Introduction to Geography 14th Edition by Arthur Getis – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Population Geography

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Consider the following data:Country A
    Crude birth rate 38 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 18 per 1,000
    Country B
    Crude birth rate 19 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 9 per 1,000
    The data tell us that the annual rates of natural increase of Country A and Country B are
    A.56 per 1,000 and 28 per 1,000, respectively.
    B. 3.8% and 1.9%, respectively.
    C. Country A has twice the rate as does Country B. twice the rate of Country B.
    D. Country B has twice the rate as does Country A.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

 

  1. Consider the following data:Country A
    Crude birth rate 38 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 18 per 1,000
    Country B
    Crude birth rate 19 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 9 per 1,000
    From the data, one might conclude that Country B
    A.has avoided the demographic transition.
    B. has achieved zero population growth (ZPG).
    C. is an industrialized, urbanized society.
    D. has a negative rate of natural increase.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

  1. Consider the following data:Country A
    Crude birth rate 38 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 18 per 1,000
    Country B
    Crude birth rate 19 per 1,000
    Crude death rate 9 per 1,000
    From the data, it is apparent that
    A.the population of Country A will double in 140 years.
    B. the population of Country B will double in 70 years.
    C. the carrying capacity of Country A is being strained.
    D. Country A has a larger population than Country B.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

 

  1. Carrying capacity is
    A.the maximum biomass an environment will produce.
    B. a function of distance decay.
    C. the maximum number of people that can be supported by available resources and technology.
    D. a reflection of cultural diffusion.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. The systematic study of human population is
    A.ecology.
    B. ekistics.
    C. geography.
    D. demography.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

  1. The second stage of the demographic transition is marked by
    A.high birth rates, and high but fluctuating death rates.
    B. high birth rates, and low and stable death rates.
    C. declining birth rates, and continuing high death rates.
    D. high birth rates, and declining death rates.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

  1. Zero population growth (ZPG)
    A.refers to an exact equation of births and deaths.
    B. implies an unchanging population age structure.
    C. implies a wide base to the population pyramid.
    D. results when immigration matches emigration.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

 

  1. The theory of the demographic transition holds that
    A.death rates increase but birth rates decrease with urbanization.
    B. birth rates increase but death rates decrease with urbanization.
    C. both birth and death rates increase with urbanization.
    D. both birth and death rates decrease with urbanization.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.03

  1. One check to rapid population increase formerly available to European countries but not a possibility in today’s developing societies was
    A.industrialization.
    B. mass migration.
    C. infanticide.
    D. contraception.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.03

  1. In recent years, the world population has grown annually by about
    A.6 million.
    B. 23 million.
    C. 77 million.
    D. 122 million.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

  1. Which of the following statements about AIDS is NOT true?
    A.Worldwide, AIDS is the 4th most common cause of death.
    B. About 90% of HIV-positive persons reside in developing countries.
    C. Vaccines and immunotherapies developed since 2000 suggest AIDS will have only minor impact on developing countries’ population pyramids.
    D. About 60% of HIV-positive persons in sub-Saharan Africa are women.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

 

  1. When the average total fertility rate of a population drops to the replacement level,
    A.population numbers stabilize and growth automatically ceases.
    B. deaths begin to outnumber births.
    C. the average age of the population steadily increases.
    D. population continues to grow for a generation or more.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.09

  1. The continent with the highest total fertility rates overall is
    A.Africa.
    B. Asia.
    C. South America.
    D. Europe.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

 

  1. The Malthusian theory is based on which of the following assumptions?
    A.As urbanization occurs, the rate of population growth decreases.
    B. Population tends to increase more rapidly than do the food supplies to support that population.
    C. Growth in productive capacity generally exceeds population increases.
    D. Food production increases geometrically, while population grows arithmetically.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.08

  1. The portions of the earth’s surface permanently inhabited by humans make up the
    A.environment.
    B. ecosphere.
    C. ecumene.
    D. biome.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05

 

  1. The continent with the lowest total fertility rates overall is
    A.Africa.
    B. Asia.
    C. South America.
    D. Europe.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02
Figure: 05.05

  1. Which of the following does NOT describe a characteristic of world population distribution?
    A.People congregate in lowland areas.
    B. People congregate in coastal areas.
    C. The majority of the world’s population resides in developing countries of the Southern Hemisphere.
    D. Dry regions have lower population densities.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05

  1. A wide bottom on a population pyramid suggests a country is in the __________ stage of the demographic transition.
    A.first
    B. second
    C. third
    D. fourth

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

 

  1. The crude death rate for wealthy Western Europe is much higher than that for Central America because
    A.foreign aid and free medical services are widely available in Central America.
    B. higher urbanization in Western Europe increases the incidence of infectious diseases.
    C. Western Europe has a higher proportion of old people.
    D. tropical areas, including Central America, generally have healthier climates than northern latitude regions.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

  1. Which of the following characteristics of a national population is NOT evident from its population pyramid?
    A.age structure
    B. sex structure
    C. dependency ratio
    D. infant mortality rate

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. An expression of population pressure exerted on agricultural land is
    A.crude density.
    B. arithmetical density.
    C. aggregate density.
    D. physiological density.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the world’s four major population clusters?
    A.East Asia.
    B. South Asia.
    C. Mexico and Central America.
    D. northeastern United States and southeastern Canada.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05

  1. Of the following countries, which has the highest physiological density?
    A.United Kingdom
    B. Argentina
    C. India
    D. Japan

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. Of the following countries, which has the lowest crude density?
    A.Australia
    B. United States
    C. United Kingdom
    D. Iran

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. Rapid increases in life expectancy are characteristic of the __________ stage of the demographic cycle.
    A.first
    B. second
    C. third
    D. fourth

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

 

  1. In 2008, the total population of the world was estimated to be about
    A.4.6 billion people.
    B. 6.7 billion people.
    C. 7.2 billion people.
    D. 8.2 billion people.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

  1. Which one of the following continents has the highest birth rate?
    A.Asia
    B. South America
    C. Africa
    D. North America

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Figure: 05.03
Section: 05.02

  1. A country with a population of 2 million inhabitants has 50,000 births a year. What is its crude birth rate?
    A.25 per 1,000
    B. 40 per 1,000
    C. 50 per 1,000
    D. 100 per 1,000

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

  1. What is the rate of natural increase of a country’s population if the crude birth rate is 35 per 1,000 and crude death rate is 10 per 1,000?
    A.25 per 1,000
    B. 45 per 1,000
    C. 25%
    D. 45%

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

 

  1. In 2006, the United Nations forecast that the world population would reach ______ by 2050.
    A.6.7 billion
    B. 9.2 billion.
    C. 13.6 billion.
    D. 18.3 billion.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

  1. A population pyramid that is wide at the base indicates a
    A.low death rate.
    B. high proportion of old people.
    C. higher proportion of males than females.
    D. high birth rate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. One of the principal reasons for the notable decline in death rates in Europe, beginning after 1860, was
    A.the introduction of penicillin and other antibiotics.
    B. the reduction in population pressure due to large-scale emigration.
    C. the eradication of man-made diseases.
    D. the reduction of deaths due to epidemics.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

 

  1. The stage in the demographic transition model in which the death rate and the birth rate remain at low levels is
    A.Stage 1.
    B. Stage 2.
    C. Stage 3.
    D. Stage 4.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

  1. What is the number of years required for a country’s population to double, assuming a growth rate of approximately 20 people per 1,000 each year?
    A.20 years
    B. 25 years
    C. 30 years
    D. 35 years

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.02

  1. Which one of the following locations in the world is most associated with the greatest concentrations of population?
    A.continental margins in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
    B. interiors of continents in the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
    C. continental margins in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere
    D. continental margins in the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.05

 

  1. Which one of the following areas has the densest population?
    A.South America
    B. Europe
    C. Canada
    D. United States
    E. Figure 06.21

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.05

  1. Which of the following regions has the lowest total fertility rates?
    A.South Asia
    B. North America
    C. Europe
    D. Central America
    E. Figure 06.05

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. Which country is well-known for a very stringent population policy of one child per family?
    A.India
    B. Japan
    C. Nicaragua
    D. China

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

 

  1. Even with a total fertility rate of 2.1, some countries may experience continued increase in the number of people due to _______.
    A.high birth and low death rates
    B. lack of contraception available for women
    C. population or demographic momentum
    D. government intervention or family planning

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.09

  1. In the Cairo Plan, the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development endorsed
    A.government imposition of population control in the line of the Chinese policy of one child per family.
    B. giving women greater control over their lives, greater economic equality and opportunity and greater voice in reproduction decisions.
    C. developed countries to send their delegates including Hollywood celebrities to promote the concept of small family and use of contraceptives for both men and women.
    D. forced sterilization of men and women after the birth of their second child.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.08

  1. According to United Nations projections, almost all population growth between 2000 and 2030 will take place __________.
    A.in the Southern Hemisphere
    B. in rural areas of developing regions
    C. in the world’s mega-cities
    D. in urban areas of developing regions

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

 

  1. Robert Malthus did NOT believe that
    A.The biological potential for population growth is less than the potential for increasing food supplies.
    B. Equilibrium will be achieved between numbers and support services
    C. If unchecked, human population would increase at a geometric rate while food supplies expanded at an arithmetic rate.
    D. Humans must restrain their reproductive capacity or nature would enact destructive checks.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.07

 

True / False Questions

  1. The decline in China’s birth rate is attributable to female empowerment.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. Because of its mild climate and fertile soils, Western Europe has always had low birth and death rates.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

  1. Since many societies have a dominantly young age structure, their population will tend to increase over the short run despite successful national family planning programs.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.09

 

  1. A total fertility rate of 1.7 is necessary just to replace present population.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. A cohort is a population group unified by an identifying characteristic.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. The homeostatic plateau is reached when the fertility rate approaches zero.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.08

  1. After 2008, the world’s urban population outnumbered the world’s rural population.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05
Figure: 05.05

  1. Approximately 35 to 40 percent of the earth’s land area is without significant human settlement.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 05.05
Section: 05.05

 

  1. Fertility rates are declining in all world regions.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02
Figure: 05.03

  1. Highest crude birth rates are found in developing countries of Africa, southern Asia, and Latin America.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. The rate of world population increase slowed notably after World War II.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.01

  1. The shift from high to sub-replacement fertility rates eliminates the problems of high dependency rates.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.09

  1. Urbanization is associated with declining birth rates.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

 

  1. Developing countries have compressed within a very few years the mortality reductions that took Western Europe a century or more to achieve.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.03

  1. The nonecumene is discontinuous and found on all continents.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05

  1. There is invariably a close correlation between population density and levels of living.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. Overpopulation occurs at densities above 2,500 per square mile.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. By the year 2010, agricultural experts agree, practically all nations will be able to feed their populations from domestic production.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

 

  1. Collectively, less developed countries contained over two-thirds of the world’s urban population at the start of the 21st century.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.05
Figure: 05.25

  1. A majority of the world’s population lives in countries with reliable systems for recording births and deaths.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.07

  1. Improved women’s education in some developing countries like Bangladesh has helped in reducing total fertility rate.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. According to a United Nations estimate, as many as 200 million women worldwide are demographically missing.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. Malthus’ predictions of overpopulation were rejected in the 19th Century and did not influence population policy in the 20th Century.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.08

 

  1. Negative population growth or implosion can only be found in European countries.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.02

  1. Concepts related to overpopulation are food security and carrying capacity.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

  1. For a country or region, the demographic transition predicts available land carrying capacity.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.06

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. What term has reference to permanently populated portions of the earth as distinguished from the unpopulated regions?

Ecumene

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 05.05

 

  1. Draw a graph depicting the demographic transition theory. Graph crude birth rates and crude death rates versus time and label the four stages of the demographic transition and show when population growth takes place.

Sketch graph should resemble Figure 6.16

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.03

  1. Compare the population challenges faced by countries in Africa with those faced by European countries.

Africa has a growing, youthful population with a high dependency ratio because of its large number of children. Europe has an aging society facing population decline and a rising dependency ratio because of its large elderly population. Africa’s challenge will be to care for, educate, and provide economic opportunities for its children while Europe’s challenge will be to provide health care and pensions for its elderly citizens while finding enough workers.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 05.09

  1. Explain Malthus’ theories about population growth and food supply.

Malthus argued that population growth would outpace the growth of the food supply.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.08

 

  1. Compare and contrast the demographic transition experience of Western Europe with that of the developing countries of today.

Europe—Stage 1: high birth and death rates, stable numbers;
Stage 2: lower death rates, high birth rates, growth;
Stage 3: lower birth, urbanization, emigration;
Stage 4: low birth and death rates, stable numbers.
Developing—Stage 1: high birth and death rates, stable numbers;
Stage 2: high birth, sudden death rate drop, growth;
Stage 3: high birth, no emigration; explosive growth;
Stage 4: uncertain.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 05.03

  1. What is meant by the terms “J-curve” and “S-curve” with reference to human population growth? How is the transition from one to the other achieved?

J-curve is a visual pattern of compound growth; S-curve is the conversion of the vertical leg of a J-curve to a horizontal line representing stable population at carrying capacity of region. Achieved by external forces (die-back) or population self-regulation (demographic transition).

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.08

  1. What generalizations about spatial patterns and environmental relationships can be drawn from the distribution of world population?

It is 90% north of the equator; half live on about 5% of the land, 90% on about 20% of the land. There is lowland concentration (50-60% below 650 ft.); 66% is found within 300 miles of ocean. It is unevenly distributed even in suitable areas. Four great clusters exist: East Asia, South Asia, Europe, eastern North America (NE United States, SE Canada).

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.05

 

  1. Neo-Malthusianism argues that programs of population control are necessary to preserve scarce resources for investment in economic development. Discuss some of the arguments that have been raised opposing neo-Malthusianism and identify the types of people or areas most closely associated with them.

Arguments include:

(a) birth control keeps developing nations poor and weak;
(b) Third World poverty is due to world economics, not overpopulation;
(c) overpopulation is a result of poor distribution of resources;
(d) birth control is against religious teaching;
(e) people are basic source of wealth. People and areas against include: Catholic and Islamic societies; some Marxists; some economists.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 05.08

  1. Discuss the meaning of demographic momentum and use the concept to explain why a shift to total fertility levels of 2.1 is not accompanied by an immediate halt to population growth.

Societies with high numbers in childbearing years will continue to have population growth even with stringent birth control. Since a large recently born generation determines the ultimate size of total population, those countries (Third World) with a high proportion under age 15 and present large size will be more dominant in 2025. This includes parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.09

  1. What factors are causing total fertility rates to drop in countries around the world?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.03

 

  1. Why is the total fertility rate a more accurate measure than the crude birth rate?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. What does a wide bottomed population pyramid indicate?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.02

  1. What caused the explosion of world population over the last 1,000 years?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.03

  1. Describe some of the likely consequences of total fertility rates falling below replacement levels.

Consequences would be population decline and an aging society. Consequences of an aging society will include increased burdens for social security, health care, and pensions and a shortage of younger workers.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 05.09

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