performing.
X Isometric Concentric
Eccentric None
10. Move from a sitting to a standing position:
A. The lower extremities are moving in
an open kinetic chain.
X a closed kinetic chain.
B. Which hip and knee muscle groups are the agonists?
X Extensors Flexors
C. The agonists are performing what type of
contractions?
Isometric X Concentric
Eccentric None
11. From a standing position, sit down.
A. The lower extremities are moving in
an open kinetic chain.
X a closed kinetic chain.
B. Which muscle groups are the agonists? Extensors
X Extensors Flexors
C. The agonists are performing what type of
contractions?
Isometric Concentric
X Eccentric None
12. Examine the location of the biceps brachii on the
anterior surface of the arm. The insertion of its tendon
on the radius indicates that the biceps will flex the
elbow and supinate the forearm.
A. When the elbow is in extension with the forearm
supinated and the biceps performing an isometric
contraction, in terms of angle of pull, what force
does the biceps exert on the elbow?
X Approximation Traction
B. When the elbow is in full flexion with the forearm
supinated and the biceps performing an isometric
contraction, in terms of angle of pull, what force
does the biceps exert on the elbow?
Approximation X Traction
POST-LAB QUESTIONS
1. A. When the agonist is contracting to overcome the
resistance of gravity, the body part is moving in the
same/opposite direction from the force of gravity.
Underline the correct answer.
B. In the example described in A, the agonist is
contracting:
X concentrically. eccentrically.
isometrically.
2. A. When the agonist is contracting to slow down the
force of gravity, the body part is moving in the
same/opposite direction as the force of gravity.
Underline the correct answer.
B. In the example described in A the agonist is
contracting:
concentrically. X eccentrically.
isometrically.
3. When the agonist is contracting isotonically, generally the
antagonist is: relaxed.
24 PART 1 ■ Basic Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy
Copyright © 2017 by F. A. Davis Company
CHAPTER 5 ■ Muscular System 25
Copyright © 2017 by F. A. Davis Company
4. What is the relationship between muscle fiber
arrangement and the force a muscle can produce?
The force produced by a muscle is directly related to the
cross-sectional area of the muscle. Muscle fiber
arrangements that increase the effective size of the cross-
sectional area of a muscle thereby increase the force the
muscle can produce.
5. When a muscle lacks irritability, it will lack the ability to:
contract.
6. When the lower extremity is held at the end of the range
of SLR, the hamstrings muscles have been lengthened.
When the lower extremity is then lowered to anatomical
position, the hamstrings are able to return to resting
position because of the property of elasticity.
7. A person who has less hip flexion ROM when
performing a SLR than when flexing the hip and knee
simultaneously would experience passive insufficiency of
the hamstrings.
8. Sit with your upper extremity in the anatomical position.
Curl (flex) just your fingers as much as possible and then
flex your wrist. Which of the descriptions that follow
may explain the difference in the ROM of wrist flexion?
A. Passive insufficiency of the finger flexors
X B. Passive insufficiency of the finger extensors
C. Passive insufficiency of the wrist flexors
D. Passive insufficiency of the wrist extensors
E. Active insufficiency of the finger flexors
F. Active insufficiency of the finger extensors
G. Active insufficiency of the wrist flexors
H. Active insufficiency of the wrist extensors
Students’ answers may vary.
10. What is the relationship between types of kinetic chain
and whether the origin moves toward the insertion or
the insertion moves toward the origin during a muscle
contraction?
In a closed kinetic chain, the distal component of a
joint is fixed, so generally the origin moves toward
the insertion—a reversal of muscle action. In an open
kinetic chain, the distal component is free to move, so
generally the insertion moves toward the origin.
11. What effect does muscle fiber arrangement have on
function of a muscle? The strength of a muscle is related
to its cross-sectional area. Muscle fiber arrangements
affect the amount of cross-sectional area and the
amount a muscle’s length can change, thus affecting the
amount of force a muscle can generate.
9. Muscle names often refer to size, shape, function, or
location of the muscle on the body. Fill in the table
below with muscle names that are reflective of the
description given.
Size Shape Function Location
Gluteus Rhomboids Flexor Tibialis
maximus carpi anterior
radialis

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